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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which

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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which  [#permalink]

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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.


(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed

(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed

(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

Originally posted by topmbaseeker on 28 Nov 2008, 23:41.
Last edited by Bunuel on 21 Nov 2018, 04:14, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2012, 08:12
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Hi guys,
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

Image

• The growth of the railroads led to
o the abolition of local times, and
o the establishment of regional times.
• Two characteristics of local times have been mentioned in the sentence:
o they were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian, and
they differed from city to city.

Image

1. Singular verb “was” does not agree in number with plural subject “local times”. SV must agree in number error.

2. Also “was” seem to be the verb for “abolition of local times”, meaning abolition was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian. This is certainly not the intended logical meaning of the sentence. Meaning error.

3. The two characteristics of “local times” must be parallel to each other. Here, “which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian” (a clause) is not parallel to “differing from city to city” ( a verb-ed modifier phrase). Parallelism error.

POE:

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing: Incorrect. Errors discussed above.

(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed: Incorrect. Same SV number agreement and meaning errors as in A.

(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing: Incorrect. Same parallelism error as in A.

(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed: Incorrect. “determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian” (a verb-ed modifier) is not parallel to “differed from city to city” (a verb phrase). Notice here that “determined” is not a verb here. It is a verb-ed modifier that is modifying “local times”. If it were a verb, ther would be no comma before it and the subject and the verb would be connected properly.

(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing: Correct. “determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian” (a verb-ed modifier phrase) is parallel to “differing from city to city” (a verb-ing modifier phrase). Both the modifiers are correctly presenting the characteristics of “local times”. Refer to OG 12#42 to see how verb-ing and verb-ed modifiers can be parallel to each other.

Image

1. SV pair must always agree in number.
2. SV pair must always make sense together.
3. In a list of parallelism, all the entities must be grammatically as well as logically parallel.

The concepts tested in this sentence have been covered in e-gmat concepts:
1. Level 1 - SV - Agree in Number (This concept features in Level 1 Preview Concepts that are available for free. Just register and learn.)
2. Level 2 - SV - Make Sense
3. Level 1 - Parallelism - Identify and Correct
4. Level 1 - Parallelism - Helpful Tips

You can also review our article on this topic by clicking on the following link:
verb-ed-verb-ing-can-be-parallel-126923.html

Hope this helps.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2009, 22:23
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topmbaseeker wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by
when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
from city to city, and to the
establishment of regional times.
(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which
differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing


Answer E

The sentence goes like this:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times and to the establishment of regional times.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, Modifier 1 and Modifier 2, and to the establishment of regional times.

Modifier 1 = determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian
Modifier 2 = differing from city to city

Sentence with modifier 1 only:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian, and to the establishment of regional times.

Sentence with modifier 2 only:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

Complete sentence:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
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New post 16 Sep 2009, 09:22
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My take is E.

One imp point to note is - participles(both present and past) and adjectives can be made parallel as long as they modify the same noun.

(D)[determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian] and [differed]
(E)[determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian] and [differing]

Here both the above statements are adj of local times(local times are determined by when the sun....and local times are differeing from city to city.

Differed from city to city is not correct. So you are left with E.

In A,B,C time zones cannot be modified by a relative pronoun - which.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2009, 07:20
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here, You need to consider the action, similar to active and passive.

why determined and not determining?
Local times are not determining sun position or ....., but they are getting determined by (action performed by some other agent)
==> In this case we use past participle [determined]

differing vs. differed ==> differing is present property of the subject (local times). [*No other agent of action]
==>we use present participle.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2010, 06:48
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Hey, I found some real good explanation on other forum. Will post it here for everyone's benefit.

Quote:
It's a bit tricky to answer these questions sometimes, but the main idea behind whether to choose the -ing form or the -ed form this:

When we reduce a verb to its -ing or -ed form, we must look at one and only one thing: whether the noun that it will modify is the subject or object of that verb.

