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# The number of stray dogs picked up in Ford City last year by

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19 Oct 2012, 23:47
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Ford City already had tough laws to punish operators of "puppy farms" long before the most recent year.===>>The law was already there ...so it cannot have any new effect on the catcher's catch.
In summary,its irrelevant
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20 Oct 2012, 01:08
Ticked B. Not able to understand y E is correct.
Can someone explain?
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20 Oct 2012, 03:29
ravstime wrote:
Ticked B. Not able to understand y E is correct.
Can someone explain?

As already said above, the fact that the law has been in effect for many years means that it could not have specifically affected only the last year number.
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20 Oct 2012, 03:31
Not sure exactly why A has been eliminated. Can anyone help?
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20 Oct 2012, 03:31
ravstime wrote:
Ticked B. Not able to understand y E is correct.
Can someone explain?

ahhhhhh this was a really great question. Contrary to the common believe I think that kaplan does a good work especially in verbal section of the test.

back to the question you can think in two away that are opposite in somehow.

if you think thanks to a top down logic E is correct because we need somthing that doesn't affect at all the conclusion of the argument, so we care about only of something that weaken the fact that the rate of stray dogs decrease of 50%, instead E say that the puppy farms are punished but this say nothing about stray dogs, is not related. They could be punished for somewhat reason.

Using a bottom up strategy E says the same thing of conclusion: Over a dozen operators of these so called "puppy farms" have been incarcerated over the last year in Ford City. VS Ford City already had tough laws to punish operators of "puppy farms" long before the most recent year. they are quite similar, so nothing new under the sun

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Re: The number of stray dogs picked up in Ford City last year by  [#permalink]

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08 Nov 2012, 02:47
Could not pick the answer right away and ended up picking D
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09 Nov 2012, 03:51
harkabir wrote:
Not sure exactly why A has been eliminated. Can anyone help?

It provides an instance of neighboring city which also experienced the same decline without any action on "puppy farms", indicating some other cause for the decline. Thus, weakens the agreement.

Hope this helps.
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Re: The number of stray dogs picked up in Ford City last year by  [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2012, 06:00
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Hi,

Lots of piecemeal replies, so I thought I might be able to offer a comprehensive analysis.

The number of stray dogs picked up in Ford City last year by the city's dog catchers was fifty percent lower than the previous year's figure. The Mayor of Ford City attributed this decline to the city's recent crackdown on unlicensed breeders that breed dogs dangerously fast and release any unwanted puppies on the streets. Over a dozen operators of these so called "puppy farms" have been incarcerated over the last year in Ford City.

So conclusion of argument is: Number of stray dogs are down in Ford City due to Mayor's policy of crackdown on unlicensed breaders

Each of the following, if true, could weaken the Mayor's conclusion that the decline in the number of stray dogs picked up by the city's dog catchers is due to the crackdown on "puppy farms" EXCEPT:

So we need to find out which one of the below SUPPORTS the main argument. i.e. Which suggests that the Mayor's policy is or at least could be responsible

a. Agange City, located right next to Ford City, also experienced a fifty percent decline in the number of stray dogs caught on its streets by its dog catchers, but did not engage in a crackdown on puppy farms in that city. Nope. This shows that the same decline happened in a neighbouring city happened without a policy. So suggesting something else might be at work
b. Ford City cut the budget for dog catching one year ago, forcing the firing of over half of the Dog Catching Department's staff.This suggests the Mayor's policy could not be effective, as there were fewer staff, so again sugests something not related to the mayor was responsible
c. The past winter was bitterly cold in Ford City, causing many unprotected stray animals to perish. Nope. This again gives another possible reason for the decline, nothing to do with the mayor
d. One year ago, a privately funded organization began rounding up stray dogs in Ford City and putting them up for adoption on the internet.Nope. Again another reason, not related to the mayor
e. Ford City already had tough laws to punish operators of "puppy farms" long before the most recent year. Hurrah! This does not weaken the argument. but shows the city has the means to be a deterrent, This would help the mayors policy
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Re: The number of stray dogs picked up in Ford City last year by  [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2013, 01:36
In the question types which say weaken except, we all know that the right answer has to be the one that doesn't weaken. E says that the tough laws already existed. It is quite possible that the percentage of dogs caught had been declining ever since the laws had been enacted and the Mayor was merely stating a statistic that was relevant during his tenure. In other words his decision had nothing to do with the declining percentage of dogs caught.

On the other hand it would be incorrect to assume anything regarding the success in Agange City as no information has been provided. Since the rest of the answers weaken the answer choice A becomes the right choice by default.
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Re: The number of stray dogs picked up in Ford City last year by  [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2013, 03:32
mohnish104 wrote:
In the question types which say weaken except, we all know that the right answer has to be the one that doesn't weaken. E says that the tough laws already existed. It is quite possible that the percentage of dogs caught had been declining ever since the laws had been enacted and the Mayor was merely stating a statistic that was relevant during his tenure. In other words his decision had nothing to do with the declining percentage of dogs caught.

