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# The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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03 May 2012, 06:49
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Hi,
First of all, here is the question with all answer choices.

The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be above 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

eybrj2 wrote:
Q1) Is it ok not to use "as" after than in the context of the sentence above?
(This is the reason that I picked C)

Q2) Does "from examining tools" have a problem?
If it have, what is it?

Answer to your first question: Yes, it is alright to not repeat “as” after “rather than” because it is implied or understood. “As” already appears once in the sentence. Another thing that we need to note in Choice C is parallelism. In the parallel list, the first entity is “hunters of large animals” and the second one is “meat scavengers”. Now, it is not always necessary for the entities in the parallel list to be absolutely parallel. However, in this case, it is possible. We can write “meat scavengers” as “scavengers of meat” that will make the entities absolutely parallel. So go for it.

Answer to your second question: Yes, “examining tools” have a little problem. Here “examining” is now an adjective that is modifying “tools”, suggesting that the “tools” are used for examining things. It no longer conveys that the new image has emerged from the examination of the tool.

Let’s take these sentences:
The smile of the baby is beautiful. (smile is beautiful)
The smiling baby is beautiful. (baby is beautiful)
So be careful of the change in the words in the original choice. They might change the meaning of the sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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03 May 2012, 19:02
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The core problem in this issue is not about the use of the term ‘examining’, namely, whether it is an adjective or a gerund in the context.

Step1: The problem here is more about the use of the relative pronouns ‘which and that’ in B,C and D, in which the touch rule has been grossly flouted. In all the three cases, the implication is that Germany includes some tools, which is just meaningless. Eliminate all of them with a sleight of hand

Step 2: That said, between A and E, which use the participial ‘including’, to modify freely any fitting noun in the foregoing portion. E is better because it keeps the parallelism in ‘hunters and scavengers’ in tact rather than in ‘hunters and scavenging’
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2012, 23:38
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We need has(sing verb) and not have so elimninate A,B

Couple of reasons to elimnate C,D

C-> uses "that" which as worded refers to Gemany the nearest noun

X RATHER THAN Y is the idiom

X->systematic hunters of large animals
Y->mere scavengers of meat

We dont need "as" again since it violates the idiomatic usage

D-> which refers to germany the nearest noun and changes the meaning

Hence E
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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04 Oct 2012, 21:10
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parallel structure is one reason why (c) is worse than (d) or (e).

note that "rather than" is a one-part signal - i.e., unlike two-part constructions such as "both ... and" and "not only ... but also", it lacks a left-hand part indicating the beginning of the first parallel element. therefore, you can choose to start the first parallel element wherever you want - meaning that you can choose to include or exclude "as" at your convenience:

(c)
The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than as mere meat scavengers, has...
this parallelism is acceptable, but there are two undesirable things:
* "hunters OF large animals" isn't truly parallel to "meat scavengers"
* "meat scavengers" is awkward / unclear (you probably won't know this unless you're a native speaker of english and/or a writer)

(d)(e)
The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than mere scavengers of meat, has...
this is better parallelism (notice that "as" is excluded from the first part this time).
* note the EXACT parallelism between "hunters OF large animals" and "scavengers OF meat".

also, (c) implies, unambiguously (and absurdly), that germany itself "includes" 3 wooden spears.
(3 all the way!)
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2012, 00:11
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The new image of stonage people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

a) merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
b) as merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
c) as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
d) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
e) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

I would like to bring the attention of fellow club members to this question. Although a person with a good level of preparation can eliminate wrong answer choices and answer it but my question is about the usage of verb+ing modifier.

Q 1 : In above question what includes " three wooden spears that ....400,000 years old." In my view it must be the word " TOOLS"
Q 2 : Is it not true that verb + ing modifier modifies entire clause when preceded by a comma. How can correct answer be justified in above question ?
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2012, 02:43
Can anybody please clarify the above doubt ?
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2012, 04:18
psdeol wrote:
The new image of stonage people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

a) merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
b) as merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
c) as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
d) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
e) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

I would like to bring the attention of fellow club members to this question. Although a person with a good level of preparation can eliminate wrong answer choices and answer it but my question is about the usage of verb+ing modifier.

Q 1 : In above question what includes " three wooden spears that ....400,000 years old." In my view it must be the word " TOOLS"
Q 2 : Is it not true that verb + ing modifier modifies entire clause when preceded by a comma. How can correct answer be justified in above question ?

Just focus on parallelism first - hunter and scavengers - A, B out
Rather than - idiom - C out (rather than as)
Between D and E - which modifies Germany - D out
--> the correct answer is E
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2012, 04:38
craky wrote:
psdeol wrote:
The new image of stonage people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

a) merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
b) as merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
c) as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
d) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
e) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

I would like to bring the attention of fellow club members to this question. Although a person with a good level of preparation can eliminate wrong answer choices and answer it but my question is about the usage of verb+ing modifier.

