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The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of

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The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.


(A) having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it

(B) having hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that they

(C) with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists' assuming that they

(D) with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain scientists' assuming that it

(E) with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it

Originally posted by macjas on 11 May 2012, 23:45.
Last edited by Bunuel on 25 Jan 2019, 04:08, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2012, 08:34
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A case of SV mismatch and pronoun ambiguity and reference. The subject is the singular structure and the verb therefore should be helps, which is three in B, C and E. In B. the plural pronoun, they refer to anything plural but what is in issue is the singular insect eye that is compared with vertebrate eye. C also has the same pronoun mis - reference as in B. E remains with the use of the singular verb helps and singular pronoun it
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2013, 08:51
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gmatter0913 wrote:
Could somebody please clarify me how "with" is different from "having" here.

How is it that "having" is modifying "structure", while "with" is modifying "compound insect eye". Kindly help me understand the usage of with here.

Thanks a lot GmatClub.


hi

having = have + ing = verb + ing.
verb-ing modifiers are very versatile modifiers.
there are two case


if verb-ing modifiers appear after a clause and is preceeded by comma ,then it modifies the entire preceeding clause.It
a) either presents additional information about the preceeding clause or
b) result of the preceeding clause.


if verb-ing modifiers appears without a comma==>it modifies the immediate noun.

now in our question:

The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

so according to rule HAVING is modifying the entire preceeding clause....
so in this sentence ...meanig coming out: intricate structure are having hundreds of miniature eyes==> this is illogical as structure cant have eyes...
hence we can eliminate all the option using HAVING


please refre to this also.

usage-of-verb-ing-modifiers-135220.html


hope it makes sense now.
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2012, 10:18
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A having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it (SV error)
B having hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that they (Pronoun error)
C with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists' assuming that they(Pronoun error)
D with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain scientists' assuming that it (SV error)
E with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it (Correct Answer)
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2013, 23:26
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mamathak wrote:
I figured out the errors with each answer choice much similar to the ways listed above. I was looking at one point in OG answer explanation that "using 'assuming' with possesive 'scientists'' form" is incorrect. Say, if i change answer (C) as below, will it be correct.

(C) with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists' ASSUMPTION that IT


Hi mamthak

Even you change assuming to assumption, the sentence is still wrong because:

- Structure: "assumption that + clause" is not as good as "assume that + clause"
(1) Scientists have the assumption that whale evolved from elephant
(2) Scientists assume that whale evolved from elephant
Which one is better. Definitely, GMAT likes the latter, it's more concise and has clear meaning.
Remember the order V-A-N (verb-adjective-noun). If you can use verb, use verb, do not use noun form.

- Idiom: assumption that ==> incorrect. Correct idiom is "assumption of/about"

Hope it' clear.
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2012, 14:55
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First split : The intricate structure......... HELP/HELPS explain........

The intricate structure ( singular )..... must be paired with Helps ( singular verb )

A,D disappears, Left with B, C, E

2nd Split : Scientists assumed that....... THEY / IT........

The pronoun refers back to the EYE ( Singular )........ So the Pronoun should be IT ( SINGULAR ) and not THEY.

Thus B n C get back to their cocoon.

Leading to E, my take
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2013, 21:49
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I thought I understood the usage of "with" until I saw this official sentence.

I believe that if I am changing the rules of using a concept every time so as to match the correct answer, then I am sure that I didn't understand the concept well. I believe that is exactly what is happening in this case in understanding the usage of "with" on the GMAT.

In our previous conversation, we thought "with" modifies the preceding noun or the clause. But, it looks like we're missing something here. Below is an official sentence from the GMAT Prep.

Sentence: (This is the correct option in the question. But, the stress here is to understand how is it correct?)

Visitors to the park have often looked up into the leafy canopy and saw monkeys sleeping on the branches, with arms and legs hanging like socks on a clothesline.

The official explanation says "with" is modifying "monkeys" correctly and it is not modifying "branches".

I don't understand why is it so? According to our understanding, "with" should modify the preceding noun "branches".

I understand that branches cannot have arms and legs and hence it modifies monkeys. I think this explanation doesn't solve the problem. Because, there has to be a better explanation to this usage. Else, we're saying that "with" is always correct on the GMAT as it can be associated to modify anything as desired by the context of the sentence.

I believe we need to understand this better.

I request the experts on this forum to please help us on this.

Thanks a lot!!
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 30 Aug 2018, 22:05
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hi experts,

1) here i feel it is ambiguously referring to both intricate structure and compound eye,
please throw some light on how u all are assuming that it refers to compound eye ?


thanks
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Originally posted by Cheryn on 30 Aug 2018, 21:13.
Last edited by Cheryn on 30 Aug 2018, 22:05, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2018, 21:33
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Cheryn wrote:
hi experts,

here i feel it is ambiguously referring to both intricate structure and compound eye,
please throw some light on how u all are assuming that it refers to compound eye ?

thanks

Hi Cheryn
I'm not an expert, but if my 2 cents could be of some help here.
The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

"having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia" modifies the entire preceding clause "The intricate structure of the compound insect eye"

The subject here in the sentence is "The intricate structure of the compound insect eye" which is singular.

