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The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious

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The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month.

(A) world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month
(B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month
(C) world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month
(D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival
(E) world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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skamal7 wrote:
The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival's month.

I'm happy to help with this. :-)
This is GMAT SC #60 in the OG13.

(A) world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival's month
The OG feels that the phrase "in that" is somewhat stilted and over-formal. It does use two words where one would suffice. This one is not black & white wrong, but more a shade of gray. If all the other answers were clearly wrong, this probably could pass as a correct anwer.

(B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month
Misplaced modifier. The world isn't "proclaiming", so who is? The games? the states? The GMAT doesn't like ambiguity. Also, this sentence has two distinct actions, so it would be best phrased as two full [noun] + [verb] clauses, and this option casts the second half of the sentence as a participial phrase rather than as a clause. This is wrong.

(C) world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month
A pronoun with unclear antecedent --- does "they" mean the states? the games? the people of Greece (not mentioned explicitly --- another no-no for antecedents on the GMAT!). The antecedent of the pronoun "they" is ambiguity. On GMAT SC, ambiguity = death. This is wrong.

(D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival
Very clear. We have two full clauses, joined by the conjunction "for" (which means "because"), thus making clear the causal link between the two actions. This is sleek, efficient, and direct ---- a very strong answer.

(E) world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival
A winner of the flabby awkward Olympics! This changes the verb "proclaimed" to a noun "proclamation", and almost invariably, this is the GMAT's strategy for changing a correct answer into a wrong answer. Whenever a verb is re-written as a noun, that almost always makes the sentence more awkward, less direct, and more wordy --- that's exactly what we have here. This version is an unholy abomination that should be taken out back and shot. This is incorrect.

Again, if everything else failed, we might go with (A) in a pinch, but here, (D) is a much stronger answer --- clearly (D) is the best possible answer here.

Mike :-)
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The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious [#permalink]

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farhanc85 wrote:
@e-gmat, can you guys help with this question solving it with e-gmat 3 step process.


Hi farhan,
Thank you for the query. :)

Let's apply e-GMAT 3 step process to solve this question:

The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival's month.

A. world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival's month
B. world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival's month
C. world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month
D. world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival
E. world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival


SENTENCE STRUCTURE

The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world
o in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival's month.


Image

• This sentence tells us that the Olympic Games helped to keep peace among otherwise fighting states of the Greek World.
o This became possible because a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival. Note that, the sentence does not tell us who proclaimed this truce.


Image

ERROR ANALYSIS

1. The phrase “festival’s month” is not idiomatic. It gives the meaning that the festival possesses the month. When referring to an inanimate object, we must avoid possessive. This expression should be “the month of the festival”.
2. Here, the expression “in that” means “because”. In this case, ‘because’ is preferred since it is more concise and gives the meaning directly. Note that ‘for’, which is used in the correct option, also means because.
Also as the OG says, this two-word expression can be replaced with a word for conciseness.


PoE

A. Incorrect for the reasons stated above.

B. Incorrect.
1. The phrase “festival’s month” is incorrect as explained in the error analysis.
2. The verb-ing modifier “proclaiming” seems to modify the preceding clause. Now, when a verb-ing modifier modifies the preceding clause, it should make sense with the subject of the preceding clause. So, this option indicates that the Olympic Games did the action of “proclaiming a sacred truce”.
However, if we refer back to the meaning analysis it was not clear from the original sentence who proclaimed the sacred truce. The Games themselves could not have proclaimed anything. So, this option does not indicate a logically correct meaning.


C. Incorrect
1. The reference of the pronoun ‘they’ is ambiguous. It can refer to “the pugnacious states” or “the Olympic Games”.
2. The original sentence indicates that the truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival. This meaning is not conveyed by this option.


D. Correct.
This option corrects the idiom error from the original sentence and replaces the phrase “in that” with “for”, making the sentence concise.


E. Incorrect.
This option is very wordy as compared to option A and D. Also, it suggests that the proclamation of the sacred truce was done by the Olympic Games. This is not the intended meaning of the sentence.



