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# The increased popularity and availability of televisions has

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The increased popularity and availability of televisions has [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2006, 11:39
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The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated

E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating
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15 Apr 2006, 11:54
ITS D.

Correct usages of present and past participle phrase.
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15 Apr 2006, 11:55
D sounds better to me...though dont knw wat is wrong in B n C...
Somebdy plz explain..
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16 Apr 2006, 20:56
gmat_crack wrote:
ITS D.

Correct usages of present and past participle phrase.

Absolutely D.

Why is B wrong? If the sentence were...

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and which are perpetuated by geographic isolation.
OR
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations that originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and that are perpetuated by geographic isolation.

...it would be correct because both "which" and "that" refer to the noun variations. Now the problem with both A & B is they are don't have the parallel construction.

In absence of "that are" and "which", we can use the correct participle phrases as gmat_crak mentioned.

originating from = which originate from
perpetuated by = which are perpetuated by

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.
Hence D for
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"To dream anything that you want to dream, that is the beauty of the human mind. To do anything that you want to do, that is the strength of the human will. To trust yourself, to test your limits, that is the courage to succeed."

- Bernard Edmonds

16 Apr 2006, 20:56
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