IT basically refers back to the whole main subject i.e. a noun phrase here.
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2018, 22:09
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thanks himanshu, (though i am not convinced with your reply , i am sorry) .i think, here it is actually referring to the compound eye .

btw, experts,

one more doubt is how with along with called xxxx referring to compound eye but not intricate structure... ( i have gone through earlier posts also nowhere it is mentioned "with" can refer to the noun in the prepositional phrase. even in the eg quoted

Visitors to the park have often looked up into the leafy canopy and seen monkeys sleeping on the branches, with arms and legs hanging like socks on a clothesline.

here, with is not referring to the branches it can modify either noun or preceding clause)

thanks
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The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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The debated ambiguity of the pronoun seems to be eternal.

Here is the original choice E. -----with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

Let's us evaluate both the debated antecedents, the structure, and the compound eye


1. with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that the structure evolved independently of the vertebrate eye. ------- Here, the comparison is between a type structure and a type of eye
.
2. with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that the compound eye evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.---- Here the comparison is between a type of eye and another type of eye.

Now we can see why E holds well in the given context

The precise intention of this choice by GMAT is to find out, whether a test taker can discriminate an apparent comparison from a genuine comparison.

Any doubt about the veracity of the antecedence is understandable until we knew the GMAT's point. However, to persist with our own sense of ambiguity after that point may not help.
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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Could you help me on how "with" modifies the "eye" and not the "structure"?
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 18 Jul 2013, 12:00
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gmatter0913 wrote:
Could you help me on how "with" modifies the "eye" and not the "structure"?



WITH ...will modify eye.....according to context of the sentence)

it cannot modify intricate structure as that will be illogical....to say intricate structure have hundreds of miniature eyes.


The intricate structure of the compound insect eye,withits hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye


HOPE IT IS CLEAR.

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Originally posted by blueseas on 18 Jul 2013, 11:03.
Last edited by blueseas on 18 Jul 2013, 12:00, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2013, 23:37
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gmatter0913 wrote:
I thought I understood the usage of "with" until I saw this official sentence.

Visitors to the park have often looked up into the leafy canopy and saw monkeys sleeping on the branches, with arms and legs hanging like socks on a clothesline.

The official explanation says "with" is modifying "monkeys" correctly and it is not modifying "branches".

I don't understand why is it so? According to our understanding, "with" should modify the preceding noun "branches".

I understand that branches cannot have arms and legs and hence it modifies monkeys. I think this explanation doesn't solve the problem. Because, there has to be a better explanation to this usage. Else, we're saying that "with" is always correct on the GMAT as it can be associated to modify anything as desired by the context of the sentence.


Firstly, both the verbs "have often looked up" and "saw" are associated to "Visitors". I'd expect the second verb also to be in a a form that aligns with "have" => verb should be "have seen" .

Secondly to generalise this concept of usage of "with XXX" --> it falls into the category of prepositional phrases , which are very versatile , and everything that's said about "with" being a versatile modifier applies to all prepositional phrases

In this specific Question - i think "with arms and legs hanging like ..... " modifies the noun phrase "monkeys sleeping on the branches" . it simply cannot modify just branches or monkeys. "with ....." here describes HOW monkeys are sleeping on the branches , modifying the action denoted by the -ING modifer sleeping.
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2018, 21:47
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The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

"having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia" modifies the entire preceding clause "The intricate structure of the compound insect eye"

The subject here in the sentence is "The intricate structure of the compound insect eye" which is singular.
Hence if we eliminate the middlemen i.e. "having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia". It clearly shows the Subject/Verb agreement issue as the first split is "help" or "helps".
With Singular subject it has to be "helps".
Hence A and D go out.

(A) having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it
Incorrect, because of the reason mentioned.

(B) having hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that they
(C) with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists’ assuming that they
The last split "they and it", "they" has no clear antecedent. Here "they" refers to "hundreds of miniature eyes" but this isn't the subject here. The pronoun here must refer to "The intricate structure of the compound insect eye", which is singular, so a singular pronoun is required.
Hence B and C go out.

(D) with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain scientists’ assuming that it
Incorrect, because of the reason mentioned on the top.

(E) with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it
Correct, with no above mentioned issues.
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2018, 11:32
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The focus is a comparison between the insect eye and the vertebrate eye. Otherwise, we may wrongly lead to the weighing of a structure with some other eye
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2018, 17:11
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Hello Everyone!

Let's take a close look at this question, one problem at a time, to come up with the right answer quickly! Before we dive in, here is the original question with the major differences between each option highlighted in orange:

The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

(A) having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it
(B) having hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that they
(C) with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists' assuming that they
(D) with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain scientists' assuming that it
(E) with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it

Right away, 3 major differences jump out between each option:

1. having hundreds / with its hundreds
2. help / helps
3. it / they


#2 and #3 on the list are both easy concepts to deal with, so let's start there before getting to #1 on the list, which is a little more complicated.