The -ing form is used for DOING the action, which means SUBJECT, which means ACTIVE voice.

The -ed form is used for RECEIVING the action, which means OBJECT, which means PASSIVE voice.

Before I go further, let me offer two examples that will make things clearer as we go along:

speaking person (the -ing form)
spoken words (the -ed form)

In this type of question, we always have two elements:

a particple, which is either in the -ing or -ed form
a noun that is modified by this participle

So, using the previous examples, speaking modifies person and spoken modifies words.

The next step is to realize that these participles all come from verbs--speaking and spoken both come from the verb speak.

Now, using these examples, and applying them to the rules I mentioned at the beginning, we will notice that if we made a sentence, person would be the subject of the verb speak and words would be the object of the verb speak. Using this procedure, we can figure out whether should use the -ing or -ed form of a participle that modifies a noun.

Of course, this is easy when the vocabulary is easy, and we often get confused when we are using difficult vocabulary because we sometimes don't know whether something is the subject or the object of the verb, but this procedure that I have explained is the only sure way to get the right answer.

In our sentence here, "which" replaces "times", and "times" is the object of "determined", but it is the subject of "differed".

In other words, we have something like this:

...somebody determined times...

but

times differing [not differed...]

I know some of you have learned that we should only use the -ing form only for actions that are ongoing/in progress in the present, but that's simply not true. We do occasionally use them correctly for past actions that were ongoing/in progress.

Finally, everybody gets confused simply because the -ed form appears in the second one, making people think the -ed form should appear again when it's reduced. We need to realize that there is truly no connection between the two; it's pure coincidence that each has the -ed form in it

If you stick to the rules that I just wrote, you'll be okay.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Apr 2012, 20:04
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Most of the problems with this text arise because of the difficulties posed by the nature of the participial modifiers both the past and the present. It must be noted that these participles do not carry a sense of tense per se. They are tenseless and can be used universally. To repeat, a past participle such as ‘determined’ can be used in present and future tense situations and the present participle ‘differing’ can be used in past, present, and future similarly.

Ex:written to satirize the eccentricities of the olden earldom of the English and read by millions over the world, Wodehouse’s books are a great hit— part participles used in present tense sentence

Working for just a couple of weeks, Joe dreamt that he could easily cross 750 in his GMAT. --Present participle in past tense context.

In this context, the participle ‘determined by’ and ‘differing’ are plain descriptives of a universal happening namely the local times. Therefore, it is acceptable to use a past participle and a present participle in the same sentence and still be parallel. There are more examples of this phenomenon in GMAT.

The problem with D is that, the word ‘differed’ (local times differed) becomes a past tense verb and thus breaks the parallelism by using a participle and a verb, when two participles should have been used. The past verb means that the local times differed only in the past and not these days. That is the reason E scores over D. In C the unnecessary intrusion of the past tense phrase ‘which were’ restricts the universality only to past

A real hair puller. Kudos to poster
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jun 2012, 11:41
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Admission to a top B-School depends on one's GMAT score, determined by one's ability and ranging from 200 to 800.
or would you say :
Admission to a top B-School depends on one's GMAT score, determined by one's ability and ranged from 200 to 800.

E is good.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2009, 23:23
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It is very much logical let me try to explain it logically.
we have to determine the time and it is determined by the position of Sun. Sun's position will always change let me say it is relative at every place....therefore we can not say differed from place to place.....position is differing from place to place is correct therefore E is correct.

Hope this will help.
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New post 20 Apr 2010, 18:28
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I found the discussion about this qsn in manhattan and find the reason for E:
This is a toughie - it looks like you've realized that the key to the problem is parallelism, but you've been tricked by the rather weird form of

parallelism exhibited here.

The only difference between choices D and E is differed/differing, and, as you've no doubt realized, the key issue is making the choice that's most parallel

to 'determined' (from the first half of the modifier).

