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# The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant

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Senior Manager
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The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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04 Jan 2005, 03:16
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The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant promotions to only those seventh-grade students proficient in reading without meeting with opposition

A) reading without meeting with opposition
B) reading, having met with no opposition
C) reading, without the opposition of others
D) reading, and has not met with opposition

Spoiler: :: OE
The principal is doing two things: seeking approval
for her plan, and not meeting with any opposition.
These two things should be in grammatically similar
form. Since “has sought” isn’t underlined, you need to
change “without meeting with,” in (A), to “has not
met with,” in (D).
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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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15 Aug 2013, 11:03
Dmitriy wrote:
x242222 wrote:
This is a Kaplan question. The OA is D.

Here's the given explanation by Kaplan: The principal is doing two things: seeking approval for her plan, and no meeting with any opposition. These two things should be in gramatically similar form. Since "has sought" isn't underlined, you need to change "without meeting with" in (A) to "has no met with" in (D).

I bet on D, but in my mind "comma' is not needed. Two verbs "has sought" and "has no met" are connected by AND. The comma has to be ommited.

I agree with Dmitriy. Below is my reasoning.

If comma is used before "And", the second statement requires a subject.

The principal has sought...., and HE has ....

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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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15 Aug 2013, 12:51
Having met with no opposition, The principal sought approval for the plan.

Is the above sentence grammatically correct?
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The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2013, 23:40
x242222 wrote:

I agree with Dmitriy. Below is my reasoning.

If comma is used before "And", the second statement requires a subject. The principal has sought...., and HE has ....

"Comma" before "And" gives the much needed clarity to the construction. without comma "seventh grade students" is likely to to be confused as the subject of the verb "has". This will lead to a subject verb agreement error.

The principal has sought approval.. those seventh grade students... , and has ...

Use of comma suggests that the "seventh grade students" is not the subject of the verb "has" and so the verb would take the previous subject(principal).

He has gone market to buy only those apples red in color and has ...

Seems apples has... (Incorrect)

He has gone market to buy only those apples red in color, and has ...

Because of "comma" - apples cant be the subject and thus "he" would be the subject.

Hope this helps!

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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2014, 06:56
The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant promotions to only those seventh-grade students proficient in reading without meeting with opposition.

a) reading without meeting with opposition
b) reading, having met with no opposition
c) reading, without the opposition of others
d) reading, and has not met with opposition

Consider this situation..The principal sought the approval of the parents and met with no opposition here.Now, She goes for the next step

The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant promotions to only those seventh-grade students proficient in reading, having met with no opposition.

It can also be read as

Having met with no opposition, the principal has sought approval for her plan to grant promotions to only those seventh-grade students proficient in reading

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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2014, 11:10
Yes. B might imply that the lack of opposition occurred BEFORE the principal sought approval.
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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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25 Mar 2014, 01:25
1. First reading gives us suspect in "reading without meeting with opposition", so eliminate A
2. Looking for splits in answers we see 3- without + noun and 2- having, has + verb.
3. Any of without+noun is not well because they are logically parallel with "principal has sought" but not paralelled structurally. Eliminate C and E
4. B is not good because "having met with no opposition" looks as modifier of the "Principal has sought approval......"
5. D becomes appropriate because it is paralleled logically and structurally with "has sought approval"

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The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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13 Sep 2015, 00:42
here question. consider logic/meaning
a and e are easy to sort out.
in b, having met modify the main clause. there is no logic cohesion between this phrase and main clause. wrong
c is similar to B

I get it right but spend too long to do so

in D, the two actions are separate. this case is not logic

in B, the two actions are related. This case is logic

B should be correct not D.
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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2015, 11:29
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Have a doubt regarding option d. comma + co-ordinating conjunction is used for connecting two independent clauses,but 'Has not met with opposition' is not an independent clause as subject is missing.
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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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03 May 2016, 20:16
only D actually makes sense.
A and E can be right away eliminated..reading without meeting...no.
B is not good, because the ing modifier must modify both subject and verb of the preceded clause. having met no opposition, principal has sought..illogical to say has sought..she could have just say smth, without seeking approval.
between C and D...D looks better..2 parallel verbs connected properly, while in C it is not clear to what "without the opposition of others" refers to.
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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2016, 17:22
How can it be D?

, and --- Is it not true if you use , and to connect two clauses they must be independent? Has not met with opposition is not an independent clause.

