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# The majority of successful senior managers do not closely

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The majority of successful senior managers do not closely [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2011, 10:09
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63% (02:50) correct 38% (01:22) wrong based on 56

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70% (01:22) correct 30% (00:20) wrong based on 54

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The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision. Rather, in their day-by-day tactical maneuvers, these senior executives rely on what is vaguely termed “intuition” to manage a network of interrelated problems that require them to deal with ambiguity, inconsistency, novelty, and surprise; and to integrate action into the process of thinking.

Generations of writers on management have recognized that some practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse for capriciousness.
Isenberg’s recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers reveals that managers’ intuition is neither of these. Rather, senior managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. First, they intuitively sense when a problem exists. Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. This intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of painstaking practice and hands-on experience that build skills. A third function of intuition is to synthesize isolated bits of data and practice into an integrated picture, often in an “Aha!” experience. Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more rational analysis. Most senior executives are familiar with the formal decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the correct course of action. Finally, managers can use intuition to bypass in-depth analysis and move rapidly to engender a plausible solution. Used in this way, intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process in which a manager recognizes familiar patterns. One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management is that “thinking” is inseparable from acting. Since managers often “know” what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later. Analysis is inextricably tied to action in thinking/acting cycles, in which managers develop thoughts about their companies and organizations not by analyzing a problematic situation and then acting, but by acting and analyzing in close concert.
Given the great uncertainty of many of the management issues that they face, senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop a more complete understanding of the issue. One implication of thinking/acting cycles is that action is often part of defining the problem, not just of implementing the solution.
1. The passage provides support for which of the following statements?
(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.
(B) Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.
(C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.
(D) Logical analysis of a problem increases the number of possible solutions.
(E) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

2. According to the passage, the classical model of decision analysis includes all of the following EXCEPT
(A) evaluation of a problem
(B) creation of possible solutions to a problem
(C) establishment of clear goals to be reached by the decision
(E) comparison of the probable effects of different solutions to a problem

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis?
(A) Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not.
(B) Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not.
(C) Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not.
(D) Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creating a solution to a problem; Manager X does not.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

Can someone please explain me the answers to these questions?? What should be the right approach to answer these types of questions?

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA

Last edited by fameatop on 16 Sep 2013, 22:02, edited 3 times in total.
If you have any questions
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27 Aug 2011, 11:22
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teal wrote:

1. The passage provides support for which of the following statements?

(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.
(B) Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.
(C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.
(D) Logical analysis of a problem increases the number of possible solutions.
(E) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.

(OA) : E

Why is the answer E ...............I can't see that??
Detail Question : A line ("Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly") in second para gives the support for the last option. Rest all don't find any support in the passage

2. According to the passage, the classical model of decision analysis includes all of the following EXCEPT
(A) evaluation of a problem
(B) creation of possible solutions to a problem
(C) establishment of clear goals to be reached by the decision
(E) comparison of the probable effects of different solutions to a problem

OA: D
Detail Question : Need to re-read first few lines of the first para. There author has mentioned few items. We need to identify one option that is not specified in one of those option.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis?
(A) Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not.
(B) Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not.
(C) Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not.
(D) Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creating a solution to a problem; Manager X does not.
(E) Manger Y depends on day-to-day tactical maneuvering; manager X does not.

OA: C
Detail Question : First para gives half of the information (The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first ......, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision.) to answer this question. for other half, we required to look at last few lines of second para (One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management is that “thinking” is inseparable from acting. Since managers often “know” what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later.)

Can someone please explain me the answers to these questions?? What should be the right approach to answer these types of questions?
Frankly, even I don't think there is any specific approach to attack these question types, because all the questions in this passage need you to read the passage and understand it. General process of skimming the passage may not work in these type of scenarios.

For EXCEPT question, first it is very important to ensure that you understand the question and than able to negate it in your mind. If you have done so, you can treat these questions like any other question (Inference, main idea, etc..) and approach will vary depending on the question type.

