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# The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ

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Joined: 22 Mar 2011
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2019, 16:18
2
kinshuk97gupta We can generally rely on all the wrong answers in an official question to be genuinely wrong, and E is no exception.

The "although" modifier that appears in all 5 choices is adverbial. That means it needs to modify an action, not a noun. So it can modify "remain stationary," but not "stationary crests and troughs."
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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11 Apr 2020, 13:26
GMATNinja wrote:
Quote:
(A) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are

This is one of those wordy GMAT sentences that probably has too many commas, so all of the answer choices basically “sound” the same. But in this case, there’s an easy elimination once you catch the subject-verb issue: after the semicolon, we have “the resulting flow pattern, [modifier blah blah], ARE known…”

That’s bad and wrong. (A) is out.

Quote:
(B) crests and troughs that remain stationary although they are formed by rapidly moving air, are

We can split some hairs over the differences between (A) and (B), but the subject-verb thing is a still a big, fat problem. (B) is out, too.

Quote:
(C) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is

The subject-verb agreement is fine here, so that’s cool. We have perfect reasonable uses of the modifier “that” in both cases: “crests and troughs” are indeed the things “that remain stationary”, and “the air” is the thing “that forms them.” And “them” refers back to “crests and troughs.”

I don’t see any mechanical issues at all, so let’s keep (C).

Quote:
(D) stationary crests and troughs although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are

Same subject-verb problem as in (A) and (B). I like free stuff, and this is basically free stuff. Thank you, GMAT, for taking mercy on us and letting us whittle this down to (C) and (E) in no time at all.

Quote:
(E) stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air, is

Hm, there’s nothing explicitly WRONG with (E) in terms of grammar. The pronoun is OK (“they” refers to “stationary crests and troughs”), and so is the subject-verb agreement.

As we mentioned in our long-winded beginner’s guide to SC, once you eliminate everything you can based on DEFINITE grammar rules, then you’ll want to compare the remaining pairs side-by-side to see if there’s any meaning difference between the two:

(C) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is
(E) stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air

So what are the differences between these two? Well, (C) uses active voice (“the air that forms them is moving rapidly”), while (E) is passive (“they are formed by rapidly moving air”), and we could argue that the active voice is clearer and stronger in this particular case. (Though passive voice can be acceptable on the GMAT – but that’s a longer conversation for another day.)

More importantly, (C) does a better job of emphasizing the heart of the sentence. The thing that is (allegedly?) interesting about the crests and troughs isn’t simply that they are formed by rapidly moving air – and that’s basically what (E) says. The noteworthy thing is that the crests and troughs are stationary even though they are formed by rapidly moving air – and by putting the phrase “that remain stationary” right before “although the air that forms them is moving rapidly”, (C) emphasizes this fact much more clearly than (E) does.

Fun stuff. (C) is the best answer.

GMATNinja Sir, VeritasKarishma Ma'am

I have two doubts.

1. Why verb tense for answer C is not wrong. Should we not use simple present tense- Air that forms them moves rapidly.

2. Can we eliminate E for the fact "although" is contrasting noun with an action and not contrasting action with another action.

Please share your two cents.
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2020, 02:10
3
KaranB1 wrote:
GMATNinja wrote:
Quote:
(A) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are

This is one of those wordy GMAT sentences that probably has too many commas, so all of the answer choices basically “sound” the same. But in this case, there’s an easy elimination once you catch the subject-verb issue: after the semicolon, we have “the resulting flow pattern, [modifier blah blah], ARE known…”

That’s bad and wrong. (A) is out.

Quote:
(B) crests and troughs that remain stationary although they are formed by rapidly moving air, are

We can split some hairs over the differences between (A) and (B), but the subject-verb thing is a still a big, fat problem. (B) is out, too.

Quote:
(C) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is

The subject-verb agreement is fine here, so that’s cool. We have perfect reasonable uses of the modifier “that” in both cases: “crests and troughs” are indeed the things “that remain stationary”, and “the air” is the thing “that forms them.” And “them” refers back to “crests and troughs.”

I don’t see any mechanical issues at all, so let’s keep (C).

Quote:
(D) stationary crests and troughs although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are

Same subject-verb problem as in (A) and (B). I like free stuff, and this is basically free stuff. Thank you, GMAT, for taking mercy on us and letting us whittle this down to (C) and (E) in no time at all.

Quote:
(E) stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air, is

Hm, there’s nothing explicitly WRONG with (E) in terms of grammar. The pronoun is OK (“they” refers to “stationary crests and troughs”), and so is the subject-verb agreement.

