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The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2016, 09:15
The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be above 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

my approach to solving this question was to understand the meaning first
new image of SAP as systematic hunters rather than scavengers - has emerged from examination of tools found in G.
these tools include 3 wooden spears
these wooden spears are believed by archaeologists to be >400k years old.

1. we have subject verb agreement error - for the single form noun image is used the plural form of verb have.
2. we have people as X rather than as Y or -> X rather than Y, where X and Y should have the same role/function/part of speech.
X is noun while Y is action

A and B - SV agreement error. 2nd error in both of the sentences. in B - which refers to Germany, which is illogical.
C - that should refer to tools but illogically refers to Germany. thus, we have another SV error.
D - same error as in B and C - we need to exemplify tools... so any reference to Germany is illogical.
E - seems to be the best...as the errors identified during the analysis were removed.

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2016, 04:22
The new image of stonage people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

clause 1: The new image (Subject) of stonage people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, (-> this is bla-bla to distract you from the main point) have ( This is the verb that refers to "new image". S-V agreement is wrong. "image" is singular) emerged (note that emerged is not a working verb, it's a -ed modifier) from the examination of tools found in Germany, including (-ing modifier is correct. It's placed after a comma and modifies the preceeding clause) three wooden spears

clause 2: (spears) that ("that" "resets" the phrase and introduces a new clause, so a new S-V pair) archeologists (Subject) believe (Verb) to be about 400,000 years old.

C is wrong because of "as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools (Subject) found in Germany that includes (verb. So S-V agreement error. "includes refers o "tools" and must be in plural.)

E is correct because it corrects the original S-V agreement error from the original sentence. It keeps the (comma) -ING form in "of tools found in Germany, including three wooden..... " that correctly modifies the preceeding clause.

Hope this helps.

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2016, 19:10
Errors in the original sentence : Parallelism & SV agreement. We need singular verb.
Idiom Usage : X Rather than Y.

The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including: same as above

B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which
include usage of as is incorrect
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that
includes usage of as is incorrect
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany,
which includes This solves Parallelism & SV agreement, but "which" incorrectly refers to Germany
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany,
including Correct Answer including modifies the previous clause

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2016, 23:12
E

A wrong for have(s/v)
B & Dwrong for 'which' before germany
C rather should always be followed by a noun or noun phrase(rather than as noun-wrong)

left with E

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2016, 03:39
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The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which
include
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that
includes
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany,
which includes
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany,
including


2 concepts tested here...

1) S-V agreement (its easy to spot has vs have , Although i got it wrong at my first attempt)
2) Pronoun .....

C - That ---> Ambiguous reference
D - Which ---> Germany (wrong reference)
E - Modifier Including correctly refer to the subject in first clause.

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 04 Dec 2016, 17:06
daagh wrote:
The core problem in this issue is not about the use of the term ‘examining’, namely, whether it is an adjective or a gerund in the context.

Step1: The problem here is more about the use of the relative pronouns ‘which and that’ in B,C and D, in which the touch rule has been grossly flouted. In all the three cases, the implication is that Germany includes some tools, which is just meaningless. Eliminate all of them with a sleight of hand

Step 2: That said, between A and E, which use the participial ‘including’, to modify freely any fitting noun in the foregoing portion. E is better because it keeps the parallelism in ‘hunters and scavengers’ in tact rather than in ‘hunters and scavenging’


I disagree that E is correct, or even the 'best' option here. I believe D should be correct. Appreciate any thoughts, or indeed criticism, of my reasoning:

Confining the discussion to option D and E (as the other answer options have major flaws other have pointed out): option E uses the participle modifier "including". While "COMMA + verb-ing" is typically used as a verb/clause modifier it can technically be used as a noun modifier. However it is my understanding that it cannot modify nouns that sit within prepositions, only 'main nouns' or subjects. In this case it would modify "the examination". It definitely doesn't work as a clause modifier because the verb "have emerged" does not make sense when modified with "including three wooden spears". When used as a verb modifier it also needs to make sense with the subject of the sentence however it does not - "The new image ... as hunters" does not make sense with the modifier "including three wooden spears".

D appears to be more correct. "Which" can skip over nouns if they are mission critical, and the pronoun "which" is not capable of modifying the 'mission critical' nouns that stand in the way. Here Germany cannot be the target of "which", since it is a place and requires the relative pronoun "where". The singular verb "includes" following the "which" means the antecedent is singular so it cannot be "tools". This unambiguously leaves "the examination" as the modified noun; just as in answer option E. However since the "which" is not capable of acting as a clause modifier, it is less ambiguous and more concise than answer option E.