Q 1 : In above question what includes " three wooden spears that ....400,000 years old." In my view it must be the word " TOOLS"
Q 2 : Is it not true that verb + ing modifier modifies entire clause when preceded by a comma. How can correct answer be justified in above question ?

Just focus on parallelism first - hunter and scavengers - A, B out
Rather than - idiom - C out (rather than as)
Between D and E - which modifies Germany - D out
--> the correct answer is E

Hi Craky
Thanks for the explanation.
Are you sure the form image as hunters rather than as scavenger is wrong? If one has used as x first then for the sake of parallelism shouldn't one use as y? Perhaps I am wrong here.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2012, 05:17
Just focus on parallelism first - hunter and scavengers - A, B out [ AGREED ]
Rather than - idiom - C out (rather than as) [ AGREED ]
Between D and E - which modifies Germany - D out [ I BEG TO DISAGREE HERE ]
--> the correct answer is E[/quote]
if "which" modifies Germany [ incoreect ] [AGREED ]
what does +ing modifier modify. By rule it should modify the subject + verb of preceding clause ..........in this case " The new image ...has emerged " .......the meaning implied Image .... emerged ..including wooden spears............[ KINDLY CLARIFY THIS POINT ]. I think this usage is incorrect, at the same time I believe e) is the best choice.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2012, 11:05
psdeol wrote:
The new image of stonage people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

a) merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including ---new image as hunters rather than ...what? just think... merely scavanging is incorrect since as can compare same things. and this is not even parallel
b) as merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include ---same as A--as mere SCAVANGING...whr's the tense and where is the parallelism? OUT
c) as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes --- germany that includes what...tools? meaning of the sentence is disrupted..we want to say that the tools found include XYZ... not germany includes tool..---OUT
d) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes --which modifies germany which again changes the meaning of the sentence--OUT
e) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including CORRECT ---mere scavengers of meat is parallel to hunters-- also including modifies TOOlS here and not germany

I would like to bring the attention of fellow club members to this question. Although a person with a good level of preparation can eliminate wrong answer choices and answer it but my question is about the usage of verb+ing modifier.

Q 1 : In above question what includes " three wooden spears that ....400,000 years old." In my view it must be the word " TOOLS"
Q 2 : Is it not true that verb + ing modifier modifies entire clause when preceded by a comma. How can correct answer be justified in above question ?

IMO E...For reasons mentioned above in the quote.
Which after a comma always (ALWAYS) modifies and refers to the thing just before the comma.... remember this rule in GMAT.

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2012, 02:45
Dear I got the answer correct. I know how to use which and that. My question is :-

How does " including...." modify TOOLS in option (e). It should odify subject + verb of preceding clause.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2012, 09:28
psdeol wrote:
Dear I got the answer correct. I know how to use which and that. My question is :-

How does " including...." modify TOOLS in option (e). It should odify subject + verb of preceding clause.

COMMA INCLUDING is an exemption – used to modify only the noun that precedes it! Same rule applies to "resulting from", which always modifies the preceding noun!

There are other exception such as this that might look the verbing but they aren't....

Side note :below sentence is wrong.

Last evening, I tried 3 types of whiskey, including single malt, bourbon and southern comfort

HTH

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2013, 10:43
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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13 Mar 2014, 13:34
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17. The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including --- S-V ERROR The image - have (X)
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include --- like A
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes --- that refers to Germany as verb includes is singular.
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes --- Like C
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including --- I dont know what kind of modifier is this but logically its describing tools.. is it an absolute phrase ? i am not sure.. but this option is best through POE.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2014, 23:07
In the Question
The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be above 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

In the Question there is parallelism of comparison
hunters of large animals vs scavenging for meat - - - which is not parallel.
So Options A, B and C are out

We have D and E in these options we have "which includes" and "including"

I find option D to be correct because in this question we are speaking about those 3 Wooden tools found in germany because of which the Whole idea got changed.

If the answer choice is E) then the three wooden tools were one of the thing that changed the idea.

Please throw some light on this.

Rrsnathan.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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17 Mar 2014, 01:07
Reg. "I find option D to be correct because in this question we are speaking about those 3 Wooden tools found in germany because of which the Whole idea got changed."

If we are talking about those tools (plural), then "includes" should have been "include".
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2014, 10:39
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study wrote:
The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including there wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

B. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes

C. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes

D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

E. missing - incorrect choice anyways

came across this one with re-arranged choices.

The excluded option here is:

as merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include

The new image ... has .... - correct s-v match - A and E out
B and C - incorrectly modify Germany. Note the singular verb 'includes' - cannot modify plural 'tools'
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2014, 02:20
eybrj2 wrote:
17. The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

Would D option be correct if it would have been which include instead of includes?
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2014, 05:04
[quote="eybrj2"]17. The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

in option D, If which is used to refer tp "the examination of tools " which would be singular then i think the usage of includes would be correct.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2014, 05:43
Refer this video: to understand use of including
including is a special participle modifier.

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima   [#permalink] 16 Jun 2014, 05:43

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