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The majority of successful senior managers do not closely

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The majority of successful senior managers do not closely  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 17 Aug 2019, 02:49
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The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision. Rather, in their day-by-day tactical maneuvers, these senior executives rely on what is vaguely termed “intuition” to manage a network of interrelated problems that require them to deal with ambiguity, inconsistency, novelty, and surprise; and to integrate action into the process of thinking.

Generations of writers on management have recognized that some practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse for capriciousness.

Isenberg’s recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers reveals that managers’ intuition is neither of these. Rather, senior managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. First, they intuitively sense when a problem exists. Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. This intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of painstaking practice and hands-on experience that build skills. A third function of intuition is to synthesize isolated bits of data and practice into an integrated picture, often in an “Aha!” experience. Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more rational analysis. Most senior executives are familiar with the formal decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the correct course of action. Finally, managers can use intuition to bypass in-depth analysis and move rapidly to engender a plausible solution. Used in this way, intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process in which a manager recognizes familiar patterns. One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management is that “thinking” is inseparable from acting. Since managers often “know” what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later. Analysis is inextricably tied to action in thinking/acting cycles, in which managers develop thoughts about their companies and organizations not by analyzing a problematic situation and then acting, but by acting and analyzing in close concert.

Given the great uncertainty of many of the management issues that they face, senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop a more complete understanding of the issue. One implication of thinking/acting cycles is that action is often part of defining the problem, not just of implementing the solution.
1. The passage provides support for which of the following statements?

(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.
(B) Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.
(C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.
(D) Logical analysis of a problem increases the number of possible solutions.
(E) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.



2. According to the passage, the classical model of decision analysis includes all of the following EXCEPT

(A) evaluation of a problem
(B) creation of possible solutions to a problem
(C) establishment of clear goals to be reached by the decision
(D) action undertaken in order to discover more information about a problem
(E) comparison of the probable effects of different solutions to a problem



3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis?

(A) Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not.
(B) Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not.
(C) Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not.
(D) Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creating a solution to a problem; Manager X does not.
(E) Manger Y depends on day-to-day tactical maneuvering; manager X does not.



According to the passage, senior managers use intuition in all of the following ways EXCEPT to

(A) speed up of the creation of a solution to a problem
(B) identify a problem
(C) bring together disparate facts
(D) stipulate clear goals
(E) evaluate possible solutions to a problem



The passage suggests which of the following about the “writers on management” mentioned in line 12?

(A) They have criticized managers for not following the classical rational model of decision analysis.
(B) They have not based their analyses on a sufficiently large sample of actual managers.
(C) They have relied in drawing their conclusions on what managers say rather than on what managers do.
(D) They have misunderstood how managers use intuition in making business decisions.
(E) They have not acknowledged the role of intuition in managerial practice.



Which of the following best exemplifies “an ‘Aha!’ experience” (line 28) as it is presented in the passage?

(A) A manager risks taking an action whose outcome is unpredictable to discover whether the action changes the problem at hand.
(B) A manager performs well-learned and familiar behavior patterns in creative and uncharacteristic ways to solve a problem.
(C) A manager suddenly connects seemingly unrelated facts and experiences to create a pattern relevant to the problem at hand.
(D) A manager rapidly identifies the methodology used to compile data yielded by systematic analysis.
(E) A manager swiftly decides which of several sets of tactics to implement in order to deal with the contingencies suggested by a problem.



It can be inferred from the passage that “thinking/acting cycles” (line 45) in managerial practice would be likely to result in which of the following?

I. A manager analyzes a network of problems and then acts on the basis of that analysis.
II. A manager gathers data by acting and observing the effects of action.
III. A manager takes action without being able to articulate reasons for that particular action.

(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III



Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph of the passage?

(A) An assertion is made and a specific supporting example is given.
(B) A conventional model is dismissed and an alternative introduced.
(C) The results of recent research are introduced and summarized.
(D) Two opposing points of view are presented and evaluated.
(E) A widely accepted definition is presented and qualified.



