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The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 20 Apr 2017, 10:12
shoumodip wrote:
I have two doubts. Can u please advise.

Doubt 1:
The verb+ing modifier suggests:
1. HOW aspect of the preceding clause
2. RESULT aspect of the same

But the meaning here intents to state about the types of tools that was examined. Doesnt specify the HOW/RESULT part.


Hi shoumodip, I believe you're referring to the usage of including in option E. Actually including is not in strict sense a verb+ing modifier. It is a preposition (and not an adjective, as present participles normally are). Hence, we cannot apply the normal rules of present participles to including.

Quote:
Doubt 2 : Also "which" can jump the prepositional phrase( "in Germany") and refer to "tools". So why option D is wrong?

Notice that D says: which includes three wooden spears...

Since the verb is includes (a singular verb), which can only refer to singular noun. Hence, which cannot refer to tools (a plural noun).

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses this exception of the usage of including. Have attached the corresponding section of the book, for your reference.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2017, 17:21
17. The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes

E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

Option A is wrong becaue of the parallelism, and so is the Option B,
Option C is wrong because the examining the tools does not have a noun who is doing the examining.
Option D is out because the which referd to germany and germany does not include the wooden spears.

Option E is the correct answer.

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2017, 09:29
The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

A merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including S-V pair problem
B. as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include S-V pair problem
C. as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes S-V pair problem
D. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes wrong modifier
E. mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including correct option

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2017, 19:52
The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old.

(A) merely scavenging for meat, have emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including

(B) as mere scavenging for meat, have emerged from examining tools found in Germany, which include

(C) as mere meat scavengers, has emerged from examining tools found in Germany that includes

(D) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes

(E) mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2017, 01:34
We’ve got an X rather than Y comparison structure. We’re going to have to figure out what the X is and that will indicate what form we need to choose for the Y. (You may decide to jot down X rather than Y to remind yourself to address this issue.)

Time to Read the sentence! What’s it saying?

Strip that down to the core:

The new image of (some) people as X, rather than Y, have emerged from the examination (of tools).

What do you notice?

Wait a sec: there’s an error in the core sentence! You can choose to stick with the original comparison issue, or you can switch gears and Work on the subject-verb issue first. I’m going to do the latter:

The new image have emerged.

No way! Image is singular, so it should say the new image has emerged. Say goodbye to answers (A) and (B).
Answers (C) through (E) are all okay on this point, so now loop back around. Luckily, we’ve already identified the second potential issue: that comparison.

The new image of (some) people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than Y, have emerged from the examination (of tools).


X is hunters (of large animals), so Y should be in the same noun form. This is another reason to get rid of (A) and (B), but (C) through (E) all use the proper match, scavengers.

Aside: I’m not thrilled with mere meat scavengers in (C). I’d prefer mere scavengers of meat, as in (D) and (E). But there isn’t a strong grammatical reason why I couldn’t use mere meat scavengers, so I’m going to ignore that and look for something else. Loop around again!

Now, when you’re down to a small number of choices, compare the remaining answers, looking for differences. There are a couple, but they’re all actually part of a big modifier, so I recommend looking at them as one big chunk:
“(C) … from examining tools found in Germany that includes
“(D) … from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
“(E) … from the examination of tools found in Germany, including”

The three structures at the end are used for three types of modifiers.

That includes, in (C), signals an essential noun modifier: the modifier must be included in the sentence or the basic meaning of the core sentence will be nonsensical.
Further, the noun should be as close as possible to the modifier. In this case, the noun Germany is right before the comma. Logically, the modifier should refer to tools. In certain circumstances, it is possible to have a short separation of the noun and the modifier—but is it okay in this case to say that the that includes modifier refers back to tools, with a short found in Germany modifier in between?

Try it out:

… from the examination of tools that includes …
Oops. No, it’s not possible in this case because tools is plural and includes is singular. Logically, the modifier points to tools, but structurally it points to the singular Germany (or maybe even the singular examination?). None of these works; eliminate (C).
Can you use the same reasoning to eliminate either (D) or (E)?

Yes! Answer (D) changes the modifier to the non-essential structure comma which includes, and this modifier has the same problem: includes would have to be plural in order to point to tools. Eliminate (D).

But wait a second. Answer (E) doesn’t seem to be doing what it’s supposed to be doing either. It uses a comma –ing modifier:

The new image of (some) people as X, rather than Y, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including (some spears).