Hope this helps! :)

Regards,
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Last edited by egmat on 21 Jul 2014, 22:07, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: The Olympic Games [#permalink]

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The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month.
A QUESTION TYPE WHERE MERELY GRAMMAR DOESNOT SUFFICE,UNDERSTANDING THE
INTENTION OF THE QUESTION BECOMES NECESSARY..AND ITS THE MOST DANGEROUS FORM OF SC QUESTION.THE SENTENCE IS TRYING TO STATE THAT THE PPROOF THAT OLYMPIC GAMES HELPED TO KEEP PEACE WAS THE FACT THAT A PEACE TREATY WAS SIGNED.NO CAUSE EFFECT IS MEANT HERE.
(A) world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month
FESTIVALS'S MONTH sounds unidimatic.MONTH OF FESTIVAL is a better usage
(B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month
OLYMPIC GAMES CANNOT PROCLAIM ANYTHING
(C) world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month
FOR HE FESTIVAL MONTH is unidiomatic expression
should be DURING THE MONTH OF THE FESTIVAL
(D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival
CORRECT
(E) world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival
TOO WORDY

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MartinMag wrote:
I think is D.

In C "they" could reference "states" or "Olympic Games".


martin

excellent question, but not quite correct.

olympic games is a "inanimate" proper noun...the pronoun should be "it".

for example, niagara falls ...these proper nouns can only be represented

by it.

try Ukraine.. there is no Ukraines :)

just a bit more info about "they" from dictionary.com

they

Used to refer to the ones previously mentioned or implied.

Usage Problem. Used to refer to the one previously mentioned or implied, especially as a substitute for generic he: Every person has rights under the law, but they don't always know them. See Usage Note at he1.

Used to refer to people in general.
Used to refer to people in general as seen in a position of authority.

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ps_dahiya wrote:
I would say C.

D says that because sacred truce was proclaimed thats why peach was kept among states.

But the peace was achieved by Olympic Games and games happened when sacred truce was proclaimed.



IMO, when is appropriate when a TIME ELEMENT is involved;

I will come to you when I will have time.

There is no time element involved in the first clause -- the first clause makes a definitive statement that the olympics helped keep peace with no indication of any time whatsoever.

Now on the usage of FOR;

I am your friend, for I always stand by you.

This usage of "for" is to give a REASON for the clause preceding the "for"; in this case --- I am your friend. Thus "for" can actually stand in for BECAUSE --- because I always stand by you I am your friend.

By the way - we may both be wrong because A looks equally good; I am only not too convinced that "festival's month" is appropriate.

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gmat_crack wrote:
The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month.

(A) world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month
(B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month
(C) world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month
(D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival
(E) world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival

Please explain your answer


'C' it is. C is clear and concise.
The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month.

A and B are out 'cause of 'festival's month' usage.
D and E are out 'cause of 'the month of the festival' usage.
In English we should try to use more simple construcions when applicable (other things being equal).
So it's better to say festival month than the month of festival.

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Re: The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious [#permalink]

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The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month.

(A) world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month. - Incorrect Unidiomatic
(B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month. Incorrect Unidiomatic, The sentence means that the olympic games are proclaiming.
(C) world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month. Incorrect - Pronoun Ambiguity.
(D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival. Correct - For = Beacuse
(E) world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival.Incorrect - The sentence means that the olympic games are proclaiming.
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Re: The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious [#permalink]

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manishtank1988 wrote:
My 2 cents:
NOTE: Phrases “during the month of the festival” and “for the month of the festival” mean separate things.
“during the month of the festival” – something was done during the month of festival. HERE WE DON’T KNOW WHEN THAT something WILL END!!!

“for the month of the festival” – something was solely done for the duration of festival month. HERE WE DO KNOW WHEN THAT something WILL END!!!

So in options C and E change the meaning of the sentence.


Not necessarily - "I have enough stock for this month.". This sentence does not imply that the stock will end at the end of this month.

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Re: The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of [#permalink]

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One very apparent error in option E is sacred truce <that was> for the month of the festival.




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Re: The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious [#permalink]

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GmatBawse Thanks mate and added kudo to you

If you liked my doubt one kudo for me also :D
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Re: The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious [#permalink]

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The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month.

(A) world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month ==> Festivals month is incorrect usage as festival is inanimate object and hence we should avoid possessive.

(B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month ==> "Proclaiming" incorrectly modifying the previous clause which changes the meaning of the sentence, and the same error as the incorrect usage of festival's month.

(C) world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month ==> "They" refers to whom here? “the pugnacious states” or “the Olympic Games”? - Usage is ambiguous.

(D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival = CORRECT

(E) world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival ==> Changes the meaning of the sentence

Hence, D
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New post 13 Jul 2004, 10:52
1:02
I find nothing wrong with A.

B. Can Olymic Games proclaim ?
C. SV agreement. Can some classify what "The Olympic games" is ? Is it a compound subject or what ? I'm a bit confused here.