Originally posted by teal on 27 Aug 2011, 09:09.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 17 Aug 2019, 02:49, edited 6 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (169).
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Re: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Aug 2011, 10:22
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teal wrote:

1. The passage provides support for which of the following statements?

(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.
(B) Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.
(C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.
(D) Logical analysis of a problem increases the number of possible solutions.
(E) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.

(OA) : E


Why is the answer E ...............I can't see that??
Detail Question : A line ("Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly") in second para gives the support for the last option. Rest all don't find any support in the passage




2. According to the passage, the classical model of decision analysis includes all of the following EXCEPT
(A) evaluation of a problem
(B) creation of possible solutions to a problem
(C) establishment of clear goals to be reached by the decision
(D) action undertaken in order to discover more information about a problem
(E) comparison of the probable effects of different solutions to a problem

OA: D
Detail Question : Need to re-read first few lines of the first para. There author has mentioned few items. We need to identify one option that is not specified in one of those option.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis?
(A) Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not.
(B) Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not.
(C) Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not.
(D) Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creating a solution to a problem; Manager X does not.
(E) Manger Y depends on day-to-day tactical maneuvering; manager X does not.

OA: C
Detail Question : First para gives half of the information (The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first ......, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision.) to answer this question. for other half, we required to look at last few lines of second para (One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management is that “thinking” is inseparable from acting. Since managers often “know” what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later.)

Can someone please explain me the answers to these questions?? What should be the right approach to answer these types of questions?
Frankly, even I don't think there is any specific approach to attack these question types, because all the questions in this passage need you to read the passage and understand it. General process of skimming the passage may not work in these type of scenarios.

I having trouble with answering "EXCEPT" type and Inference type questions. I take too long and confused in answer choices. Please help!!!
For EXCEPT question, first it is very important to ensure that you understand the question and than able to negate it in your mind. If you have done so, you can treat these questions like any other question (Inference, main idea, etc..) and approach will vary depending on the question type.

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New post 02 Sep 2014, 09:22
2
1. The passage provides support for which of the following statements?
(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.
(B) Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.
(C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.
(D) Logical analysis of a problem increases the number of possible solutions.
(E) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.
The whole argument is about praising the approach of intuition.Second para mentions that intuition is not a random but something based on past experience and helps managers to form plausible solutions quickly.Also none of the rest options can be inferred from para.


2. According to the passage, the classical model of decision analysis includes all of the following EXCEPT
(A) evaluation of a problem
(B) creation of possible solutions to a problem
(C) establishment of clear goals to be reached by the decision
(D) action undertaken in order to discover more information about a problem
senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop a more complete understanding of the issue
(E) comparison of the probable effects of different solutions to a problem


3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis?
(A) Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not.
(B) Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not.
(C) Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not.
senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop a more complete understanding of the issue
(D) Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creating a solution to a problem; Manager X does not.
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New post 22 Aug 2018, 19:22
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teaserbae wrote:
Hi experts can you please explain in Q5
Why acknowledge is wrong over misunderstood ?
I have difficulties in such questions

Please help

Sure thing, teaserbae. First let's review what we're being asked and what we've read in the passage:

Quote:
The passage suggests which of the following about the “writers on management” mentioned in line 12?

Quote:
Generations of writers on management have recognized that some practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse for capriciousness.

The author is pretty explicit here: "such writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is." As we see in the rest of the passage, the author believes that intuition is made up of several distinct skills. So the passage suggests that writers who see intuition as the "opposite of rationality" or "an excuse for capriciousness" are wrong because they don't grasp how intuition is used by managers in day-to-day practice.

Quote:
(D) They have misunderstood how managers use intuition in making business decisions.

This exactly matches what the author is saying. The key isn't just the word "misunderstood" but the phrase "have misunderstood how managers use intuition." According to the passage, these writers don't get how managers are practicing intuition. Instead, they think the managers are simply being irrational or capricious. So we keep (D).

Quote:
(E) They have not acknowledged the role of intuition in managerial practice.

