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The president of the war-torn country argued that more international

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The president of the war-torn country argued that more international  [#permalink]

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New post 22 May 2019, 12:52
1
5
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A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  75% (hard)

Question Stats:

39% (01:27) correct 61% (01:33) wrong based on 330 sessions

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Project SC Butler: Day 115 Sentence Correction (SC2)


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The president of the war-torn country argued that more international ground troops were necessary to defend against invading armies, protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and to carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help the country regain some footholds in the western regions.

A) protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and to carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help

B) to protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help

C) protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help

D) to protect the civilians unable to evacuate, and in carrying out strategic offensive maneuvers to help

E) to protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and to carry out strategic offensive maneuvers, helping


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Re: The president of the war-torn country argued that more international  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2019, 08:13
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generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 115 Sentence Correction (SC2)


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The president of the war-torn country argued that more international ground troops were necessary to defend against invading armies, protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and to carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help the country regain some footholds in the western regions.


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The president of the war-torn country argued that more international ground troops were necessary to defend against invading armies, protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and to carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help the country regain some footholds in the western regions.

Meaning analysis:

The president of the war-torn country argued
.........................that more international ground troops were necessary to
1. defend against invading armie
2. protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate
3. and to carry out strategic offensive maneuvers
to help the country regain some footholds in the western regions.

By above sentence structure meaning is quite clear. But let's delve deeper.

The president of the war-torn country argued something. This something is that more international ground troops were necessary to do 3 things:
to defend against invading armie
to protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate
to carry out strategic offensive maneuvers with the intention to help the country regain some footholds in the western regions

last "to help" - is not forth list of the parallelism.
more international ground troops were necessary to help the country regain some footholds in the western regions
it is the intention of the president why he said that more international ground troops were necessary



Error analysis:

Once we understand the intended meaning of the sentence, it is easy to spot errors here.
Mostly it is //ism errors.

to defend
protest
and to carry out - are not parallel.

We need to repeat "to" before every list of the // entities, otherwise only put outside of the list once.

to defend
to protest
and to carry out - parallel

or

to defend
protest
and carry out -parallel


So we need to look for the answer with correct // list of 3 items without distorting of the original sentence meaning.

POE

After meaning and error analysis we can straight away eliminate A, B, and D:
All three answers breaks //ism rules.


A) protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and to carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help
B) to protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help
D) to protect the civilians unable to evacuate, and in carrying out strategic offensive maneuvers to help

C and E are grammatically correct. So we to have to rely on meaning.

E) to protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and to carry out strategic offensive maneuvers, helping
(helping - V-ing modifier preceded by comma - modifies all preceding clause, and has to make sense with the subject of the sentence. Meaning: the President argued something by helping the country regain some footholds in the western regions. Nope, it is not the intended meaning)

C) protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help
Attachment:
C.JPG
C.JPG [ 67.6 KiB | Viewed 1444 times ]


So C is the answer.
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Re: The president of the war-torn country argued that more international  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2019, 11:37
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This question is testing parallelism as well as understanding of meaning.

The president of the war-torn country argued that more international ground troops were necessary to defend against invading armies, protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and to carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help the country regain some footholds in the western regions.

To make the 3 components parallel either append 'to' in front of each of them or keep 'to' only in the beginning.

Here, the first 'to' can be taken common, resulting in:

The president of the war-torn country argued that more international ground troops were necessary to [defend against invading armies], [protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate], and to [carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help the country regain some footholds in the western regions].

This will make all 3 components parallel. So A, B, D - straightaway rejected as they contain 'to' in one part not in other.

Now, narrowing down to meaning.

Defending against invading armies or protecting the civilians who were unable to evacuate will not help 'the country regain some footholds'. It is the 'carrying out of strategic offensive maneuvers' that will help.

So answer is C. E -> rejected.

Hope this helps! :)
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Re: The president of the war-torn country argued that more international  [#permalink]

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New post 22 May 2019, 13:21
All correct answers that contain reasonable explanations will be awarded ONE KUDOS.
Exceptional answers may be "bumped" to Best Community Reply.
Kudos will be awarded after the OE is posted.
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Re: The president of the war-torn country argued that more international  [#permalink]

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New post 22 May 2019, 19:56
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This question is testing PARALLELISM.
We have a list structure, so we need to make sure all of the elements in our list are parallel.