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Re: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2014, 21:25
Can someone specify the difficulty level of this question. Want to get a basic idea of difficulty levels in GMAT
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Re: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2014, 10:22
1. The passage provides support for which of the following statements?
(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.
(B) Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.
(C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.
(D) Logical analysis of a problem increases the number of possible solutions.
(E) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.
The whole argument is about praising the approach of intuition.Second para mentions that intuition is not a random but something based on past experience and helps managers to form plausible solutions quickly.Also none of the rest options can be inferred from para.

2. According to the passage, the classical model of decision analysis includes all of the following EXCEPT
(A) evaluation of a problem
(B) creation of possible solutions to a problem
(C) establishment of clear goals to be reached by the decision
senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop a more complete understanding of the issue
(E) comparison of the probable effects of different solutions to a problem

3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis?
(A) Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not.
(B) Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not.
(C) Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not.
senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop a more complete understanding of the issue
(D) Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creating a solution to a problem; Manager X does not.
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11 Sep 2014, 17:35
JarvisR wrote:
1. The passage provides support for which of the following statements?
(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.
(B) Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.
(C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.
(D) Logical analysis of a problem increases the number of possible solutions.
(E) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.
The whole argument is about praising the approach of intuition.Second para mentions that intuition is not a random but something based on past experience and helps managers to form plausible solutions quickly.Also none of the rest options can be inferred from para.

For this question, I picked "C" because of the middle of third paragraph. "Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check...Most executives ...are occasisonally leery of systematic solutions and use intuition to correct the course" Doesn't this imply that intuition and systematic approach is different?
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Re: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2014, 19:43
russ9 wrote:
JarvisR wrote:
1. The passage provides support for which of the following statements?
(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.
(B) Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.
(C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.
(D) Logical analysis of a problem increases the number of possible solutions.
(E) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.
The whole argument is about praising the approach of intuition.Second para mentions that intuition is not a random but something based on past experience and helps managers to form plausible solutions quickly.Also none of the rest options can be inferred from para.

For this question, I picked "C" because of the middle of third paragraph. "Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check...Most executives ...are occasisonally leery of systematic solutions and use intuition to correct the course" Doesn't this imply that intuition and systematic approach is different?

Hi,
This is an infer question, i.e. something must be true as per the info in arg.

Now below is the para from your post.Lets scan it now to check if we can prove C.
[(C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.]

Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more rational analysis.
[they use intuition to re verify the final result from rational analysis. ]
Most senior executives are familiar with the formal decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the correct course of action.
[there r two schools of thought, systematic and intuitive, where former are leery abt latter's method of forming/suggesting solutions. Why? Bec intuitive approach run contrary their sense of the correct course of action.]
Can we prove C from this? No.

Now look at this:
Generations of writers on management have recognized that some practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse for capriciousness.
Isenberg’s recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers reveals that managers’ intuition is neither of these.
Infact there r other examples also in the passage that goes against C.

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The majority of successful senior managers do not closely [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2015, 10:50
1. The passage provides support for which of the following statements?

(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.
(B) Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.
(C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.
(D) Logical analysis of a problem increases the number of possible solutions.
(E) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.

(OA) : E

I am still not able to process why EXACTLY Option A is incorrect.
The passage does not clearly support option A by stating in the very first line: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model
So for ex: Total Successful managers - 10, then majority of Sr. Managers using intuition (not classical model) - 6 or more, Sr. Managers using Classical Model - 4 or less.

Hence, So if Option A states that Most of the Managers successful are the ones using Intuition and not classical model then this is supported by passage, Right?

So is option A wrong only because it is stressing and comparing the "DEGREE" of success of managers using either of the methods? As that is not mentioned in the passage.

Thank you.
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30 Apr 2015, 00:37
The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision

This only means that majority of successful manager use intuition. This doesn't suggest that intuition users are more successful than other managers in other set. Look at the wording carefully.
(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.

Lets say Intuition Category A =6 manager with success measured in % [60,65,77,66,88,90]
Other Category B =4 manager with success measured in % [95,95,95,95]

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Re: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely [#permalink]

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02 May 2015, 10:52
earnit wrote:
I am still not able to process why EXACTLY Option A is incorrect.
The passage does not clearly support option A by stating in the very first line: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model
So for ex: Total Successful managers - 10, then majority of Sr. Managers using intuition (not classical model) - 6 or more, Sr. Managers using Classical Model - 4 or less.

