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# The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ

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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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20 Nov 2013, 13:48
5
4
sacmanitin wrote:
The Peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed,produce ripples in the air flowing over them;the resulting flow with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly,arepattern, known as "standing waves".

A. crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly,are
B. crests and troughs that remain stationary although they are formed by rapidly moving air ,are
C. crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly,is
D. stationary crests and troughs although the air that forms them is moving rapidly,are
E. stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air ,is

friends its a OG-11 SC question , i want to understand why the option (E) is "awkward and unclear".Thanks in advance.

Good question to practice.

First split: "IS" or "ARE"?
the main subject of the second clause is "the resulting flow" that is singular ==> "IS" is correct ==> A, B, D are out immediately.

Second split: C or E?
Note: Many folks say E is wrong because of passive voice. The idea is WRONG. GMAC never says passive voice is always wrong. if you ALWAYS eliminate passive voice in real tests, you may get the question wrong.

Back to C and E.
to pick a correct answer, we need some basic grammars of using "although".
"Although" is used to convey contrast meaning between two parts of the sentence. The two MUST be parallel in meaning.
For example:
1/. I ate two green apples although they are mature. <== WRONG.
The blue part and the red part do NOT create a contrast meaning at all. The fact "I ate two green apples" and "they are mature" do not convey the intended contrast meaning.

2/. I ate two apples that are green although they are mature <== CORRECT.
The two blue parts are perfectly contrast: apples are green although they are mature.
Hence, the sentence is correct.

Compare C and E.
Option C: the resulting flow with [crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly],is...............
The two blue parts are perfectly contrast and parallel in meaning. I used [....] to separate the sentence in which "although" is used correctly.

Option E: the resulting flow with stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air , is.............
The red and the blue parts do NOT convey contrast. Thus, E is wrong.

Hope it helps.
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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19 Nov 2014, 03:22
In the meanwhile, is it correct in gmat to say " to remain stationary"? The verb "remain" carries the idea of smth stationary, doesn't? So, it sounds to be stationary stationary.. Weird...

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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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20 Feb 2015, 07:27
1
egmat wrote:
atalwar wrote:
i know C is correct by looking for the reason why E is wong.

Thanks for posting this question. This is a very nice question that once again exemplifies the importance of understanding the meaning and noting when a choice may change the meaning of the sentence.

Lets first analyze the original sentence -

The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over them; the resulting flow pattern, with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are known as "standing waves".

The peaks produce ripple in air. This creates a flow pattern. This flow pattern has crests and troughs. Even though the air that forms them moves rapidly, these remain stationary. This pattern is called standing waves.

Now given this meaning, lets focus on choice C - It communicates exactly the same thing. So C is the correct answer.

Now lets look at choice E - here the use of modifier - stationary- distorts the intended meaning. Now the intended contrast is not very apparent. It is no longer clear. Per choice A and C, the contrast is very clear - crests and troughs REMAIN stationary, whereas the air that forms them moves rapidly. But in choice E - it appears as if the stationary crests and troughs are made by the rapidly moving air.

This is why choice E is not correct.

Thanks.

For me it is not still clear why E is awkward and unclear as OG describes.
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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02 Apr 2015, 10:28
I have a simple questions.
Why does "them" in the second clause cannot refer to "ripples" in the first clause ?
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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07 Mar 2016, 02:19
gurpreetsingh wrote:
fairy1981 wrote:
The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over
them; the resulting flow pattern, with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms
them is moving rapidly, are
known as "standing waves."

(c) with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them, is

(d) with stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air, is

Which one is the better choice? (I've written down only 2 choices because the other two do not make sense)

D-with stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air, is

The bolded part is not a clause. You can not use although with the phrase.
check http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/conj ... nating.htm

In c - crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is

both the bolded parts are clauses. Hence the use of although is justified.

Also in D.- 'rapidly moving air' changes the meaning.

The most sensible answer.....Thanks Gurpreet singh...............
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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05 Jun 2016, 08:53
acer2knight wrote:
Use of although is the key here. It should be contrasting two things which is clearly visible in C and not in E.

Take away -->

1) "although" needs to be used to contrast two parallel noun phrases or phrases. "X although Y" X and Y needs to be in parallel
2) One of the requirements of a restrictive clause is that the sentence wouldn't make sense or mean the same thing without it."That remains stationary"

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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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06 Jun 2016, 13:22
"the resulting flow," is singular hence eliminate choices with "are". Between C and E it is very close call but there appears to be a meaning difference between E and all other choices hence i will go with C.
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2016, 07:37
With all due respect egmat your explanation is not at all clear what exactly has changed in the meaning!
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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06 Sep 2016, 02:58
between C and E , E is wrong because it doesn't convey intended meaning .

(C) crests and troughs that remain stationary
although the air that forms them is moving
rapidly, is

(E) stationary crests and troughs although they are
formed by rapidly moving air, is

in E contrast is not clear that crests and troughs remain stationary even if the air , which form them, moves rapidly.
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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07 Feb 2017, 19:05
This topic have been merged with: http://gmatclub.com/forum/topic-80576.html
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2017, 11:58
sacmanitin wrote:
The Peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed,produce ripples in the air flowing over them;the resulting flow, with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly,arepattern, known as "standing waves".

A. crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly,are
B. crests and troughs that remain stationary although they are formed by rapidly moving air ,are
C. crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly,is
D. stationary crests and troughs although the air that forms them is moving rapidly,are
E. stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air ,is

friends its a OG-11 SC question , i want to understand why the option (E) is "awkward and unclear".Thanks in advance.

I have multiple issues with the way this question was posted/this question.
1) There should be spaces here in-between words. The sentence should read as: The Peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over them; the resulting flow, with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are pattern, known as "standing waves".
2) Correct diction is either: "are patterns" or "is a pattern". "is pattern" and "are pattern" make absolutely no sense.
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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13 Feb 2017, 13:58
The Peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed,produce ripples in the air flowing over them;the resulting flow, with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly,arepattern, known as "standing waves".

A. crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly,are
B. crests and troughs that remain stationary although they are formed by rapidly moving air ,are
C. crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly,is
D. stationary crests and troughs although the air that forms them is moving rapidly,are
E. stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air ,is

The verb used 'are pattern' is incorrect since the noun is flow,which is singular so we eliminate A B and D, in E the structure is not coherent with the original sentence idea and is therfore elimiated and we are left with C which is the correct choice.

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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2017, 23:15
The Peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed,produce ripples in the air flowing over them;the resulting flow, with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly,are pattern, known as "standing waves".

Meaning:
Peaks (of a mountain range) produce ripples in the air flowing over them (peaks). And the flow that results from this is described here. The resulting flow (with crests and troughs) is pattern known as standing waves.

Subject verb pairs in the underlined portion:
1) Resulting flow (subject)............is (verb)
2) that (refers to crests and troughs)...............remain (verb)
3) that (refers to air)........................forms (verb)
4) air (subject)...............................is moving (verb)

Difference between C and E (rest of the options eliminated because of subject verb error)

C. crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly,is
(crests and troughs remain stationary even when the air that forms them is moving rapidly)

E. stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air ,is
(crests and troughs are stationary even when they are formed by rapidly moving air)

Both the options differ in meaning.
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2017, 23:03
sacmanitin wrote:
The Peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over them; the resulting flow pattern, with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are known as "standing waves".

A. crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are
B. crests and troughs that remain stationary although they are formed by rapidly moving air, are
C. crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is
D. stationary crests and troughs although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are
E. stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air, is

OG 2012 SC95 P674

Agreement

The subject of the second independent clause is the resulting ﬂow pattern; this singular subject requires the singular verb is known, not the plural verb are known. While the long descriptive construction between the subject and verb may make it diﬃcult to see this relationship, notice that the modifying phrase is set oﬀ with commas. The use of the active voice in the verbs of the subordinate clauses provides greater clarity of meaning.

(A) Plural verb does not agree with the singular subject.
(B) Plural verb does not agree with the singular subject; the subordinate clause in the passive voice following although is awkward and unclear.
(C) Correct. In this sentence, the singular verb is known agrees with the subject the resulting ﬂow pattern.
(D) Plural verb does not agree with the singular subject.
(E) The subordinate clause in the passive voice following although is awkward and unclear.

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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2017, 07:36
The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over them: the resulting flow pattern, with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are known as “standing waves.”

A. crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are - Subject-verb agreement issue - pattern .. is
B. crests and troughs that remain stationary although they are formed by rapidly moving air, are - Subject-verb agreement issue - pattern .. is
C. crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is - Correct as the contrast is clear
D. stationary crests and troughs although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are - Subject-verb agreement issue - pattern .. is
E. stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air, is - obscures the meaning: it suggests that one might not expect stationary crests and troughs to be formed by rapidly moving air

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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2017, 00:12
The answer must be option C. My take :

Meaning : The author wishes to convey that peaks of mountain range act like rocks in a sea bed. These peaks produce ripples in the air flowing above them. These crests and troughs remain stationary although the air that forms them is rapidly moving. This flow pattern is known as standing waves.

Error analysis - Once you cut through the verbiage; you will notice a SVA error. The error here being pattern must go along with "is".

POE :

Option A - SVA - explained above.
Option B - SVA - explained above
Option C - Hold
Option D - SVA
Option E - Hold

C vs E.

E does not convey the idea that crests and troughs are stationary despite being formed from rapidly moving air. The position of qualifier stationary is not correct here. The contrast comes out better in option C.

Hence option C wins !
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2017, 00:57
Resulting flow pattern requires singular verb ..option C is correct as it conveys intended meaning .

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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ  [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2017, 02:42
apolo wrote:
For me it is not still clear why E is awkward and unclear as OG describes.

The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over them; the resulting flow pattern, with crests and toughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are known as "standing waves."

(C) crests and toughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is
(E) stationary crests and toughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air, is

C) although ... is moving rapidly, ... remain stationary
E) although ... are formed ..., ................

As you see there is no verbal counterpart of "are formed" in E.
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Re: The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produ &nbs [#permalink] 22 Oct 2017, 02:42

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