Choice A, D are not PARALLEL; E comma+verb-ing is changing the meaning

between choice B and C, C is less verbose by choosing to remove the word "to". So the sentence becomes, armies are needed to defend.., protect... and carry out strategic work..
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Re: The president of the war-torn country argued that more international  [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2019, 16:44
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I will wait 24 more hours to post the official explanation.

deepshikha12 , nicely done! Kudos!
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Re: The president of the war-torn country argued that more international  [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2019, 18:34
Hi, is concision the only deal breaker between choices B & C?
I got confused by "to help" while trying to decode the parallel parts.
A detailed explanation would be helpful.
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Re: The president of the war-torn country argued that more international  [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2019, 21:08
Bombsante wrote:
Hi, is concision the only deal breaker between choices B & C?
I got confused by "to help" while trying to decode the parallel parts.
A detailed explanation would be helpful.

Bombsante , no, concision is not the only deal breaker between B and C because I had a typo in the question.
It's fixed.

But if two options are identical in meaning and one has more words than the other? Then yes, use concision. Concision is more commonly demanded by GMAC than people realize.

As for an official explanation, please read the post directly above yours.

It would not be prudent to post a detailed explanation prior to others' having a chance to post their explanations.

I always post official explanations for SC Butler questions.
The explanations are detailed. HERE is an example.

Finally, with respect to the phrase "to help":
Think about whether it is connected to the structure of a parallel list.

List structures are
X, Y, and Z
W, X, Y, and Z
W, X, and Y, as well as Z

The parallelism marker is comma + and.
That fact signals something about the construction "to help" and its relation to the structure of the sentence.
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Re: The president of the war-torn country argued that more international  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2019, 00:47
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The president of the war-torn country argued that more international ground troops were necessary to defend against invading armies, protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and to carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help the country regain some footholds in the western regions.

Intended Meaning :
The president of the war-torn country argued that more international ground troops were necessary
to defend against invading armies ,
protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate
and
to carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help the country regain some footholds in the western regions.

Error Analysis :

Here the issue is with parallelism between defend, protect , carry out .
Either all 3 should have to before or a to before the defend like to defend, protect and carry out .


A) protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and to carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help - Wrong for the above mentioned reason

B) to protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help-- again parallelism - Wrong

C) protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help - Correct


D) to protect the civilians unable to evacuate, and in carrying out strategic offensive maneuvers to help - Wrong

E) to protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and to carry out strategic offensive maneuvers, helping - Wrong meaning changes by making to help to ,helping .
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Re: The president of the war-torn country argued that more international  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2019, 01:00
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First of all look for the parallelism....as "to" is used for parallelism so option A,D and B can be eliminated...

Now between "c" and "e" in e option we have helping which has subject of doer is troops

Which is not correct


But in c "to" is used for the purpose.... offensive stategies ...

So "c" is d correct answer ...

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Re: The president of the war-torn country argued that more international  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2019, 18:53
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generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 115 Sentence Correction (SC2)



The president of the war-torn country argued that more international ground troops were necessary to defend against invading armies, protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and to carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help the country regain some footholds in the western regions.

A) protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and to carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help

B) to protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help

C) protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help

D) to protect the civilians unable to evacuate, and in carrying out strategic offensive maneuvers to help

E) to protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and to carry out strategic offensive maneuvers, helping


OFFICIAL EXPLANATION
This question tests parallel structure and meaning (in option E).

Meaning:
The president of a war-torn country argued that more international ground troops were needed for three reasons:
1) to defend against invading armies
2) to protect civilians, AND
3) to carry out strategic offensive maneuvers whose purpose was to regain military footholds (bases) in certain regions.

I purposely left the fourth infinitive, to help, out of my description of meaning, an omission that I explain below.

• Parallel list construction

In a list of items, the structure is
A, B, and C
A, B, C, and D
A, B, and C, as well as D

The first item determines the structure of the other items.
In this case, we are locked into the structure given in the infinitive phrase to defend against invading armies because that phrase is in the non-underlined portion of the sentence.

Parallel construction requires that
(1) all three items contain the "to" in the "to verb" construction, this way:
to defend, to protect, and to carry out
OR
(2) only the first infinitive takes the to, this way:
to defend, protect, and carry out
-- in this case, the word to "distributes" or "carries over" to the second and third items in the list

• what to do with to help?

The word and is a parallelism marker.
In any list that contains more than two items, the last item is always preceded by COMMA + AND

That comma is called an "Oxford comma."
It is rarely used in British English.
It is rarely used in U.S. journalism in order to save one space. (No kidding.)

List with an Oxford comma, correct: A, B, and C
List without an Oxford comma, incorrect on the GMAT: A, B and C

Find the last item on the list by finding the COMMA + AND. That structure is before to carry out, not before to help.
For to help to be part of the list, it must be preceded by COMMA + AND.