For this reason I think answer D is superior though not ideal, as I don't think "the examination including three wooden spears" makes sense (the correct modification should be "which include" i.e. the verb "include" should be plural, so that it clearly modifies "tools", however this is not an option).

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jan 2017, 21:15
Solved using POE :

Point 1 : "as systematic hunters of large animals" should be followed by "scavengers" to maintain parallelism
Hence A & B are out because of "scavenging"

Point 2 : "three wooden spears" represents the "tools", which is plural, hence the usage should be "include/including".
Hence C &D are out

Ans : E

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2017, 06:39
A is wrong as Have is wrong it should be Has
B,C,D out is wrong because of wrong modifiers.
E is correct

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 01 Feb 2017, 05:09
sayantanc2k
Option D is said to be wrong because the word 'which' seems to modify 'Germany'.
However, since 'Germany' is preceded by 'in' can't we consider 'in Germany' to be a prepositional phrase and hence omit that and assume 'which' is modifying 'tools' ?
Where am I going wrong here?

Thank you.

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 10 Feb 2017, 12:35
I have a query -

In Option E, including should ideally be used to represent the result of previous clause and/or refer back to the main subject - the new image. But in this case it is used to modify tools. Can someone help to understand that part?

Also, as per knowledge 'which' in option D cannot jump over a verb and modify tools. Is that correct?

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 10 Feb 2017, 12:36
I have a query -

In Option E, including should ideally be used to represent the result of previous clause and/or refer back to the main subject - the new image. But in this case it is used to modify tools. Can someone help to understand that part?

Also, as per knowledge 'which' in option D cannot jump over a verb and modify tools. Is that correct?

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 11 Feb 2017, 11:44
warriorguy wrote:
I have a query -

In Option E, including should ideally be used to represent the result of previous clause and/or refer back to the main subject - the new image. But in this case it is used to modify tools. Can someone help to understand that part?

Also, as per knowledge 'which' in option D cannot jump over a verb and modify tools. Is that correct?


A present participle modifier refers to an entire clause not just to depict the result of the clause. The modifier may modify in some other way as well, such as depicting how the action in the previous clause is done.

Steffi won Wimbledon, defeating Sabatini.

In option E the present participle (including...) does not depict the result of the previous clause. You may consider it a means to have the new image that stone age people are systematic hunters.

In option D, there is no verb between "which" and "tools" - "found" is a past participle modifier of "tools". The reason that D is wrong is as follows: in GMAT it is often awkward (except some exceptions) to have two modifiers one after the other (without a conjunction in between) to refer to the same noun.

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 12 Feb 2017, 15:32
sayantanc2k wrote:
warriorguy wrote:
I have a query -

In Option E, including should ideally be used to represent the result of previous clause and/or refer back to the main subject - the new image. But in this case it is used to modify tools. Can someone help to understand that part?

Also, as per knowledge 'which' in option D cannot jump over a verb and modify tools. Is that correct?


A present participle modifier refers to an entire clause not just to depict the result of the clause. The modifier may modify in some other way as well, such as depicting how the action in the previous clause is done.

Steffi won Wimbledon, defeating Sabatini.

In option E the present participle (including...) does not depict the result of the previous clause. You may consider it a means to have the new image that stone age people are systematic hunters.

In option D, there is no verb between "which" and "tools" - "found" is a past participle modifier of "tools". The reason that D is wrong is as follows: in GMAT it is often awkward (except some exceptions) to have two modifiers one after the other (without a conjunction in between) to refer to the same noun.




The first part of the explanation: the phrase after comma offers some additional information about the sentence as a whole. In this case, it talks about tools? Question is can it offer information about a part of the sentence and not the main idea in general. I got an explanation that 'including' works in a different way as opposed to verb-ing form.

Can you further explain this sentence please? ---> in GMAT it is often awkward (except some exceptions) to have two modifiers one after the other (without a conjunction in between) to refer to the same noun

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2017, 10:29
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warriorguy wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
warriorguy wrote:
I have a query -

In Option E, including should ideally be used to represent the result of previous clause and/or refer back to the main subject - the new image. But in this case it is used to modify tools. Can someone help to understand that part?

Also, as per knowledge 'which' in option D cannot jump over a verb and modify tools. Is that correct?


A present participle modifier refers to an entire clause not just to depict the result of the clause. The modifier may modify in some other way as well, such as depicting how the action in the previous clause is done.

Steffi won Wimbledon, defeating Sabatini.

In option E the present participle (including...) does not depict the result of the previous clause. You may consider it a means to have the new image that stone age people are systematic hunters.

In option D, there is no verb between "which" and "tools" - "found" is a past participle modifier of "tools". The reason that D is wrong is as follows: in GMAT it is often awkward (except some exceptions) to have two modifiers one after the other (without a conjunction in between) to refer to the same noun.




