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The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2014, 18:56
But my question still stays! will D be correct if it is include instead of includes?
"tools found in Germany" in this found in Germany modifies tools and thus which would in turn modify tools?

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2014, 01:47
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akshat1989 wrote:
But my question still stays! will D be correct if it is include instead of includes?
"tools found in Germany" in this found in Germany modifies tools and thus which would in turn modify tools?


Yes, sentence will be correct if you replace includes with include in following sentence.

Plural verb will look for nearest plural noun and that is tools not Germany. Thus, such sentence is considered fine.

D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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akshat1989 wrote:
But my question still stays! will D be correct if it is include instead of includes?
"tools found in Germany" in this found in Germany modifies tools and thus which would in turn modify tools?



Hi akshat1989,
This is in response to your PM. :)

Let’s first try to understand the modification of a slightly far away placed noun by ‘which’:
Emily Dickinson’s letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumber her letters to anyone else.

In the above sentence, the modifier ‘which’ jumps over the preceding noun “Susan Huntington Dickinson” to modify “Emily Dickinson’s letters”. This modification is possible since the phrase ‘to Susan Huntington Dickinson’ cannot be placed anywhere else without changing the intended meaning of the sentence. Also, it does not make sense for 'which' to modify "Susan Huntington Dickinson" since this gives an illogical meaning that Susan Huntington Dickinson were written over a period.

Please refer to the following article to know more how a noun modifier can modify slightly far away nouns:
noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html

Now, coming to your question:
• The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany,
o which include three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

Now, since the modifier “found in Germany” refers to ‘tools’, we can’t place it anywhere else in the sentence without changing the meaning of the sentence. So, 'which' jumps over “found in Germany” to modify "tools".
Also, there is no ambiguity in this modification since the plural verb ‘include’ tells us that ‘which’ is plural and hence it should have a plural antecedent. So, the only logical antecedent for ‘which’ is ‘tools’.
So, this sentence would be correct if the verb ‘includes’ is replaced by ‘include’.

Hope this helps! :)
Deepak
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2014, 04:25
Thanks Deepak,
Very nicely explained ! Kudos to the e-gmat team again! you guys have been simply brilliant :)

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2014, 19:10
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/the ... t2421.html

A nice explanation by ron
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2014, 01:26
Though we prefer perfect parallelism, but in most of the correct answers we just see precise parallelism.

I have divided elements of parallelism in two categories:

Markers: AND / OR / RATHER THAN / NOT ONLY ... BUT ALSO / NOT ... BUT ... etc...
Repeaters: IN / WITH / BY / AS / ON / FROM / TO / ... etc


Markers appears only once and they suggest presence of parallelism.
Repeaters appears with elements of parallelism. Either repeaters can come once in the beginning or they must repeat with each element. They exactly works like element placed outside bracket.
x(a+b+c & + d) or xa + xb + xc & +xd

Similarly in option C: as is placed initially once with the element one and then it depends whether author wants to repeat it further... both ways use is correct.

in gmat : xa + xb + c & +xd is always wrong... and such small change in sentence is very difficult to identify specially in long list of multiple elements.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2015, 13:09
study wrote:
The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including there wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which
include
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that
includes
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany,
which includes
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany,
including



There is a typo in this question: 'there wooden spears' should be 'three wooden spears'

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 20 Feb 2016, 15:44
Do we need "as" in choice E for parallelism? I think that yes though sentence is correct even without "as"
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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Konstantin1983 wrote:
Do we need "as" in choice E for parallelism? I think that yes though sentence is correct even without "as"


Here the 2 elements of parallelism are:

systematic hunters of large animals and mere scavengers of meat.

One does not need to repeat as in the second element because of the once-out-twice-in rule. In option E the first as is outside the parallelism loop:

as [X rather than Y].

Nevertheless you could as well consider that as is within the parallelism loop; in such case it would be repeated in the second element as well:

[as X rather than as Y].

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2016, 07:52
sayantanc2k wrote:
Konstantin1983 wrote:
Do we need "as" in choice E for parallelism? I think that yes though sentence is correct even without "as"


Here the 2 elements of parallelism are:

systematic hunters of large animals and mere scavengers of meat.

One does not need to repeat as in the second element because of the once-out-twice-in rule. In option E the first as is outside the parallelism loop:

as [X rather than Y].

Nevertheless you could as well consider that as is within the parallelism loop; in such case it would be repeated in the second element as well:

[as X rather than as Y].

