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# The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant dev

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Re: The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant dev  [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2012, 23:02
A. being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity; it was costly before that. ------ Being used as a modifier is incorrect usage in GMAT; Going by the tense, sequence of events is not in order.

B. having been one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity, costly previously.--- sequence is inappropriate. The simple past tense for the costliness implies that was a later event, whereas it was the earlier event.

C. one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable, however costly previously, commodity.--- the sandwiching of the th limiting modifier --however costly previously - between affordable and commodity is unstylistic.

D. one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity, whereas it had previously been costly. --- seems fair enough. We can take this as the best among the lot.

E. being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth from a previously costly commodity to an affordable one. --- Being used as a modifier is incorrect usage in GMAT.
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Re: The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant dev  [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2012, 06:06
gmatbull wrote:
I know "being" is wrong when used to introduce AN IDENTITY ("being the composer of...")
or A CHARACTERISTICS ("being one of the most significant...)"

However, can you explain "whereas it had previously been costly " in D...sounds pretty odd.

This is more of Idiomatic usage.

Whereas X, Y (both X and Y should be a clause) similar to other idiom Just as X , Y

********************************

I do have a question here.
When you say Whereas it....., X
here the "it" is the subject pronoun that refers to subject noun of the following clause. So how does Manhattan justify D this pronoun usage?
The correct option can be rephrased as -

Whereas it had previously been costly ,the invention of the cotton gin,one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity.

Vineet - can you please post the OE for this Q?

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Re: The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant dev  [#permalink]

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07 Feb 2013, 05:48
1
The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity; it was costly before that.
a. being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity; it was costly before that - Use of being & HAD is incorrect. Moreover, use of IT is ambiguous.

b. having been one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity, costly previously - The original intent does not allows for any Cause & Effect, thus use of "Having been" is incorrect

c. one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable, however costly previously, commodity - CORRECT

d. one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity, whereas it had previously been costly - Use of IT is ambiguous as it can refer either to CLOTH or to COMMODITY. WHEREAS does not make any sense at all.

e. being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth from a previously costly commodity to an affordable one - Same error as in A; moreover use of TO is incorrect.

So IMO answer has to be option C.

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Re: The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant dev  [#permalink]

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07 Feb 2013, 10:50
greatps24 wrote:
I also chose C.

But the IMO is D.

official explanation: (But I am not convinced with this explanation. Can anyone clarify???)

(C) This choice interrupts the connection between the adjective "affordable" and the noun "commodity," making the sentence hard to follow. Also, the use of "however" changes the meaning: "however costly" implies that the cotton gin would have made cotton cloth affordable no matter how costly it was previously. In contrast, the original sentence only states that cotton cloth had previously been costly.

(D) CORRECT. The modifier "one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century" eliminates the unnecessary word "being." The simple past verb "turned" coupled with the past perfect "had previously been" correctly expresses the fact that cotton cloth "turned into an affordable commodity" after it "had previously been costly." The later past event uses the simple past tense, whereas the earlier past event uses the past perfect tense. Moreover, the conjunction "whereas" correctly expresses the neutral contrast between the earlier and the later state of affairs. The pronoun "it" refers unambiguously to the "cotton cloth."

the level is tough but you can crack the sentence in less than one minute dude

Quote:
The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity; it was costly before that.

a. being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity; it was costly before that

b. having been one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity, costly previously

c. one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable, however costly previously, commodity

d. one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity, whereas it had previously been costly

e. being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth from a previously costly commodity to an affordable one

Try to take out the filler, in other words the incidental phrase so you have : the invention of the cotton gin........ had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity; it was costly before that.
is wrong because the meaning is not focused on the commodity is if affordable or not but the comparison that before the invention was not cheap and after yes

B .....turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity, costly previously is wrong because commodity, costly previously is wrong also because is not clear at all and ackward

C .......turned cotton cloth into an affordable, however costly previously, commodity is completely convoluted, it doesn't make sense

E .......turned cotton cloth from a previously costly commodity to an affordable one is wrong because here if you look closely suddenly the meaning is that the cloth was already a commodity turned into a cheap one instead we want somthing that before was an expensive thing and after became a cheap commodity (moreovere being is completely out of context)

D use the right construction: clear, concise, with the right modifier and tense that unfold: before turned and after had previously been
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Re: The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant dev  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2013, 22:11
seekmba wrote:
Good points by lionslion.

