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# The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant

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The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2005, 21:22
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The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant promotions to only those seventh-grade students proficient in reading without meeting with opposition.

a) reading without meeting with opposition
b) reading, having met with no opposition
c) reading, without the opposition of others
d) reading, and has not met with opposition

What is the sentence structure of this SC?

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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2017, 20:45
Expert, Please clear the OE here..

While solving the question, I perceived the meaning of this sentence as The principal want to promote students that are proficient in reading without any distraction (I know this really sounds awful)
With this, I selected choice c.

But even in OA - D, It sounds more awkward to get the meaning that - The principal HAS NOT MET WITH OPPOSITION???

It should be something as, The principal has not found any opposing views (for her plan)..
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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2017, 21:29
Construction rule:
Independent clause (comma+conjunction) Independent clause

Parallelism:
X and Y (no comma unless its a list that includes more than 2 items.)

Why is it D then?
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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2017, 22:44
Shiv2016 wrote:
Construction rule:

Parallelism:
X and Y (no comma unless its a list that includes more than 2 items.)

Why is it D then?

Hey Shiv2016

Normally, yes - you use "comma+and" in a list when you have more than 2 items in the list. However, this rule can be sometimes overridden. This is normally when the second item is separated from the first item with a lot of information in between. In such a case, to clarify the meaning, you can use "comma+and" even in a list of two items. For instance, in this question, you have the two verb phrases "has sought" and "has not met" separated with a substantial amount of information in between.

The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant promotions to only those seventh-grade students proficient in reading without meeting with opposition.

a) reading without meeting with opposition
d) reading, and has not met with opposition

Hope this helps!

Cheers!

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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2017, 01:57
Shiv2016 wrote:
Construction rule:
Independent clause (comma+conjunction) Independent clause

Parallelism:
X and Y (no comma unless its a list that includes more than 2 items.)

Why is it D then?

Your observation is correct - the comma seems to be an oversight.

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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2017, 02:06
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RMD007 wrote:
Expert, Please clear the OE here..

While solving the question, I perceived the meaning of this sentence as The principal want to promote students that are proficient in reading without any distraction (I know this really sounds awful)
With this, I selected choice c.

But even in OA - D, It sounds more awkward to get the meaning that - The principal HAS NOT MET WITH OPPOSITION???

It should be something as, The principal has not found any opposing views (for her plan)..

Option C implies that the action that the principal sought approval was without opposition (i.e. the seeking by the principal was not opposed). However this meaning is wrong. The intended meaning is that the principal was not opposed, not that his seeking was not opposed.

Option D is alright- The principal has sought approval. He has not met with opposition.
"The principal has not found any opposing views (for her plan)" is not quite different from "The principal has not met with opposition (for her plan)".

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The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2017, 05:24
neetis5 wrote:
Shiv2016 wrote:
Construction rule:

Parallelism:
X and Y (no comma unless its a list that includes more than 2 items.)

Why is it D then?

Hey Shiv2016

Normally, yes - you use "comma+and" in a list when you have more than 2 items in the list. However, this rule can be sometimes overridden. This is normally when the second item is separated from the first item with a lot of information in between. In such a case, to clarify the meaning, you can use "comma+and" even in a list of two items. For instance, in this question, you have the two verb phrases "has sought" and "has not met" separated with a substantial amount of information in between.

The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant promotions to only those seventh-grade students proficient in reading without meeting with opposition.

a) reading without meeting with opposition
d) reading, and has not met with opposition

Hope this helps!

Cheers!

Hey!

Please consider the following correct sentence taken from OG 15:

There are several ways to build solid walls using just
mud or clay,
but the most extensively used method
has been
to form the mud or clay into bricks, and
,after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
[u]to lay them in the wall in mud mortar.

As you can see, the two parallel elements in the second clause have been joined by "comma+and". Meaning wise, both these parallel elements together describe the most extensively used method mentioned in the but clause. So, if one were to ask you what is the most extensively used method, your answer would be to do x and, post abc (modifier), to do y. So, even when a comma is not a must before the and joining two elements, it can be used.

Please bear in mind that the comma before the and is NOT part of the modifying phrase "after some preliminary air drying or sun drying". This modifying phrase has its own set of commas, which I have highlighted separately.

So, the bottom line is that you cannot consider an answer choice incorrect purely because it joins two elements in a list with "comma+ and" - the complexity of the sentence must be factored in. Adding a punctuation, such as the comma, is the writers prerogative if it aids in a better reading, and therefore, a better understanding of the sentence.

The GMAT is not very likely to give you two identical choices, both of which talk about two elements in a list, convey the same meaning, and are grammatically constructed in the exact same fashion - except that one has a comma before and , while the other does not.

Cheers!

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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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30 May 2017, 20:49
patrickpui wrote:
The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant promotions to only those seventh-grade students proficient in reading without meeting with opposition.

a) reading without meeting with opposition
b) reading, having met with no opposition
c) reading, without the opposition of others
d) reading, and has not met with opposition

What is the sentence structure of this SC?

Read the Original Sentence Carefully, Looking for Errors:

The principal is seeking approval for her plan, and she has not met with any opposition so far. The way this sentence is written, it says the students in question are able to read without meeting any opposition. Eliminate (A). Seek an answer choice that assigns both actions to the principal.

Scan and Group the Answer Choices:

Since "has sought" isn't underlined, look directly for another choice that either includes "has" or simply the past participle of the verb following "has" (since the helping verb doesn't have to be repeated). (B) uses "having met" and (D) uses "has met." None of the other choices uses the verb.

Eliminate (C) and (E), which persist in saying the children haven't met with opposition. (B) uses "having met" instead of "has met," so this verb is not in the same tense and thus is not parallel with "has sought."

(D) is the only choice that includes "has," thereby creating the proper parallel structure.

TAKEAWAY: Make sure that each action in a sentence relates clearly to the person or thing performing that action
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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant [#permalink]

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16 Nov 2017, 17:41
patrickpui wrote:
The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant promotions to only those seventh-grade students proficient in reading without meeting with opposition.

a) reading without meeting with opposition
b) reading, having met with no opposition
c) reading, without the opposition of others
d) reading, and has not met with opposition

What is the sentence structure of this SC?

C : without the opposition -> sought
D : without the opposition -> the principal

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Re: The principal has sought approval for her plan to grant   [#permalink] 16 Nov 2017, 17:41

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