On the other hand it would be incorrect to assume anything regarding the success in Agange City as no information has been provided. Since the rest of the answers weaken the answer choice A becomes the right choice by default.

No it does not. IMO E suits perfectly. Even if the laws were there earlier, there is a difference b/w a law being there and it being enacted or enforced. E does not say that the laws were enforced the same way as they were during the previous year. So it does not affect the argument.

How A affects the argument ?

Option A says, Agange City, located right next to Ford City, also experienced a fifty percent decline in the number of stray dogs caught on its streets by its dog catchers, but did not engage in a crackdown on puppy farms in that city.

So there may be a alternate reason for the decline such as poor weather, some new form of disease etc. So it weakens the argument by providing factual data that crackdown was not the cause of the decline in a similar city.

Although I agree that drawing parallels is a bit far fetched. But E is the best choice.
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Re: The number of stray dogs picked up in Ford City last year by  [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2013, 11:38
Hmm.

Tough one between B and E.

I initially went with B but then realized the following:

If there are less dog catchers in the city the # of dogs caught would be naturally less since there would be less dog catchers to catch dogs. Therefore, if that is the case, the Mayor's conclusion would be weakened.
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Re: The number of stray dogs picked up in Ford City last year by  [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2013, 11:40
mohnish104 wrote:
In the question types which say weaken except, we all know that the right answer has to be the one that doesn't weaken. E says that the tough laws already existed. It is quite possible that the percentage of dogs caught had been declining ever since the laws had been enacted and the Mayor was merely stating a statistic that was relevant during his tenure. In other words his decision had nothing to do with the declining percentage of dogs caught.

On the other hand it would be incorrect to assume anything regarding the success in Agange City as no information has been provided. Since the rest of the answers weaken the answer choice A becomes the right choice by default.

Incorrect, A experienced a decline without puppy farm crackdowns- therefore there is another reason why there has been a decrease.
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Re: The number of stray dogs picked up in Ford City last year by  [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2013, 20:52
Here is the official explanation from Kaplan

Answer E - The argument made by the Mayor of Ford City is causal in nature: the crackdown on puppy farms caused the lower number of stray dogs picked up by dog catchers. In order to weaken a causal argument you must show that the causation is flawed – in this case that it is not only the crackdown on puppy farms that caused the decline in dogs caught by the dog catchers. Only Choice (E) does not help to sever this causal chain. Even if there had been tough laws on the books with regards to puppy farms, it does not follow that the crackdown was not responsible for fewer dogs caught by the dog catchers. It could be that the laws were never enforced before and that the crackdown was responsible.

All of the other answer choices properly weaken the argument. Choice (A) does not say exactly what else was responsible for the decline, but it does indicate that the crackdown was not a factor – if Agange City saw the same decline in stray dogs caught, but did not crack down on puppy farms then there must be some other factor that is affecting the number of stray dogs caught.

Choice (B) indicates that the decline may simply be due to the fact that there are fewer dog catchers out trying to catch dogs (and have nothing to do with fewer strays on the streets). Choice (C) would indicate that bad weather was keeping the stray population low and choice (D) would indicate that it was the new organization's responsibility. Each of these gives us reason to believe that the decline in the number of stray dogs caught was not solely due to the crackdown on puppy farms.
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Re: The number of stray dogs picked up in Ford City last year by  [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2014, 13:17
Clocked 1 min and 53 sec.

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Re: The number of stray dogs picked up in Ford City last year by  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2014, 07:51
CONCLUSION-----Crackdown on unlicensed breeders led to Decline in dogs caught by dog catchers.

WE HAVE TO ELIMINATE ALL ANSWER CHOICES WHICH WEAKEN THE CONCLUSION......ie WE HAVE TO ELIMINATE ALL ANSWERS WHICH BRING OUT THAT CRACKDOWN ON UNLICENCED BREEDERS DID NOT CAUSE DECLINE IN DOGS CAUGHT.. BUT SOME OTHER REASON.....

Each of the following, if true, could weaken the Mayor's conclusion that the decline in the number of stray dogs picked up by the city's dog catchers is due to the crackdown on "puppy farms"EXCEPT:

a. Agange City, located right next to Ford City, also experienced a fifty percent decline in the number of stray dogs caught on its streets by its dog catchers, but did not engage in a crackdown on puppy farms in that city.SOME OTHER REASON FOR DECLINE IN DOGS CAUGHT...NOT CRACKDOWN ON UNLICENCED BREEDERS
b. Ford City cut the budget for dog catching one year ago, forcing the firing of over half of the Dog Catching Department's staff.REDUCTION IN DOG STAFFLED TO DECLINE IN DOGS CAUGHT..
c. The past winter was bitterly cold in Ford City, causing many unprotected stray animals to perish.SINCE THEY PERISHED HENCE LESS CAUGHT
d. One year ago, a privately funded organization began rounding up stray dogs in Ford City and putting them up for adoption on the internet.HENCE SOME OTHER REASON FOR DECLINE IN DOGS CAUGHT..
e. Ford City already had tough laws to punish operators of "puppy farms" long before the most recent year.DOES NOT WEAKEN ... HENCE CORRECT...