As with analyzing choice (D), the key to eliminating (E) isn't just the word "acknowledge." It's the phrase "have not acknowledged the role of intuition." Is it the author saying that these writers don't acknowledge what role intuition plays in the work of managers? Absolutely not. The highlighted portions tells us very plainly that "Generations of writers on management have recognized that some practicing managers rely heavily on intuition." They are acknowledge the heavy role that intuition plays in managerial practice. What's missing from these writers' viewpoint is how intuition is used to fulfill this role.

This is why we eliminate (E) and keep (D). I hope this helps!
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New post 12 May 2019, 14:21
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mallya12 wrote:
can some explain question 7? Why not only II?



Hi Mallya12,

Please conider this part of the passage: "Since managers often “know” what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later."

7th question asks us what would the result of thinking/acting cycle be. From the above part of the passage we can infer that managers praticing thinking/acting cycle often take action before they can explain why this action is right. The same thing is said in III (A manager takes action without being able to articulate reasons for that particular action).

I hope my responce was clear.
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New post 09 Feb 2020, 11:29
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Bhawanshu wrote:
Can anyone explain why not option A in question 5? and why not option E in Q4? Thanks in advance

Question 4


Here's choice (E):

Quote:
According to the passage, senior managers use intuition in all of the following ways EXCEPT to
(E) evaluate possible solutions to a problem

The third paragraph tells us that some managers will rely on intuition to evaluate solutions that have been reached through formal decision analysis:

    "Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more rational analysis. Most senior executives are familiar with the formal decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the correct course of action."

We were asked which answer choice is NOT a way that senior managers use intuition, so (E) can be eliminated.

Question 5


Here's choice (A):

Quote:
The passage suggests which of the following about the “writers on management” mentioned in line 12?
(A) They have criticized managers for not following the classical rational model of decision analysis.

(A) can be eliminated because the author never indicates that these generations of writers on management have criticized managers — let alone criticized managers for not following the classical rational model.

You can check out my previous explanation of question 5 if you're still not sure how to get to the correct answer. But without more information on why you think (A) could be correct, I can't say much more about why it's not. The evidence simply isn't there.

I hope this helps!
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New post 17 Jun 2020, 00:25
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esha12012000 wrote:
can someone please explain q8?


Hi Esha

Q8 asks us to describe the organization of the first paragraph. Upon reading, we can summarize the gist of the first paragraphs as follows:

Most successful managers do not follow the traditional "rational model" of decision making, but rely on intuition to manage a network of interconnected problems.

Now, let us examine the answer options:

(A) An assertion is made and a specific supporting example is given. While an assertion is made, no supporting examples are given. Eliminate.

(B) A conventional model is dismissed and an alternative introduced. This appears promising. While I don't like the usage of the word "dismissed" for the way the rational model is treated in the first paragraph, it is definitely set aside for a different approach. We can hold on to this option at this stage.

(C) The results of recent research are introduced and summarized. The first paragraph does not talk about any research. Eliminate.

(D) Two opposing points of view are presented and evaluated. We can consider the first paragraph to be presenting two opposing points of view. However, there is no "evaluation" of either view in the first paragraph. Eliminate.

(E) A widely accepted definition is presented and qualified. If we consider the first half of the first paragraph as presenting a "definition" of the rational model, the second half of the first paragraph does not "qualify" this definition in any way but deals with a completely different model altogether. Eliminate.

As we can see, the only option that comes close to being fully correct is option (B), and hence is the correct answer.

Hope this helps.
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New post 11 Sep 2014, 16:35
JarvisR wrote:
1. The passage provides support for which of the following statements?
(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.
(B) Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.
(C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.
(D) Logical analysis of a problem increases the number of possible solutions.
(E) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.
The whole argument is about praising the approach of intuition.Second para mentions that intuition is not a random but something based on past experience and helps managers to form plausible solutions quickly.Also none of the rest options can be inferred from para.