Here's the key: 'Determined' isn't a verb here. It's a PARTICIPLE: a verb form that functions as an adjective.
The local times were WEIRD (adjective).
The local times were DETERMINED (participle acting as adjective) by ...

So you need to pick the second half that's also 'participle acting as adjective'. Try them both:
D) The local times were DIFFERED: uh oh, that doesn't work.
E) The local times were DIFFERING from city to city. That works. It's a 'present participle' rather than a 'past participle', but it's the only one of the

two that's a participle at all.
In D and E, you can tell determined = participle, not verb, because (a) it immediately follows a comma and (b) there's no subject you could match up with

determined in a normal subject-verb configuration. Even if you match determined with the noun "times" (to which the clause is referring) "times, determined

by" is not proper subject-verb config.

The discussion with detailed explanation can be found in the link:
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/100 ... t1787.html
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New post 16 Jun 2012, 10:51
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(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing----- local times which was determined --- SV mismatch
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed--- same as in A
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing ---- which were determined and diffeing –unparallel
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed--- determined is past participle and differed is a verb; The word differed as such can not make a participle
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing – right choice - differing, a present participle is the perfect foil for determined, a past participle.
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New post 18 Aug 2013, 13:00
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This question is about parallelism and modifier.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Wrong.
- Parallelism problem. "which was ...." is a clause --> not parallel to "differing" which is Verb-ing modifier.
- "was" is wrong because "local times" is plural.

(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
Wrong. Simple past tense "differed" is not correct. Because "local times" always differ from city to city.

(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Wrong. Same as A. Clause and Verb-ing modifier are not parallel.

(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
Wrong. Verb-ed "differed" is not correct because local times themselves differ from city to city. --> should use Verb-ing modifier.

(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Correct. "determined by" and "differing" are modifiers and are parallel. Hence, E is correct.

Hope it helps.
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New post 16 Jun 2012, 10:12
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Ankit04041987 wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

How to choose between d&e

The only difference between choices D and E is differed/differing, and, as you've no doubt realized, the key issue is making the choice that's most parallel to 'determined' (from the first half of the modifier).

Here's the key: 'Determined' isn't a verb here. It's a PARTICIPLE: a verb form that functions as an adjective.
The local times were WEIRD (adjective).
The local times were DETERMINED (participle acting as adjective) by ...

So you need to pick the second half that's also 'participle acting as adjective'. Try them both:
D) The local times were DIFFERED: uh oh, that doesn't work.
E) The local times were DIFFERING from city to city. That works. It's a 'present participle' rather than a 'past participle', but it's the only one of the two that's a participle at all.

hope that helps.
Please visit the link for further explanation:

http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/100 ... t1787.html
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2017, 09:19
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Jat wrote:
Why do we need differing instead of differed as stated in OA : E?

Can an expert throw some light?
Thank you,
Jat




Hello Jat,


It is clear from the context of the official sentence that we need the verb-ed modifier determined to refer to the preceding noun local times.

Now we need another modifier for local times that can be parallel to determined. The word differed most definitely looks like an appropriate choice because both these word look similar in structure as they both end in "ed".

However, differed does NOT work as a verb in the context of this official sentence. It works as a simple past tense verb because the local times themselves differed from city to city. A verb can never be parallel to modifier. Hence, differed use of differed is incorrect in this sentence.

We have authored an article named ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers that shows hot to distinguish between a simple past tense verb and a verb-ed modifier. The article can be reviewed in the following link:https://gmatclub.com/forum/ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html

Since we need a noun modifier that can be parallel to determined, we need differing, a verb-ing modifier that correctly modifies the noun local times. Although determined and differing have different structures, they are perfectly parallel because they both act as a noun modifier. At e-GMAT, we call such lists with not similar looking parallel elements Imperfect List. We have an elaborate article on the topic that can be reviewed in the following link: https://gmatclub.com/forum/parallelism-imperfect-list-142791.html


Hope this helps. :-)
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New post 12 Oct 2015, 06:45
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In D, ‘differed from’ is not a past participle; It is simply a past tense verb.

