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The hummingbird combines upstroke wing muscles that are proportionally

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The hummingbird combines upstroke wing muscles that are proportionally [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2017, 09:42
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Question Stats:

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The hummingbird combines upstroke wing muscles that are proportionally much larger than those of other birds with downstroke wing muscles that have the lowest recorded muscle strain of any flying bird, allowing them to reach a wing-flapping rate in excess of 50 strokes per second.

A) hummingbird combines upstroke wing muscles that are proportionally much larger than those of other birds with downstroke wing muscles that have the lowest recorded muscle strain of any flying bird, allowing them to reach a wing-flapping rate in excess of
B) hummingbird, combining upstroke wing muscles that are proportionally much larger than those of other birds with downstroke wing muscles that have the lowest recorded muscle strain of any flying bird, allows them to reach wing-flapping rates of over
C) hummingbird, which combines upstroke wing muscles that are proportionally much larger than those of other birds with downstroke wing muscles that have the lowest recorded muscle strain of any flying bird, is allowed to reach wing-flapping rates of over
D) hummingbird combines upstroke wing muscles that are proportionally much larger than those of other birds with downstroke wing muscles that have the lowest recorded muscle strain of any flying bird, allowing it to reach wing-flapping rates of over
E) hummingbird, by combining upstroke wing muscles that are proportionally much larger than those of other birds with downstroke wing muscles that have the lowest recorded muscle strain of any flying bird, allowing them to reach wing-flapping rates in excess of
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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New post 19 Mar 2017, 10:04
A- allowing 'them' to...
Here there is no clear antecedent of them.
Moreover comma+ verb-ing should modify the previous clause such that the subject of the previous clause is the doer of the action.
Ram killed the snake,using a stick.
Here ran is using the stick .

In the same manner , error in A can be rectified if 'it' is used instead of 'them' .
So the error is rectified in option D

Moreover 'excess of ' is an incorrect idiom.

Eliminating other options.
B uses 'them' .
Allows them to reach a wing flapping rates..here the humming bird is reaching the wing flapping rate and not the 'muscles'
C the humming bird is allowed to reach ..is an incorrect construction. We would rather say the humming bird reaches.
D
E the humming bird,by combining...,allowing them

The same mistake as pointed out in A and B.

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Re: The hummingbird combines upstroke wing muscles that are proportionally [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2017, 10:18
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Errors:

A,B and E use 'them' to refer to hummingbird, which is singular.

C lacks a main verb to modify hummingbird.

Open to criticism!!



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The hummingbird combines upstroke wing muscles that are proportionally [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2017, 10:57
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The Question properly underlined.

Quote:

The hummingbird combines upstroke wing muscles that are proportionally much larger than those of other birds with downstroke wing muscles that have the lowest recorded muscle strain of any flying bird, allowing them to reach a wing-flapping rate in excess of 50 strokes per second.


A: hummingbird combines upstroke wing muscles that are proportionally much larger than those of other birds with downstroke wing muscles that have the lowest recorded muscle strain of any flying bird, allowing them to reach a wing-flapping rate in excess of

B: hummingbird, combining upstroke wing muscles that are proportionally much larger than those of other birds with downstroke wing muscles that have the lowest recorded muscle strain of any flying bird, allows them to reach wing-flapping rates of over

C: hummingbird, which combines upstroke wing muscles that are proportionally much larger than those of other birds with downstroke wing muscles that have the lowest recorded muscle strain of any flying bird, is allowed to reach wing-flapping rates of over

D: hummingbird combines upstroke wing muscles that are proportionally much larger than those of other birds with downstroke wing muscles that have the lowest recorded muscle strain of any flying bird, allowing it to reach wing-flapping rates of over

E: hummingbird, by combining upstroke wing muscles that are proportionally much larger than those of other birds with downstroke wing muscles that have the lowest recorded muscle strain of any flying bird, allowing them to reach wing-flapping rates in excess of


A: The hummingbird, ..., allowing them
The 'hummingbird' is singular while 'them' is plural. Subject - Verb agreement error, hence out.
The singular animal cannot refer to the entire species.

B and E have the same Subject - Verb agreement error as A, hence out.

C: If one removes the non-essential modifier ", which combines... flying bird,"
one is left with "The hummingbird is allowed to...". Allowed by whom?

This changes the intended meaning of the sentence that says the "unique wing muscles" are what allow the hummingbird to have the high wing flapping rates.
Hence out.

D: Comma + Verb-ing form ", allowing" correctly modifies the preceding clause and gives the result of the Upstroke and Downstroke wing muscles combining to enable the hummingbird to have high wing flapping rates.

Hence D is the right answer.

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The hummingbird combines upstroke wing muscles that are proportionally   [#permalink] 05 Sep 2017, 10:57
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The hummingbird combines upstroke wing muscles that are proportionally

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