As we mentioned in our long-winded beginner’s guide to SC, once you eliminate everything you can based on DEFINITE grammar rules, then you’ll want to compare the remaining pairs side-by-side to see if there’s any meaning difference between the two:

(C) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is
(E) stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air

So what are the differences between these two? Well, (C) uses active voice (“the air that forms them is moving rapidly”), while (E) is passive (“they are formed by rapidly moving air”), and we could argue that the active voice is clearer and stronger in this particular case. (Though passive voice can be acceptable on the GMAT – but that’s a longer conversation for another day.)

More importantly, (C) does a better job of emphasizing the heart of the sentence. The thing that is (allegedly?) interesting about the crests and troughs isn’t simply that they are formed by rapidly moving air – and that’s basically what (E) says. The noteworthy thing is that the crests and troughs are stationary even though they are formed by rapidly moving air – and by putting the phrase “that remain stationary” right before “although the air that forms them is moving rapidly”, (C) emphasizes this fact much more clearly than (E) does.

Fun stuff. (C) is the best answer.

GMATNinja Sir, VeritasKarishma Ma'am

I have two doubts.

1. Why verb tense for answer C is not wrong. Should we not use simple present tense- Air that forms them moves rapidly.

2. Can we eliminate E for the fact "although" is contrasting noun with an action and not contrasting action with another action.

Please share your two cents.

"Although" is a subordinating conjunction, hence it introduces a subordinate clause. This means it should have a main clause.

(C)
Crests and troughs remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly,
Main Clause

(E)
stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air,
Noun, not a clause

In (C), both clauses are in present so it works. We may not be totally happy with it, but that's the thing about official questions - they teach us with what things we should be happy!
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The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2020, 03:21
VeritasKarishma wrote:
KaranB1 wrote:
GMATNinja wrote:
Quote:
(A) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are

This is one of those wordy GMAT sentences that probably has too many commas, so all of the answer choices basically “sound” the same. But in this case, there’s an easy elimination once you catch the subject-verb issue: after the semicolon, we have “the resulting flow pattern, [modifier blah blah], ARE known…”

That’s bad and wrong. (A) is out.

Quote:
(B) crests and troughs that remain stationary although they are formed by rapidly moving air, are

We can split some hairs over the differences between (A) and (B), but the subject-verb thing is a still a big, fat problem. (B) is out, too.

Quote:
(C) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is

The subject-verb agreement is fine here, so that’s cool. We have perfect reasonable uses of the modifier “that” in both cases: “crests and troughs” are indeed the things “that remain stationary”, and “the air” is the thing “that forms them.” And “them” refers back to “crests and troughs.”

I don’t see any mechanical issues at all, so let’s keep (C).

Quote:
(D) stationary crests and troughs although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are

Same subject-verb problem as in (A) and (B). I like free stuff, and this is basically free stuff. Thank you, GMAT, for taking mercy on us and letting us whittle this down to (C) and (E) in no time at all.

Quote:
(E) stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air, is

Hm, there’s nothing explicitly WRONG with (E) in terms of grammar. The pronoun is OK (“they” refers to “stationary crests and troughs”), and so is the subject-verb agreement.

As we mentioned in our long-winded beginner’s guide to SC, once you eliminate everything you can based on DEFINITE grammar rules, then you’ll want to compare the remaining pairs side-by-side to see if there’s any meaning difference between the two:

(C) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is
(E) stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air

So what are the differences between these two? Well, (C) uses active voice (“the air that forms them is moving rapidly”), while (E) is passive (“they are formed by rapidly moving air”), and we could argue that the active voice is clearer and stronger in this particular case. (Though passive voice can be acceptable on the GMAT – but that’s a longer conversation for another day.)

More importantly, (C) does a better job of emphasizing the heart of the sentence. The thing that is (allegedly?) interesting about the crests and troughs isn’t simply that they are formed by rapidly moving air – and that’s basically what (E) says. The noteworthy thing is that the crests and troughs are stationary even though they are formed by rapidly moving air – and by putting the phrase “that remain stationary” right before “although the air that forms them is moving rapidly”, (C) emphasizes this fact much more clearly than (E) does.

Fun stuff. (C) is the best answer.

GMATNinja Sir, VeritasKarishma Ma'am

I have two doubts.

1. Why verb tense for answer C is not wrong. Should we not use simple present tense- Air that forms them moves rapidly.

2. Can we eliminate E for the fact "although" is contrasting noun with an action and not contrasting action with another action.