To find out whether an ‘Verb+ed’ word is past participle or past tense, use this thumb rule: Ask who is the agent of the “determined by”; the word ‘by’ indicates that the local times were determined by somebody other than the local times. However, note that the word ‘differed’ is not followed ‘by’ but by ‘from’. The agent of doing ‘differed’ is the local times. They themselves did the act of differing. So differed is a direct verb of the subject local times.
One can see that ‘determined by’ is phrase while (local times) differed from is a clause. So, both of them put in the same sentence cannot be parallel after conjunction ‘and’
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New post 07 Nov 2016, 22:49
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Thanks for your question mbaprep2016

Do you how to distinguish between a verb in the past tense and a past participle?

Here is a quick answer by GMAT guru, Ron:

"Past-tense verbs and participles have meanings that are essentially complete opposites -- the former suggests that the noun actually does the action, while the latter suggests an action done to the noun -- so, if you can't reliably tell them apart, then you must not be thinking much (if at all) about the meaning of the words.

for instance:
robots made (= verb) today's breakfast --> this is something that the robots did.
millions of robots made (= participle) in korea are shipped to the u.s. each year --> this is something done to the robots."

If it's not clear let's continue our discussion :)
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2016, 17:08
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mbaprep2016 wrote:
Jabrah

What's wrong with the below sentence.
The growth of the rail roads led to the abolition of local times, differed from city to city. Here differed is modifying time , so does the determined


Hey mbaprep2016

It's illogical to use the past tense "differed". Present participle "differing" is better because it represents the eternal state of something, or a definition in general. For instance, you wouldn't say, two dogs alive at this very moment differed from one another. You'd say, they differ from one another. The best way to convey something that doesn't end is the present participle -ing when of course the word is modifying another.

I hope this helps.
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New post 28 Sep 2017, 03:16
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r19 wrote:
I knew the reason that determined is a modifier and should be parallel with modifier not with verb .but I was not not able to guess "differed from" is a verb. How to check that ?
the test I used to check it is a verb is place" differed from" closer to local times and see if any action is done. in my understanding there was no action and just a modifier. Went with D and my answer was wrong.



Hello r19,

I will be glad to help you with this one. :-)

In Choice D, the word differed is a verb because the local the local times themselves differed from city to city.

Let me present a simple example sentence to make the usage clear.

Local time differs in each of the six time zones in the Unites States.

My project differs from yours in its approach towards problem solving.


In both the above-mentioned sentences, differs acts as a verb.

Same is the usage of the word in simple past tense in Choice D. Hence, this choice stands incorrect because the modifier determined and the verb differed cannot be grammatically parallel.

Choice E rectifies this error by replacing the verb differed with the modifier differing.


Hope this helps. :-)
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2012, 09:22
[quote="egmat"]
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed: Incorrect. “determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian” (a verb-ed modifier) is not parallel to “differed from city to city” (a verb phrase). Notice here that “determined” is not a verb here. It is a verb-ed modifier that is modifying “local times”. If it were a verb, ther would be no comma before it and the subject and the verb would be connected properly.


Why "differed from city to city" is a verb phrase and not a verb-ed modifier. In the context of the sentence

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

If we omit the red coloured part then "differed" can be treated as verb-ed modifier.

Please explain and make me understand the concept.
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New post 22 Aug 2012, 13:05
Hi Ranjeet,

Following are the links of two articles that deal with the usage of Verb-ed modifier and the difference between the verb-ed modifier and simple past tense. Please go through them. If you still have any doubts regarding any of these topics, feel free to ask us. :)
verb-ed-modifiers-vs-verb-ing-modifiers-125611.html
ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html

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Shraddha
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which   [#permalink] 22 Aug 2012, 13:05

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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which

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