If we are referring to parallelism, then the sentence should not have the comma. i.e. the principal has sought and has not met with opposition.
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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2016, 18:11
"AND" can be used for two purposes. Either it can be a parallel marker, for example "A,B, and C" or connects two independent clauses "Clause 1, and Clause 2"
When items that are parallel are only two such as "A and B" then we don't use comma after A.
Hence option D is correct.
"And" is not parallel marker here, its a coordinating Conjunction.

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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2016, 21:32
sandeepb17

Thank you for that response, I agree with all the usages that you have mentioned above. However according to:

"When items that are parallel are only two such as "A and B" then we don't use comma after A."

The sentence above only has two things above that are parallel -- has sought and has not met opposition, there is no "a, b, and c" list.

Therefore, there should be no comma right?
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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2016, 06:56
"And" in GMAT fulfills two roles, either it acts as "parallel marker" or "conjunction coordinator".
In this question it is a Conjunction coordinator.
You are thinking ARE as parallel marker, which is wrong.

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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2016, 07:56
This is a matter of establishing if we should be looking for a subordinate or a coordinate clause.
The crucial problem with "B" is that it links the president "seeking for approval" with a subordinate clause. It would read like:

"The principal sought approval, since he [had?] met with no opposition". It's a rather iffy construct, at best. Pay attention that even the sequence of tenses is potentially ambiguous/doubtful. It should appear intuitive enough that the president is going to seek for approval first, and then possibly meet with some opposing party.

D, on the other hand reads like:
"The principal sought approval and has not met with opposition". Much clearer.

Furthermore, to cementify B's status as the best option, "and" is objectively more definitive in establishing that the action is taken by the principal.

It's a legitimately hard question for a non-native speaker, nevertheless. Hope it's clearer now for those who couldn't wrap their head around the issue.

[source: http://depts.washington.edu/wbt401/Gram ... subord.htm]
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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2016, 08:58
This still does not solve the ", and" issue.

If this ,and is used as a coordinating conjunction, D is absolutely wrong because the second half of the sentence IS NOT an independent clause.

You cannot say: Jimmy likes to eat cheese, and reads a lot of books.

Because reads a lot of books is not independent even if it is referring to Jimmy. You must have another subject item like "he".

Jimmy likes to eat cheese, and he reads a lot of books.

Or

Jimmy likes to eat cheese and reads a lot of books. NO COMMA.

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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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02 Nov 2016, 07:47
here is what we have the role of ellipse,
this question has multiple correct ans , depending upon who infers what .
also , comma before and is wrong.
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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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04 Nov 2016, 00:56
An extract from Manhattan-
Do not use a comma before AND to seperate two verbs that have the same subject.
For example ;

Earl walked to school, and later ate his lunch. (WRONG)

Earl walked to school and later ate his lunch.(CORRECT)
Earl walked to school, and he later ate his lunch. (CORRECT)

Hope it helps.

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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2017, 10:47
The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant promotions to only those seventh-grade students proficient in reading without meeting with opposition.

a) reading without meeting with opposition
b) reading, having met with no opposition
c) reading, without the opposition of others
d) reading, and has not met with opposition

I don't like this question. What are (you) trying to say? This is too ambiguous. A couple of things can be meant here:
- The principal herself can be met with opposition (i.e. people who do not approve of these promotions for 7th grade students can speak up and make their voices heard)
- The 7th grade students in question can be meeting with opposition regarding the grants they are planned to get.

Also, for (D): "the principal...and has not met with opposition". To fellow native English speakers, this doesn't make sense. "met with opposition" should be "met with THE opposition", or "met with those opposed (to the plan)".
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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2017, 11:13
Construction rule:
Independent clause (comma+conjunction) Independent clause

Parallelism:
X and Y (no comma unless its a list that includes more than 2 items.)

Why is it D then?
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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2017, 21:45
Expert, Please clear the OE here..

While solving the question, I perceived the meaning of this sentence as The principal want to promote students that are proficient in reading without any distraction (I know this really sounds awful)
With this, I selected choice c.

But even in OA - D, It sounds more awkward to get the meaning that - The principal HAS NOT MET WITH OPPOSITION???

It should be something as, The principal has not found any opposing views (for her plan)..
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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant   [#permalink] 18 Apr 2017, 21:45

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