In other words, COMMA + AND precedes to carry out, and tells us that we have reached the last item on the list.

The final list item, to carry out, is itself an infinitive phrase that contains another infinitive phrase, namely, to help the country regain some footholds in the western regions

To help is not part of the list.
-- to help is not preceded by and
-- its logic and meaning are tied directly to the third item only.
[to help the country] regain footholds in western regions has nothing to do with protecting citizens who cannot evacuate.
On the other hand, it is logical that offensive strategic maneuvers would help the country regain some footholds in certain regions

• Split #1 - Parallelism

In the list of infinitive phrases, either all three phrases need a TO, or only the first phrase needs the TO
All three items must be infinitive phrases because the first item is an infinitive phrase (TO + VERB + modifiers)

Many verbs contain more than one word.
An infinitive such as to defend is just one example.
-- other examples include can defend, was defending, had defended, etc.
-- we can split off the bare infinitive from the to after we list the to in the first item in this sentence. We could also split those other verb forms in the same way: only the first item would explicitly state can, was, or had. In the list items that followed, those first words would be implied.

If the only parallelism marker is AND, which is called an "open" marker, then, we can "split" verbs.

Option A incorrectly uses
to A, B, and to C
Option B incorrectly uses
to A, to B, and C
Option D incorrectly uses
to A, to B, and in carrying

Eliminate A, B, and D

• Split #2: meaning and COMMA + ___ING

Official guide sentence correction examples test COMMA + ___ING frequently.

COMMA + ___ING (verbING, present participle) can modify
-- the entire preceding clause
-- the subject of the preceding clause
-- or, rarely the immediately preceding noun. (Per the latter, see, e.g., OG VR 2019 SC # 228, which is SC # 251 in OG VR 2020)
As noted, the last type of modification is uncommon on the GMAT.

Unlike the official example that I listed, in this sentence, in option E, it is not immediately clear from grammar structure whether
helping the country regain some footholds in the western regions should modify the entire list of necessary reasons for ground troops (i.e., should modify the whole clause)
or whether "helping . . ." should modify only the final reason.

This one is a close call. Logically, "helping . . . " can modify only the last reason.

Compare E to C.

Option C is the better choice.
The structure [. . . necessary to A,B, and C [in order] to help . . .]
lets us know immediately that "to help the country regain" is connected only to the last reason because to help, unlike helping, cannot modify an entire clause.
To help in C is an infinitive of purpose that makes reason #3 clearer.

Answer C

Takeaways: (1) infinitive phrases that are part of a parallel list can contain other infinitive phrases that are not part of that list;
(2) if the structure and logic of one choice make meaning easier to discern, choose that option; and
(3) in lists, if a verb form has more than one word (such as to assist, can illustrate, was listing, or had received), and if the word AND is the only comparison marker, then the sentence can split apart these verb forms in its list. The first word will carry across all of the elements to match the second part of the verb.

COMMENTS

Welcome, newcomers to SC Butler, and welcome back, veterans (I think I see only one).

I am impressed with the quality of answers; concepts are explained rather than asserted. :thumbup:
(When an aspirant begins to study, what good will an assertion such as "pronoun issue" do when (s)he reads that phrase? Answer: Not much good.)

Well done, everyone! I'm impressed. Those who follow you will be grateful to read these posts.

Finally, I did not expect to have any candidates for Most Helpful Community Reply on this first day that Butler resumed.
Today there are two answers that I am bumping to Most Helpful Community Reply (and I cannot always control the order in which that designation is listed).
GKomoku and abhi017 , I am bumping both of your answers. Bravo. :)

Finally, GKomoku , thank you for the kind words.
Graciousness goes a long way in the business world and in life. You made me smile.
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Re: The president of the war-torn country argued that more international  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2019, 22:36
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Quote:
The president of the war-torn country argued that more international ground troops were necessary to defend against invading armies, protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and to carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help the country regain some footholds in the western regions.

A) protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and to carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help

B) to protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help

C) protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and carry out strategic offensive maneuvers to help

D) to protect the civilians unable to evacuate, and in carrying out strategic offensive maneuvers to help

E) to protect the civilians who were unable to evacuate, and to carry out strategic offensive maneuvers, helping


Should be C, and there is an easy way to get there.

First let's look at parallelism. Either it should say "to protect" and "to carry", or just "protect" and "carry". Immediately, this helps us eliminate A, B, D.

Now in E, the "helping" after the comma indicates that these actions have already helped the country achieve whatever objectives. However, we want to say that these actions have the purpose of helping the country. Hence, E is out, and C is the right answer here.

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Re: The president of the war-torn country argued that more international   [#permalink] 24 May 2019, 22:36
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