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Re: The number of stray dogs picked up in Ford City last year by  [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2015, 19:11
A is eliminated based on one possibility:
City under inspection has a program "crack down on unlawful puppy breeders". Let us assume if this program is successful the number reduced in this city.

Now before this crackdown perhaps stray puppies from this city (which is bordering the neighboring city) stray far enough and enter the neighboring city and hence increase its population of stray dogs just slightly that what it was before.

So a crack down in the first city led to a decrease in stray puppies and thus led to a decrease of stray puppies in the neighboring city, which does not have this crack down campaign
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The number of stray dogs picked up in Ford City last year by  [#permalink]

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02 Nov 2015, 06:46
1
This argument is showing causality. Here is the cause-effect link:
crackdown on "puppy farms" (cause) => decline in the number of stray dogs picked up by the city's dog catchers (effect)

We need to find out an option that DOES NOT WEAKEN this link. So, we will see four Weakeners, the correct option will either Strengthen the link above or will not effect it at all. So, let's spot weakeners.

Please note that weakeners of a causality will mostly do the below do things-
1) Provide an alternate cause for the effect OR
2) Prove that the effect exist even without the cause.

Let's go check the options now.

a. Agange City, located right next to Ford City, also experienced a fifty percent decline in the number of stray dogs caught on its streets by its dog catchers, but did not engage in a crackdown on puppy farms in that city.
Weakener: This kind of choice is usually a correct answer choice for sub-600 level causal weakener question. We can get multiple official examples of this.
The reasoning is- since similar 'effect' was seen in some area where the 'cause' doesnt exist. There has to be some other 'cause' of the effect.

b. Ford City cut the budget for dog catching one year ago, forcing the firing of over half of the Dog Catching Department's staff.
Weakener: I feel the biggest weakener. The decline in the number of dogs caught was because of the decline in number of dog catchers and not because of the crackdown.

c. The past winter was bitterly cold in Ford City, causing many unprotected stray animals to perish.
Weakener: Many of the dogs died during last winter. Therefore there are not many available in the city to be picked. The crackdown doesn't have any role to play.

d. One year ago, a privately funded organization began rounding up stray dogs in Ford City and putting them up for adoption on the internet.
Weakener: Just like C, this option also gives one more reason for lesser number of dogs on the streets. Hence, not many are picked.

e. Ford City already had tough laws to punish operators of "puppy farms" long before the most recent year.[/quote]
The best answer, in fact a strengthener :
The laws were already strict against operators but even then the issue wasnt resolved. As soon as this recent crackdown was implemented, results were seen. Gives us one good reason to believe that the Mayor's actions have caused this decline in the number of dogs. and hence the catching of Dogs.

Hope that makes sense

Please correct me if im wrong.
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Re: The number of stray dogs picked up in Ford City last year by  [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2017, 06:24
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: The number of stray dogs picked up in Ford City last year by  [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2017, 10:13
study wrote:
The number of stray dogs picked up in Ford City last year by the city's dog catchers was fifty percent lower than the previous year's figure. The Mayor of Ford City attributed this decline to the city's recent crackdown on unlicensed breeders that breed dogs dangerously fast and release any unwanted puppies on the streets. Over a dozen operators of these so called "puppy farms" have been incarcerated over the last year in Ford City.

Each of the following, if true, could weaken the Mayor's conclusion that the decline in the number of stray dogs picked up by the city's dog catchers is due to the crackdown on "puppy farms" EXCEPT:

A. Agange City, located right next to Ford City, also experienced a fifty percent decline in the number of stray dogs caught on its streets by its dog catchers, but did not engage in a crackdown on puppy farms in that city.

B. Ford City cut the budget for dog catching one year ago, forcing the firing of over half of the Dog Catching Department's staff.

C.The past winter was bitterly cold in Ford City, causing many unprotected stray animals to perish.

D. One year ago, a privately funded organization began rounding up stray dogs in Ford City and putting them up for adoption on the internet.

E. Ford City already had tough laws to punish operators of "puppy farms" long before the most recent year.

Imo E

There were laws already to prevent dog breeder to leave unwanted puppy so this may not be the reason for the decline .
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Re: The number of stray dogs picked up in Ford City last year by  [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2017, 19:39
E is the clear answer for this question

but A can be a question if there is not A.
Re: The number of stray dogs picked up in Ford City last year by &nbs [#permalink] 14 Nov 2017, 19:39

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