The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity even though it was expensive before that.

A. being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity even though it was expensive before that - being is incorrect. "had turned" is wrong. Invention turned cotton into an affordable commodity later but the commodity had been expensive before

having been one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity even though it had previously been expensive - "having been..." correctly modifies invention. correct tense usage

one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity despite its previous expense - "one of...." incorrectly modifies cotton gin. the part after comma is awkward

one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity despite the fact that it had previously been expensive - "one of...." incorrectly modifies cotton gin. the part after comma is wordy

being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth from a previously expensive commodity to an affordable one - being is wrong. the part after comma does not sound right to me.

1. Can somebody please explain me the difference between
"having been and have been"

2.Difference between Present perfect and present perfect continuous
I mean the difference between the sentences
a) we have lived in the hut for three days
b) we have been living in the hut for three days.
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Re: The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant dev  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2013, 23:24
1
This is from MGMAT and the OA is D and not B.

OA is D because -

If we pick D and say B for discussion sake then,

having been one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity even though it had previously been expensive
- Tries to state that since it was a significant development, it could make the cotton cloth an affordable commodity. The reason why the cotton cloth became affordable is not mentioned in the question.

In D, the sentence clearly puts the modifier as non-essential. The modifier probably modifies "invention of the cotton gin" rather than cotton gin itself. cotton gin is within a prepositional phrase "of the cotton gin".

So, D says that the invention of the cotton gin, <modifier>, <rest of the sentence>.

Another example -

It was only after Katharine Graham became publisher of The Washington Post in 1963 that it moved into the first rank of American newspapers, and it was under her command that the paper won high praise for its unrelenting reporting of the Watergate scandal.
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Re: The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant dev  [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2014, 15:19
rrkan wrote:
seekmba wrote:
Good points by lionslion.

The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity even though it was expensive before that.

A. being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity even though it was expensive before that - being is incorrect. "had turned" is wrong. Invention turned cotton into an affordable commodity later but the commodity had been expensive before

having been one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity even though it had previously been expensive - "having been..." correctly modifies invention. correct tense usage

one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity despite its previous expense - "one of...." incorrectly modifies cotton gin. the part after comma is awkward

one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity despite the fact that it had previously been expensive - "one of...." incorrectly modifies cotton gin. the part after comma is wordy

being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth from a previously expensive commodity to an affordable one - being is wrong. the part after comma does not sound right to me.

1. Can somebody please explain me the difference between
"having been and have been"

2.Difference between Present perfect and present perfect continuous
I mean the difference between the sentences
a) we have lived in the hut for three days
b) we have been living in the hut for three days.

Will somebody provide a clear answer for this one

OK, let's agree that the correct answer here is D

Would anybody kindly help answer why D and not other tempting answer choices. Such as E for instance?

Also, just so you know I picked E cause for me it was the only answer choice that made sense

Cheers!
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Re: The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant dev  [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2014, 17:13
jlgdr wrote:
Will somebody provide a clear answer for this one

OK, let's agree that the correct answer here is D

Would anybody kindly help answer why D and not other tempting answer choices. Such as E for instance?

Also, just so you know I picked E cause for me it was the only answer choice that made sense

Cheers!
J

C and D are out, because in the construction, 'The invention of cotton gin, one of the ...'
one of the incorrectly modifies cotton gin, where as, it should actually talk about 'the invention'

A and E are out, because, 'being' is wrong.
'Being' is the present-tense form of the verb 'to be' and it means, 'happening at the moment'
Ex: I am being a spoilsport --> I am not a spoilsport always, but at the moment, I am acting like one.
Cotton Gin is a great invention, not just for that moment.

What's left is 'B'
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Re: The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant dev  [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2015, 07:28
whereas introduces a dependent clause----> and if I am correct we generally parallel the subject of DC with the subject of the IC

So according to me, 'it' in option D is referring to the 'invention'.