#2 on our list deals with subject/verb agreement. We know that the subject is the singular word "structure." Let's rule out any options that use the plural verb "help," which doesn't agree in number with our singular subject!

(A) having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it
(B) having hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that they
(C) with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists' assuming that they
(D) with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain scientists' assuming that it
(E) with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it

There you go - right away, we can eliminate options A & D because they don't follow proper subject/verb agreement!

Now, let's tackle #3 on our list: it/they. This is an issue of pronoun/antecedent agreement! The pronouns are referring back again to our subject: structure. Let's rule out any options that use the plural pronoun "they" because it doesn't agree in number with our singular antecedent:

(B) having hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that they
(C) with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists' assuming that they
(E) with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it

This leaves us with only one option left - option E, which is the correct answer! It uses proper subject/verb agreement and pronoun/antecedent agreement throughout!

(If you're wondering why we skipped over #1 on our list, it's because both constructions are actually okay to use. Instead of wasting time fretting over something that looks confusing, start with the easy differences first, such as subject/verb agreement or pronoun/antecedent agreement. Most of the time, those will rule out enough options for you to choose the correct overall answer. If not, then you can take more time to deal with the more complicated stuff.)


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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Sep 2018, 13:16
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Cheryn wrote:
thanks himanshu, (though i am not convinced with your reply , i am sorry) .i think, here it is actually referring to the compound eye .

btw, experts,

one more doubt is how with along with called xxxx referring to compound eye but not intricate structure... ( i have gone through earlier posts also nowhere it is mentioned "with" can refer to the noun in the prepositional phrase. even in the eg quoted

Visitors to the park have often looked up into the leafy canopy and seen monkeys sleeping on the branches, with arms and legs hanging like socks on a clothesline.

here, with is not referring to the branches it can modify either noun or preceding clause)

thanks

Hi Cheryn and HimanshuW11,
Well Many have discussed this question from getting to right answer, i wanted a different approach on this question , as to what all is wrong in the original sentence, and what is role played by each segment of sentence

First
Most replies that i have read above regarding role played by "helping" are stating that "helping blah blah blah " is modifying preceding clause. But what precedes 'helping" is not a clause its a noun phrase.
Second
there is another role played by verb+ing it can also modify preceding noun
Eg " Probus , wearing a black suite, enthralled everyone at the meeting. Clearly we see that verb-ing here is giving more information about the preceding noun.

In the original statement also , it plays the role of giving more information about noun ( i am not expert but logically this should be the role played by the verb -ing modifier)
The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia,

Now if we ask ourselves what is having hundreds of eyes ?
Structure is having something
Compound insect eye is having something .
So in my opinion we do have a modifier error ( ambiguity)
( actually i googled and learn about the structure of insect eye https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TU6bgQnTi18)
i was then clear that this modifier must logically refer to compound insect eye . Which means the complete eye is made up of / or is having number of small eyes. )

Correct answer choice .
The intricate structure of the compound insect eye,


with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, { Modifier }


helps explain

why scientists have assumed ( this part modifies explain , giving more information about explain what )

that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye { " that"dependent clause modifying “assumed }

Now " with " can either modify entire preceding clause or noun . Again notice what precedes "with" is not a clause , but a noun phrase. So definitely its modifying a noun . But which noun from the noun phrase does it modify.

remember the basic purpose of modifiers is to provide more information

Lets see.

It makes no sense to say
the complex structure (, with 100 of miniature eyes. blah blah ,) of compound insect eye .

the complex structure of compound insect eye , ( with 100 of miniature eyes. blah blah ). Yes this does make sense.

I don't know if this helps, but should you see any flaw please do point them so that i could learn too.



Comming to question you posted

Visitors to the park
have often looked up into the leafy canopy
and seen monkeys sleeping on the branches,
with arms and legs hanging like socks on a clothesline.

Now logically 'with arms and legs hanging like socks on a clothesline' is modifying the preceding clause

Visitors have seen monkeys sleeping on the branches

Monkeys' arms and legs are hung like socks on a clothesline.

The way monkeys are sleeping on branches ( WITH ITS ARMS AND LEGS HANGING FROM BRANCHES ) its comparable to (SOCKS ON A CLOTHE LINE )

So arms and legs are imagined as socks and branches as cloth line

So " 'with arms and legs hanging like socks on a clothesline" is modifying the preceding clause and the subject of that is monkey's


Again any flaws in above reasoning , let me know will learn and correct that.

Thanks
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2013, 02:58
I figured out the errors with each answer choice much similar to the ways listed above. I was looking at one point in OG answer explanation that "using 'assuming' with possesive 'scientists'' form" is incorrect. Say, if i change answer (C) as below, will it be correct.

(C) with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists' ASSUMPTION that IT
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2013, 08:35
Could somebody please clarify me how "with" is different from "having" here.

How is it that "having" is modifying "structure", while "with" is modifying "compound insect eye". Kindly help me understand the usage of with here.

Thanks a lot GmatClub.
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Re: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of   [#permalink] 18 Jul 2013, 08:35

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