A comma –ing modifier refers back to the entire preceding clause, but is it really the case that the three spears refer back to the image has emerged from the examination?

We’ve just uncovered one of the few exceptions to the general comma –ing rule: when using the word including, the sentence really can just be giving examples of something (usually a noun) that was named shortly before the comma. Unlike the modifiers in answers (C) and (D), the including modifier in (E) does not contain a verb that needs to match the noun tools, so there are no problems with the construction.
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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2017, 16:50
anairamitch1804 wrote:
We’ve got an X rather than Y comparison structure. We’re going to have to figure out what the X is and that will indicate what form we need to choose for the Y. (You may decide to jot down X rather than Y to remind yourself to address this issue.)

Time to Read the sentence! What’s it saying?

Strip that down to the core:

The new image of (some) people as X, rather than Y, have emerged from the examination (of tools).

What do you notice?

Wait a sec: there’s an error in the core sentence! You can choose to stick with the original comparison issue, or you can switch gears and Work on the subject-verb issue first. I’m going to do the latter:

The new image have emerged.

No way! Image is singular, so it should say the new image has emerged. Say goodbye to answers (A) and (B).
Answers (C) through (E) are all okay on this point, so now loop back around. Luckily, we’ve already identified the second potential issue: that comparison.

The new image of (some) people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than Y, have emerged from the examination (of tools).


X is hunters (of large animals), so Y should be in the same noun form. This is another reason to get rid of (A) and (B), but (C) through (E) all use the proper match, scavengers.

Aside: I’m not thrilled with mere meat scavengers in (C). I’d prefer mere scavengers of meat, as in (D) and (E). But there isn’t a strong grammatical reason why I couldn’t use mere meat scavengers, so I’m going to ignore that and look for something else. Loop around again!

Now, when you’re down to a small number of choices, compare the remaining answers, looking for differences. There are a couple, but they’re all actually part of a big modifier, so I recommend looking at them as one big chunk:
“(C) … from examining tools found in Germany that includes
“(D) … from the examination of tools found in Germany, which includes
“(E) … from the examination of tools found in Germany, including”

The three structures at the end are used for three types of modifiers.

That includes, in (C), signals an essential noun modifier: the modifier must be included in the sentence or the basic meaning of the core sentence will be nonsensical.
Further, the noun should be as close as possible to the modifier. In this case, the noun Germany is right before the comma. Logically, the modifier should refer to tools. In certain circumstances, it is possible to have a short separation of the noun and the modifier—but is it okay in this case to say that the that includes modifier refers back to tools, with a short found in Germany modifier in between?

Try it out:

… from the examination of tools that includes …
Oops. No, it’s not possible in this case because tools is plural and includes is singular. Logically, the modifier points to tools, but structurally it points to the singular Germany (or maybe even the singular examination?). None of these works; eliminate (C).
Can you use the same reasoning to eliminate either (D) or (E)?

Yes! Answer (D) changes the modifier to the non-essential structure comma which includes, and this modifier has the same problem: includes would have to be plural in order to point to tools. Eliminate (D).

But wait a second. Answer (E) doesn’t seem to be doing what it’s supposed to be doing either. It uses a comma –ing modifier:

The new image of (some) people as X, rather than Y, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including (some spears).

A comma –ing modifier refers back to the entire preceding clause, but is it really the case that the three spears refer back to the image has emerged from the examination?

We’ve just uncovered one of the few exceptions to the general comma –ing rule: when using the word including, the sentence really can just be giving examples of something (usually a noun) that was named shortly before the comma. Unlike the modifiers in answers (C) and (D), the including modifier in (E) does not contain a verb that needs to match the noun tools, so there are no problems with the construction.

Thx for this clarification. I wrongly chose C. Thanks so much

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2017, 23:13
daagh wrote:
1. ‘The new image’ is singular, and hence the verb has to be the singular ‘has’; reject A and B
2. The relative pronouns ‘that’ in C and ‘which’ in D refer to Germany rather than the tools

3. By using the present participle, 'including', E avoids the relative pronoun pitfall and is the correct answer.


Why would D be incorrect? The comma in D should avoid the relative pronoun error isn't it? so as not to modify germany?

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Re: The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large anima   [#permalink] 10 Oct 2017, 23:13

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