DE . month of the festival seems wordy.

On second thoughts. Pardon my confusion here :)

A&B have festival's month. It seems as if the month belongs to the festival.

D. month of the festival looks wordy. "festival month" is short and sweet.

E. has proclaimed " truce that was for the month of festival". It seems as if the truce was only for the time period of the festival month.

My org answer was A. But I am leaning towards C.

May I know that OA pls ;-)

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New post 13 Apr 2005, 13:04
I will go with (C).

The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month.

(A): "in that" and helped should not go together.
(B): "proclaiming.." : it is not clear what this modify.
(D): "for.." (meaning same as because) and helped should not go together.
(E): Wrong COnstruction

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New post 08 Dec 2005, 15:25
24. The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month.

a. world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month
b. world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month
c. world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month
d. world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival
e. world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival


This has been discussed in forums before. My two questions are:
1. In choice C, how do you decide that 'they' refers to states or olympic sports?
2. In choice D, is "for" a substitue for "because"? Can we use them interchangeably?

Thanks,
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New post 18 Aug 2008, 06:29
IMO A

1. The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month.

(A) world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month

(B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month

was the world proclaiming a scred truce???

(C) world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month
They refers to States or games itself?

(D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival
Comma should be replaced by a semi collen....2 independent sentences need to be separated by ';'
(E) world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival
Awkward

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Confused with the present participle use. [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2010, 22:58
Hi All,


Why is answer B incorrect here.

When the participle is separated from the independent clause (IC),

It should modify the subject or the verb of the IC ,or it should mention the result of the preceding

IC. If that is true then How B is incorrect here. Please explain. Isn’t “proclaiming” clearly

modifying “Olympics” here? Can by any chance "proclaiming" refer to the "states"? Am I missing here something?

OG says it is not clear that who would be doing the proclaiming.Members/Experts,could you please explain this in

detail?


The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the
pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred
truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month.

(A) world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed
during the festival’s month

(B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the
festival’s month

(C) world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for
the festival month

(D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during
the month of the festival

(E) world by proclamation of a sacred truce that
was for the month of the festival

Thanks,

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Re: The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2012, 02:49
Let me write the whole sentence

(A)The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival's month

(B) The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival's month

(C)The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month

(D) The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival

(E) The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival.

This one tests how we join two clauses.

A) in that ( using pronoun that ) ( not sure why this is a problem).
B) verb+ing ( not sure either)
c) when ( used to refer time) which is not done here so this may be the problem ?
d) for " subordinate conjuction " is used.( which seems ok)
e) by ( a preposition) is used ( not sure either)

BTW as Umesh rightly pointed out that

during the festival's month Vs for the month of the festival. ( not sure about the difference either).

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Re: The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2012, 06:29
pankajjindal25 wrote:
Let me write the whole sentence

(A)The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival's month

(B) The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival's month

(C)The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month

(D) The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival

(E) The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival.

This one tests how we join two clauses.

A) in that ( using pronoun that ) ( not sure why this is a problem).
B) verb+ing ( not sure either)
c) when ( used to refer time) which is not done here so this may be the problem ?
d) for " subordinate conjuction " is used.( which seems ok)
e) by ( a preposition) is used ( not sure either)

BTW as Umesh rightly pointed out that

during the festival's month Vs for the month of the festival. ( not sure about the difference either).


(A)The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival's month --use of in that doesn't match the context and possessive usage festival's month is less preferable

(B) The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival's month--proclaiming modifies subj. of prev clause Games..games proclaim something??? nonsensical

(C)The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month--again games proclaim-doesn't make sense.

(D) The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival--for is used correctly how did the games help keep peace? there was a month of truce

(E) The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival.again games proclaim--nonsensical again

D it is
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Re: The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2016, 12:04
The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival's month.

A) world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival's month- festival's month-gives the sense that festival owns the month
B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival's month- V-ing after comma gives the result or tells the how part of the previous clause and should make sense with the subject of the previous clause "Olympic Games" ...Proclaiming ... doesn't make sense
C) world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month - they is ambiguous -could refer to Olympic Games or Pugnacious states , both is incorrect as per the intended meaning of the original sentence
D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival---correct use - Clause ( subject +working verb), FANBOYS Clause . here For a sacred truce was proclaimed ... gives the reason i.e. because sacred truce was proclaimed during.., Olympic Games helped to keep peace ...
E) world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival---unnecessary wordy and confusing option

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Re: The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious   [#permalink] 21 Aug 2016, 12:04

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