Please share your two cents.

"Although" is a subordinating conjunction, hence it introduces a subordinate clause. This means it should have a main clause.

(C)
Crests and troughs remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly,
Main Clause

(E)
stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air,
Noun, not a clause

In (C), both clauses are in present so it works. We may not be totally happy with it, but that's the thing about official questions - they teach us with what things we should be happy!

VeritasKarishma Ma'am

Kindly also guide on my question pertaining to verb tense.

Why verb tense for answer C is not wrong. Should we not use simple present tense- Air that forms them moves rapidly.
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2020, 23:36
1
KaranB1 wrote:
VeritasKarishma wrote:

"Although" is a subordinating conjunction, hence it introduces a subordinate clause. This means it should have a main clause.

(C)
Crests and troughs remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly,
Main Clause

(E)
stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air,
Noun, not a clause

In (C), both clauses are in present so it works. We may not be totally happy with it, but that's the thing about official questions - they teach us with what things we should be happy!

VeritasKarishma Ma'am

Kindly also guide on my question pertaining to verb tense.

Why verb tense for answer C is not wrong. Should we not use simple present tense- Air that forms them moves rapidly.

Note the highlighted part above.
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2020, 09:06
The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over them; the resulting flow pattern, with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are known as "standing waves."

(A) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are
--> "are" is wrong. should be singular

(B) crests and troughs that remain stationary although they are formed by rapidly moving air, are
--> "are" is wrong. should be singular

(C) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is
--> "although" needs a main clause within ",". However, with crests and troughs can't be the main clause.

(D) stationary crests and troughs although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are
--> "are" is wrong. should be singular

(E) stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air, is
--> correct
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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19 May 2020, 07:17
[quote="tejal777"]The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over them; the resulting flow pattern, with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are known as "standing waves."

(A) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are (Subject verb disagreement )

(B) crests and troughs that remain stationary although they are formed by rapidly moving air, are (Subject verb disagreement )

(C) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is

(D) stationary crests and troughs although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are (Subject verb disagreement )

(E) stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air, is (The contrast using although is not structured properly to convey clear meaning)
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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24 May 2020, 07:47
The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over them; the resulting flow pattern, with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are known as "standing waves."

(A) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are
“ are” is incorrect as the subject is “the resulting flow pattern”.

(B) crests and troughs that remain stationary although they are formed by rapidly moving air, are
“ are” is incorrect as the subject is “the resulting flow pattern”.

(C) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is
Best of All.

(D) stationary crests and troughs although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are
“ are” is incorrect as the subject is “the resulting flow pattern”.

(E) stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air, is
“stationary crests” sounds like a proper noun which is really not the case here.
The author is trying to tell something about a property of “crests and troughs” but definitely not about a new proper noun “stationary crests”. – Meaning is changed.
Also, the use of the word “ although ” is better justified in C where It is explaining the difference.
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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08 Jun 2020, 09:23
A humble request - Please give KUDOS if you like the below explanation. Motivation helps!

Let us first dissect the sentence.
The peaks of a mountain range,
acting like rocks in a streambed, - This phrase is modifying the mountain range
produce ripples in the air flowing over them;
SV pair – Peaks produce.
This is an independent clause followed by a semi colon. A semi colon is used to separate two independent clauses.
the resulting flow pattern,
with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, - This phrase is modifying the noun pattern.
First That is a pronoun which refers to crests and troughs which is plural hence remain is the correct verb.
Them refers to crests and troughs.
SV pair – Air is. Second that refers to air.
are known as "standing waves."
SV pair - pattern is
This is also an independent clause. Hence the semicolon justifies it.

If you are still reading this post I humbly request you to please give KUDOS.

(A) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are
SV pair is incorrect Pattern are

(B) crests and troughs that remain stationary although they are formed by rapidly moving air, are
SV pair is incorrect Pattern are;
They are formed by rapidly moving air is indirect which is not preferred by GMAT.

(C) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is
This answer choice states the contrast clearly and has a correct SV pair.

(D) stationary crests and troughs although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are
SV pair is incorrect Pattern are;

(E) stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air, is
The word although is meant to create a contrast. In this choice the contrast is not clear. They are formed by rapidly moving air is indirect which is not preferred by GMAT. Hence this choice is incorrect.

Please motivate me and don’t forget to give KUDOS after you have finished reading the post.
Answer is C.
Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ   [#permalink] 08 Jun 2020, 09:23

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# The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ

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