Though between option C and D, I picked D, but the usage of 'it' in option D is pretty ambiguous.
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Re: The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant dev  [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2015, 10:42
DesiGmat wrote:
whereas introduces a dependent clause----> and if I am correct we generally parallel the subject of DC with the subject of the IC

So according to me, 'it' in option D is referring to the 'invention'.

Though between option C and D, I picked D, but the usage of 'it' in option D is pretty ambiguous.

The "it" is close enough to cotton cloth where you cannot toss out the answer choice for ambiguity. For the record, "being" is also used correctly in A because it's links the noun with a modifier.
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Re: The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant dev  [#permalink]

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16 Jan 2016, 10:10
good question. got it correct and correct option is B.

it is the only choice where past and past perfect tenses are used correctly. two actions, one happening before the other.
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Re: The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant dev  [#permalink]

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12 Jun 2016, 07:46
greatps24 wrote:
The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity; it was costly before that.

a. being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity; it was costly before that

b. having been one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity, costly previously

c. one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable, however costly previously, commodity

d. one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth, which had previously been quite costly, into an affordable commodity

e. being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth from a previously costly commodity to an affordable one

Please explain difference between C &D. OA soon

Clearly (D)

The invention of the cotton gin,one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth, which had previously been quite costly, into an affordable commodity.

The invention of the cotton gin , turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity.
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Re: The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant dev  [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2017, 10:42
1
Top Contributor
Let me give it a shot.
Option D seems to be the best answer.

Option A -
"being" is redundant. Removing "being" does not alter the meaning of the sentence.
the usage of past perfect is unnecessary in the first clause -
"The invention of the cotton gin had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity" - simple past tense will suffice.
"before that" - the usage of the demonstrative adjective "that" is incorrect. It must always be used with a noun.

Option B -
"having been" is redundant. Removing "having been" does not alter the meaning of the sentence.
"costly previously" seems to modify "affordable commodity".

Option C -
"however costly previously" seems to refer to "affordable"

Option D -
"whereas" is used to indicate contrast. (it was costly earlier; now it is affordable).
Also note that pronoun ambiguity is not tested on the GMAT. (see what can logically stand for the pronoun. If such a noun exists, then there is no pronoun ambiguity).

Option E -
"being" is redundant.
if we say X turned Y from A to B. this implies that A was the previous state.
"turned cotton cloth from a previously costly commodity to an affordable one" - "previously" seems to be redundant.
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Re: The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant dev  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 28 May 2017, 02:07
1
Quote:
The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity; it was costly before that.

A. being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity; it was costly before that

B. having been one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity, costly previously

C. one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable, however costly previously, commodity

D. one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth, which had previously been quite costly, into an affordable commodity

E. being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth from a previously costly commodity to an affordable one

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Originally posted by mkrishnabdrr on 26 May 2017, 18:13.
Last edited by hazelnut on 28 May 2017, 02:07, edited 2 times in total.
Merged topic. Please search before posting question.
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Re: The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant dev  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 27 May 2017, 03:41
mkrishnabdrr wrote:
The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity; it was costly before that.

A. being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity; it was costly before that

B. having been one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity, costly previously

C. one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable, however costly previously, commodity

D. one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth, which had previously been quite costly, into an affordable commodity

E. being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth from a previously costly commodity to an affordable one

I chose D.

I'll give my 2 cents for approaching.

The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity; it was costly before that.

<The sentence talks about cotton gin. Initially, cloth was costly, but after invention of cotton gin, it became affordable>

A. being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity; it was costly before that
=> Wrong. The phrase "being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century" should modify "cotton gin". Therefore, "one of the most significant developments..." is enough; usage of "being" is wrong.
Also, past perfect tense "had turned cotton..." is wrong. Because the 2nd clause "it was costly before that" is in simple past tense, and the invention happened after that; therefore, invention's impact cannot take past perfect tense.

B. having been one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity, costly previously
=> Wrong. Similar to usage of "being" in previous option, the usage of "having been" is wrong.

C. one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable, however costly previously, commodity
=> Wrong. This a good contender. But compared to clear expression in option (D), phrase "however costly previously" makes (C) become wordy and less preferred.