The first part of the explanation: the phrase after comma offers some additional information about the sentence as a whole. In this case, it talks about tools? Question is can it offer information about a part of the sentence and not the main idea in general. I got an explanation that 'including' works in a different way as opposed to verb-ing form.

Can you further explain this sentence please? ---> in GMAT it is often awkward (except some exceptions) to have two modifiers one after the other (without a conjunction in between) to refer to the same noun


In D, the modifiers "found in Germany" and "which includes..." both refer to "tools". There is no conjunction between them. Such usage ( two modifiers one after the other (without a conjunction in between) to refer to the same noun) is often considered awkward.

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2017, 16:07
The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which
include
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that
includes

D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany,
which includes
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany,
including

The sentence has parallelism issue,pronoun error and modifier error.

Option E is the best answer

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2017, 21:38
daagh wrote:
1. ‘The new image’ is singular, and hence the verb has to be the singular ‘has’; reject A and B
2. The relative pronouns ‘that’ in C and ‘which’ in D refer to Germany rather than the tools

3. By using the present participle, 'including', E avoids the relative pronoun pitfall and is the correct answer.




Sir ,
I have two doubts. Can u please advise.

Doubt 1:
The verb+ing modifier suggests:
1. HOW aspect of the preceding clause
2. RESULT aspect of the same

But the meaning here intents to state about the types of tools that was examined. Doesnt specify the HOW/RESULT part.

Doubt 2 : Also "which" can jump the prepositional phrase( "in Germany") and refer to "tools". So why option D is wrong?

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2017, 21:49
egmat wrote:
Hi,
First of all, here is the question with all answer choices.

The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be above 400,000 years old.

A. merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

eybrj2 wrote:
Q1) Is it ok not to use "as" after than in the context of the sentence above?
(This is the reason that I picked C)

Q2) Does "from examining tools" have a problem?
If it have, what is it?


Answer to your first question: Yes, it is alright to not repeat “as” after “rather than” because it is implied or understood. “As” already appears once in the sentence. Another thing that we need to note in Choice C is parallelism. In the parallel list, the first entity is “hunters of large animals” and the second one is “meat scavengers”. Now, it is not always necessary for the entities in the parallel list to be absolutely parallel. However, in this case, it is possible. We can write “meat scavengers” as “scavengers of meat” that will make the entities absolutely parallel. So go for it.

Answer to your second question: Yes, “examining tools” have a little problem. Here “examining” is now an adjective that is modifying “tools”, suggesting that the “tools” are used for examining things. It no longer conveys that the new image has emerged from the examination of the tool.

Let’s take these sentences:
The smile of the baby is beautiful. (smile is beautiful)
The smiling baby is beautiful. (baby is beautiful)
So be careful of the change in the words in the original choice. They might change the meaning of the sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha



Hi,
I have two doubts. Can u please advise.

Doubt 1:
The verb+ing modifier suggests:
1. HOW aspect of the preceding clause
2. RESULT aspect of the same

But the meaning here intents to state about the types of tools that was examined. Doesnt specify the HOW/RESULT part.

Doubt 2 : Also "which" can jump the prepositional phrase( "in Germany") and refer to "tools". So why option D is wrong?

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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shoumodip wrote:
Hi,
I have two doubts. Can u please advise.

Doubt 1:
The verb+ing modifier suggests:
1. HOW aspect of the preceding clause
2. RESULT aspect of the same

But the meaning here intents to state about the types of tools that was examined. Doesnt specify the HOW/RESULT part.


"Including", unlike all other present participle modifier, is an exception. It follows a list, an incomplete list.

The striking differences between the semantic organization of Native American languages and that of European languages, including grammar and vocabulary, has to think about the degree to which differences in language may be correlated with non-linguistic differences.

Here, "grammar and vocabulary" is not a complete list of the differences, but some of those.

shoumodip wrote:
Doubt 2 : Also "which" can jump the prepositional phrase( "in Germany") and refer to "tools". So why option D is wrong?


Yes, it can. But, in that case, you need "include" and not "includes" - because "tools" is plural.
Refer this official question: https://gmatclub.com/forum/for-many-rev ... 60640.html
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 20 Apr 2017, 04:05
The new image of stonage people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

a) merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
b) as merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
c) as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
d) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
e) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

which whether separated by comma ,always modifies the closest noun
this eliminates B and D
In A
we have subject verb agreement error new image....have emerged ..so it should be plural has
in C
that includes where that refers to tools which is plural
so it should be include
E is the best answer

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima   [#permalink] 20 Apr 2017, 04:05

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