For this question, I picked "C" because of the middle of third paragraph. "Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check...Most executives ...are occasisonally leery of systematic solutions and use intuition to correct the course" Doesn't this imply that intuition and systematic approach is different?
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New post 11 Sep 2014, 18:43
russ9 wrote:
JarvisR wrote:
1. The passage provides support for which of the following statements?
(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.
(B) Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.
(C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.
(D) Logical analysis of a problem increases the number of possible solutions.
(E) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.
The whole argument is about praising the approach of intuition.Second para mentions that intuition is not a random but something based on past experience and helps managers to form plausible solutions quickly.Also none of the rest options can be inferred from para.




For this question, I picked "C" because of the middle of third paragraph. "Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check...Most executives ...are occasisonally leery of systematic solutions and use intuition to correct the course" Doesn't this imply that intuition and systematic approach is different?


Hi,
This is an infer question, i.e. something must be true as per the info in arg.

Now below is the para from your post.Lets scan it now to check if we can prove C.
[(C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.]

Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more rational analysis.
[they use intuition to re verify the final result from rational analysis. ]
Most senior executives are familiar with the formal decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the correct course of action.
[there r two schools of thought, systematic and intuitive, where former are leery abt latter's method of forming/suggesting solutions. Why? Bec intuitive approach run contrary their sense of the correct course of action.]
Can we prove C from this? No.

Now look at this:
Generations of writers on management have recognized that some practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse for capriciousness.
Isenberg’s recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers reveals that managers’ intuition is neither of these.
Infact there r other examples also in the passage that goes against C.

Hope this answers ur question :)
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New post 28 Apr 2015, 09:50
1. The passage provides support for which of the following statements?

(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.
(B) Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.
(C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.
(D) Logical analysis of a problem increases the number of possible solutions.
(E) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.

(OA) : E

I am still not able to process why EXACTLY Option A is incorrect.
The passage does not clearly support option A by stating in the very first line: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model
So for ex: Total Successful managers - 10, then majority of Sr. Managers using intuition (not classical model) - 6 or more, Sr. Managers using Classical Model - 4 or less.

Hence, So if Option A states that Most of the Managers successful are the ones using Intuition and not classical model then this is supported by passage, Right?

So is option A wrong only because it is stressing and comparing the "DEGREE" of success of managers using either of the methods? As that is not mentioned in the passage.

Please Help here!
Thank you.
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New post 29 Apr 2015, 23:37
The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision


This only means that majority of successful manager use intuition. This doesn't suggest that intuition users are more successful than other managers in other set. Look at the wording carefully.
(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.

Lets say Intuition Category A =6 manager with success measured in % [60,65,77,66,88,90]
Other Category B =4 manager with success measured in % [95,95,95,95]

Hope this answered ur doubt.
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New post 02 May 2015, 09:52
earnit wrote:
I am still not able to process why EXACTLY Option A is incorrect.
The passage does not clearly support option A by stating in the very first line: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model
So for ex: Total Successful managers - 10, then majority of Sr. Managers using intuition (not classical model) - 6 or more, Sr. Managers using Classical Model - 4 or less.

Hence, So if Option A states that Most of the Managers successful are the ones using Intuition and not classical model then this is supported by passage, Right?

So is option A wrong only because it is stressing and comparing the "DEGREE" of success of managers using either of the methods? As that is not mentioned in the passage.

Please Help here!
Thank you.

A says: Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis. So, A compares managers who:
- rely on intuition (more successful) Vs
- rely on formal decision analysis.

First line of the passage says: The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model. So, this line compares:
- successful senior managers who rely on intuition Vs
- successful senior managers who rely on formal decision analysis

So, these are talking about different sets.
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New post 13 May 2015, 10:06
sannidhya wrote:
Can anyone explain Q3?

As per C, manager Y does not take any action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem. Is this correct? How?

If we look at the last line of the passage, it says: One implication of thinking/acting cycles is that action is often part of defining the problem, not just of implementing the solution.

Specifically note that action is often part of defining the problem, not just of implementing the solution.