Thank you Sayantanc2k! Now it is clear! Kudos))
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2016, 03:23
fieldsrd wrote:
nikhilsrl wrote:
The new image of stonage people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

a) merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
b) as merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
c) as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
d) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
e) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

Between A and E, E wins because of parallelism.

Where do u see the parallelism in here?

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2016, 07:51
anonimo wrote:
fieldsrd wrote:
nikhilsrl wrote:
The new image of stonage people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

a) merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
b) as merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
c) as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
d) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
e) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

Between A and E, E wins because of parallelism.

Where do u see the parallelism in here?


Parallelism marker is X, rather than Y.
In option A: X = systematic hunters of large animals, Y= merely scavenging for meat.... faulty parallelism (hunters and scavenging)

In option E: X = systematic hunters of large animals, Y= mere scavengers of meat... correct parallelism (hunters and scavengers)

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2016, 23:31
fieldsrd wrote:
Between A and E, E wins because of parallelism.

Actually between A and E, E should first win because of subject-verb agreement.

We always recommend that whenever you spot subject-verb being tested, that should always be your first criterion of eliminating incorrect answer choices, because this criterion is almost always easy to implement and very objective.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2016, 10:23
[Reveal] Spoiler:
Hey guys, currently on my last stretch of studies and I am having a hard time with the pronoun "which" and the fact that it should modify it's closest noun but cannot refer to a prepositional phrase noun and only the main noun.

In order to illustrate my question, please take this GMATPREP quesiton as an example. :


The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be above 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

I
[Reveal] Spoiler:
understand that the answer D is incorrect since "which includes three wooden spears" refers to germany and it is not correct. However, wha t if the sentence would end with "which is the greatest country in the world".

Also, I have trouble figuring out what does the the -ing modifier including refers to in the correct answer E. In order for it to be valid, it should refer to the whole clause, but doesn't it refer to "tools"?

Thanks!

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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I am with (E) , and I would suggest you go through the following excellent articles posted here at GMATClub

verb-ed-modifiers-vs-verb-ing-modifiers-125611.html

usage-of-verb-ing-modifiers-135220.html

verb-ing-modifiers-part-2-in-our-first-article-on-verb-ing-135567.html

noun-noun-modifier-vs-verb-ing-modifier-as-discussed-in-137569.html

Hope you find these articles helpful...
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2016, 13:02
Abhishek009 wrote:
I am with (E) , and I would suggest you go through the following excellent articles posted here at GMATClub


Hope you find these articles helpful...



Great! Thank you so much, that helped me a lot.

One quick question for you however about "Which".

It says it should only refer to the closest noun, tkae this sentence as an example.

The neighborhood of the south, which is really expensive, has seen a substantial increase in crime.

this sentence is incorrect since "Which" refers to the closest noun which is south, but in fact modifies "neighborhood" so it is not correct.

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2016, 21:52
yanleman wrote:
Abhishek009 wrote:
I am with (E) , and I would suggest you go through the following excellent articles posted here at GMATClub


Hope you find these articles helpful...



Great! Thank you so much, that helped me a lot.

One quick question for you however about "Which".

It says it should only refer to the closest noun, tkae this sentence as an example.

The neighborhood of the south, which is really expensive, has seen a substantial increase in crime.

this sentence is incorrect since "Which" refers to the closest noun which is south, but in fact modifies "neighborhood" so it is not correct.


"X of Y, Which bla bla" Here which can refer to X or Y based on the meaning.

Here is an OG example, based on the same scenario requested by you,that will help in addressing your query. There are many good posts. Just go through the link. Thanks.

emily-dickinsons-letters-to-susan-huntington-dickinson-were-10142.html

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2016, 23:31
yanleman wrote:
One quick question for you however about "Which".

It says it should only refer to the closest noun, tkae this sentence as an example.

The neighborhood of the south, which is really expensive, has seen a substantial increase in crime.

this sentence is incorrect since "Which" refers to the closest noun which is south, but in fact modifies "neighborhood" so it is not correct.

This sentence is correct actually. It conveys two things:

i) neighborhood (of the south) has seen a substantial increase in crime.
ii) South is really expensive

It is incorrect to say that which always refers to closest noun; a more accurate description would be that which always refers to the nearest grammatically eligible noun.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses usage of which, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima   [#permalink] 03 Mar 2016, 23:31

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