D. one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth, which had previously been quite costly, into an affordable commodity
CORRECT. Especially, usage of past perfect in "which had previously been quite costly" correctly describes the sequence of events of this sentence.

E. being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth from a previously costly commodity to an affordable one
=> Wrong. As in option (A), usage of "being" is wrong.

Originally posted by Lucy Phuong on 26 May 2017, 21:34.
Last edited by Lucy Phuong on 27 May 2017, 03:41, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant dev  [#permalink]

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26 May 2017, 23:15
mkrishnabdrr wrote:
The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity; it was costly before that.

A. being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity; it was costly before that

B. having been one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity, costly previously

C. one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable, however costly previously, commodity

D. one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth, which had previously been quite costly, into an affordable commodity

E. being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth from a previously costly commodity to an affordable one

The invention of the cotton gin, one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth, which had previously been quite costly, into an affordable commodity

Errors in the other options, highlighted in red, correct answer must be (D)
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Re: The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant dev  [#permalink]

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27 May 2017, 05:42
Hi GMATNinja ,

There is a lot of confusion for options B, D and E.

Thanks
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Re: The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant dev  [#permalink]

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27 May 2017, 05:54
1
abhimahna wrote:
Hi GMATNinja ,

There is a lot of confusion for options B, D and E.

Thanks

Official Explanation from Manhattan:

The word "being" is unnecessary in the opening modifier "being one of the most significant developments . . ." Moreover, the past perfect verb "had turned" coupled with the simple past verb "was" reverses the chronological order of the events. The tenses run counter to the logic of the sentence by incorrectly suggesting that the invention of the cotton gin happened before the cotton cloth became expensive.

(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.

(B) The words "having been" are unnecessary in the opening modifier. Moreover, the ending phrase "costly previously" is too concise; it fails to strike the contrast between the earlier and the later state of affairs.

(C) This choice interrupts the connection between the adjective "affordable" and the noun "commodity," making the sentence hard to follow. Also, the use of "however" changes the meaning: "however costly" implies that the cotton gin would have made cotton cloth affordable no matter how costly it was previously. In contrast, the original sentence only states that cotton cloth had previously been costly.

(D) CORRECT. The modifier "one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century" eliminates the unnecessary word "being." The simple past verb "turned" coupled with the past perfect "had previously been" correctly expresses the fact that cotton cloth was "turned ... into an affordable commodity" after it "had previously been quite costly." The later past event uses the simple past tense, whereas the earlier past event uses the past perfect tense. Moreover, the relative pronoun "which" correctly modifies "cotton cloth" and resolves any ambiguity.

(E) The word "being" is unnecessary in the opening modifier.
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27 May 2017, 23:17
spriya wrote:
The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity; it was costly before that.

a) being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity; it was costly before that
b) having been one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity, costly previously
c) one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable, however costly previously, commodity
d) one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity, whereas it had previously been costly
e) being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth from a previously costly commodity to an affordable one

Looking forward to getting explanation !!this is a MGMAT question !!

My take is D.

A) I could have accepted it if the sentence were " Being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century , The invention of cotton gin had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity ; It was costly before that.
Here Being ...century modifying The invention . But as in option A , the part which is between two comma should be an extra information and so it need not to be started with word "Being" .

B) Same problem as Being. Here Sentence is starting with word Having been.
C)Last part is wrongly placed . -->,however costly previously, commodity is wrong .
D)Everything is good in this sentence . whereas connect two independent clause separated by comma .
E) being is wrong .
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Updated on: 23 Aug 2017, 08:09
The invention of the cotton gin, being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity; it was costly before that.

A. being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, had turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity; it was costly before that
B. having been one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable commodity, costly previously
C. one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth into an affordable, however costly previously, commodity
D. one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth, which had previously been quite costly, into an affordable commodity
E. being one of the most significant developments of the nineteenth century, turned cotton cloth from a previously costly commodity to an affordable one

OA will be post later.

Originally posted by katelyntanglu on 23 Aug 2017, 01:48.
Last edited by broall on 23 Aug 2017, 08:09, edited 1 time in total.
Merged topic. Please search before posting question.
Cotton gin &nbs [#permalink] 23 Aug 2017, 01:48

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