Hence, So if Option A states that Most of the Managers successful are the ones using Intuition and not classical model then this is supported by passage, Right?

So is option A wrong only because it is stressing and comparing the "DEGREE" of success of managers using either of the methods? As that is not mentioned in the passage.

Thank you.

A says: Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis. So, A compares managers who:
- rely on intuition (more successful) Vs
- rely on formal decision analysis.

First line of the passage says: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model. So, this line compares:
- successful senior managers who rely on intuition Vs
- successful senior managers who rely on formal decision analysis

So, these are talking about different sets.
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Re: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely [#permalink]

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13 May 2015, 07:48
Can anyone explain Q3?

As per C, manager Y does not take any action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem. Is this correct? How?
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Re: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely [#permalink]

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13 May 2015, 11:06
sannidhya wrote:
Can anyone explain Q3?

As per C, manager Y does not take any action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem. Is this correct? How?

If we look at the last line of the passage, it says: One implication of thinking/acting cycles is that action is often part of defining the problem, not just of implementing the solution.

Specifically note that action is often part of defining the problem, not just of implementing the solution.

In the bold portion, we get an idea of what manager Y does: He comes with a solution first and then implements that solution. Manager X does it the other way round.
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14 Sep 2015, 05:01
Any estimates on the difficulty of this passage?
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Re: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely [#permalink]

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16 Feb 2016, 17:22
anordinaryguy wrote:
teal wrote:

1. The passage provides support for which of the following statements?

(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.
(B) Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.
(C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.
(D) Logical analysis of a problem increases the number of possible solutions.
(E) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.

(OA) : E

Why is the answer E ...............I can't see that??
Detail Question : A line ("Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly") in second para gives the support for the last option. Rest all don't find any support in the passage

2. According to the passage, the classical model of decision analysis includes all of the following EXCEPT
(A) evaluation of a problem
(B) creation of possible solutions to a problem
(C) establishment of clear goals to be reached by the decision
(E) comparison of the probable effects of different solutions to a problem

OA: D
Detail Question : Need to re-read first few lines of the first para. There author has mentioned few items. We need to identify one option that is not specified in one of those option.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis?
(A) Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not.
(B) Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not.
(C) Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not.
(D) Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creating a solution to a problem; Manager X does not.
(E) Manger Y depends on day-to-day tactical maneuvering; manager X does not.

OA: C
Detail Question : First para gives half of the information (The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first ......, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision.) to answer this question. for other half, we required to look at last few lines of second para (One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management is that “thinking” is inseparable from acting. Since managers often “know” what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later.)

Can someone please explain me the answers to these questions?? What should be the right approach to answer these types of questions?
Frankly, even I don't think there is any specific approach to attack these question types, because all the questions in this passage need you to read the passage and understand it. General process of skimming the passage may not work in these type of scenarios.

For EXCEPT question, first it is very important to ensure that you understand the question and than able to negate it in your mind. If you have done so, you can treat these questions like any other question (Inference, main idea, etc..) and approach will vary depending on the question type.

I took around 7:18 mins to read the passage and 6 mins to solve the 6 questions. Is 13 mins worth the time? I am still working on time management techniques. Help appreciated.
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Re: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2016, 00:30
1. The passage provides support for which of the following statements?
(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.
(B) Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.
(C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.
(D) Logical analysis of a problem increases the number of possible solutions.
(E) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.

2. According to the passage, the classical model of decision analysis includes all of the following EXCEPT
(A) evaluation of a problem
(B) creation of possible solutions to a problem
(C) establishment of clear goals to be reached by the decision
(E) comparison of the probable effects of different solutions to a problem

3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis?
(A) Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not.
(B) Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not.
(C) Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not.
(D) Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creating a solution to a problem; Manager X does not
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Re: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2016, 01:46
E
D
C
3/3
8 MIN
THIS PASSAGE TOOK ME RELATIVELY LESS TIME THEN OTHERS
APPROX WHAT IS THE DIFFICULTY LEVEL OF THIS PASSAGE?
Re: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely   [#permalink] 27 Aug 2016, 01:46
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