In the bold portion, we get an idea of what manager Y does: He comes with a solution first and then implements that solution. Manager X does it the other way round.
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New post 16 Feb 2016, 23:30
1. The passage provides support for which of the following statements?
(A) Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis.
(B) Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions.
(C) Managers’ intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills.
(D) Logical analysis of a problem increases the number of possible solutions.
(E) Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.



2. According to the passage, the classical model of decision analysis includes all of the following EXCEPT
(A) evaluation of a problem
(B) creation of possible solutions to a problem
(C) establishment of clear goals to be reached by the decision
(D) action undertaken in order to discover more information about a problem
(E) comparison of the probable effects of different solutions to a problem



3. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis?
(A) Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not.
(B) Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not.
(C) Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not.
(D) Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creating a solution to a problem; Manager X does not
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New post 04 Aug 2017, 08:38
oryahalom wrote:
Someone can explain what the exact difference between options D and E in question number 5 (regarding writers of management) and what makes E a wrong answer?


The second paragraph on the writers on management says "In general, however, such writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse for capriciousness.'

(D) They have misunderstood how managers use intuition in making business decisions. Correct. The passage says that these writers have not fully understood how these managers use their intuition.
(E) They have not acknowledged the role of intuition in managerial practice. The paragraph speaks nothing about how the writers disapprove of this approach. They only say that the managers use it to hide their mistakes or irrational action.
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New post 24 Sep 2017, 07:42
Hi experts!

Please explain the last question, many thanks!

And I wonder why i did not find this question in OG. Is it an self-made question by someone in our forum?

Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph of the passage?

(A) An assertion is made and a specific supporting example is given.
(B) A conventional model is dismissed and an alternative introduced.
(C) The results of recent research are introduced and summarized.
(D) Two opposing points of view are presented and evaluated.
(E) A widely accepted definition is presented and qualified.
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New post 26 Sep 2017, 15:01
leanhdung wrote:
Hi experts!

Please explain the last question, many thanks!

And I wonder why i did not find this question in OG. Is it an self-made question by someone in our forum?

Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph of the passage?

(A) An assertion is made and a specific supporting example is given.
(B) A conventional model is dismissed and an alternative introduced.
(C) The results of recent research are introduced and summarized.
(D) Two opposing points of view are presented and evaluated.
(E) A widely accepted definition is presented and qualified.

Thanks leanhdung for your comment. Yes, in the OG 12th edition, this passage only contains 6 questions, but the post includes an additional 7th and 8th question from an unknown source. I wouldn't worry about these unless teal can verify the source.

Thanks!
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New post 20 Mar 2018, 21:48
Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph of the passage?

(A) An assertion is made and a specific supporting example is given.
(B) A conventional model is dismissed and an alternative introduced.
(C) The results of recent research are introduced and summarized.
(D) Two opposing points of view are presented and evaluated.
(E) A widely accepted definition is presented and qualified.

To all those who got the last question wrong.
Assertion meaning is to make a claim , declaration. But what we see from the first para is just fact .These are not claims rather these statement are discussing two models of thinking and dismissing the other .
C is just out of the picture as we do not have any results to show in fist para
D Two opposing view points are given but they are not evaluated only the second is discussed more deeply.
E No definition is introduced .
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New post 02 Aug 2018, 07:04
Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph of
the passage?
(A) An assertion is made and a specific supporting example is given.
(B) A conventional model is dismissed and an alternative introduced.
(C) The results of recent research are introduced and summarized.
(D) Two opposing points of view are presented and evaluated.
(E) A widely accepted definition is presented and qualified.

why tha OA is B and not D ?
how he is dismissing the conventional model of problem solving , he is just contrasting it with intuition approach
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New post 09 Aug 2018, 09:26
workout GMATNinjaTwo GMATNinja mikemcgarry Gnpth gmatexam439

Hi experts can you please explain in Q5
Why acknowledge is wrong over misunderstood ?
I have difficulties in such questions

Please help
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