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# The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters, people who

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The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters, people who [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2008, 06:03
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The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters, people who register the Internet domain names of high-profile companies in hopes of reselling the rights to those names for a profit, led to passing the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act in 1999, allowing companies to seek up to $100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling them later. (A) passing the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act in 1999, allowing companies to seed up to$100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling them later.

(B) the passage of the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act in 1999, which allows companies to seed up to $100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent that they will sell (C) the passage in 1999 of the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which allows companies to seed up to$100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling

(D) the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which was passed in 1999, and it allows companies to seek up to $100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent to sell (E) the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, passed in 1999, and it allows companies to seek up to$100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 08 May 2017, 19:43, edited 5 times in total.
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Re: Consumer Protection Act in 1999 [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2010, 14:37
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Hey All,

I got asked to take this one on by PM. Here we go!

The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters, people who register the Internet domain names of high-profile companies in hopes of reselling the rights to those names for a profit, led to passing the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act in 1999, allowing companies to seek up to $100,000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling them later. (A) passing the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act in 1999, allowing companies to seek up to$100,000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling
PROBLEM: You can't "lead to passing". You have to lead to a thing, like "the passage" (or even "the passing" could've worked). "Allowing" is not the correct modifier type here (we're modifying a noun, not a whole clause, so the relative pronoun "which" is better).

(B) the passage of the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act in 1999, which allows companies to seek up to $100,000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent that they will sell PROBLEM: The relative clause "which allows" seems to be modifying "1999", where we want the CPA itself. Also, we want "the sole intent OF selling", the correct idiom. (C) the passage in 1999 of the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which allows companies to seek up to$100,000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling

(D) the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which was passed in 1999, and it allows companies to seek up to $100,000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent to sell PROBLEM: We don't put a comma before the word "and" in a list of only two things. Also, the idiom with "sell" at the end is wrong. The "it", however, is not ambiguous (for those who are wondering), because it's the only singular noun before the pronoun. (E) the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, passed in 1999 and allowing companies to seek up to$100,000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent that they will sell
PROBLEM: "Passed" and "allowing" are both participles, which means they're technically parallel, but it's still hideous. Also, the idiom at the end is wrong yet again.

Hope that helps!

-t
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Re: The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters, people who [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2010, 03:57
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The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters, people who register the Internet domain names of high-profile companies in hopes of reselling the rights to those names for a profit, led to passing the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act in 1999, allowing companies to seed up to $100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling them later. Some situation led to ____ here must be a NOUN, which logically explains to what a certain situation has led. A passing the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act in 1999, allowing companies to seed up to$100000 in damages against those (those WHAT? damages?) who register domain names with the sole intent of selling.

B the passage of the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act in 1999, which allows companies to seed up to $100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent that they will sell - 1999 cant itself allow. C the passage in 1999 of the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which allows companies to seed up to$100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling -correct.

D the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which was passed in 1999, and it allows companies to seek up to $100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent to sell - does it referes to year or act? a situation led to an act?!! - not true E the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, passed in 1999, and it allows companies to seek up to$100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling - does it referes to year or act? a situation led to an act?!! - not true

also correct idiom is intent to do smth or intention of doing smth
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Re: Consumer Protection Act in 1999 [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2010, 21:30
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Hey Hey.

Hmm, as far as I know, there is no idiom "intent to". You're probably thinking of the verb "intend", which indeed ought to be followed by "to", as in "I intend to leave San Francisco at the first available opportunity." With the noun "intent", the idiom is "sole intent of SOMETHING-ing", as we see in D. C is not actually correct in saying "intent to".

As for ambiguity, it's an iffy issue to begin with. In B, while you're technically correct that the pronoun "they" COULD refer to either "those (who...etc.)" or "companies", the fact is that it's fairly clear that we're referring to "those", because we're still modifying it: those WHO (register domain names) WITH the sole intent THAT they will sell...

If you see what I mean, we're still talking about the same "those". Now, what's more problematic is that we're using both "those" and "they" to talk about the same noun, which isn't even in the sentence! So it's definitely problematic, just more totally screwed up than simple ambiguity.

Hope that makes sense!

-t
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Re: The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters, people who [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2010, 08:34
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For the original poster--I think you're asking if parallelism makes you say "led to the passage of"? If so, then yes, and that split is a really efficient way to tackle this question. The structure is:

"The proliferation (action noun)....led to...the passage (action noun)." (B and C)

Choice B violates the rule that tells you a comma followed by "which" must immediate follow the noun being modified: in choice B, this noun is "1999" rather than "Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act." That leaves us with C. Quick and clean!

For noboru: I can see why you might think you need an object for "selling"--when we use "sell" as a verb it usually does come attached to the thing we're selling. It can however, be used as an intransitive verb (ex: I invented a new widget and am marketing it on the internet...I really hope it sells!). Additionally, notice that the participle "selling" follows the preposition "of" in choice C (and E, which is incorrect for other reasons mentioned by posters above). Here, "selling" is functioning as a *noun* -- the action of selling-- so we're in safe waters.
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Re: The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters, people who [#permalink]

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23 Jul 2013, 07:28
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fozzzy wrote:
Can someone provide a detailed analysis on this question. Thanks!

The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters, people who register the Internet domain names of high-profile companies in hopes of reselling the rights to those names for a profit, led to passing the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act in 1999, allowing companies to seed up to $100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling them later. "led to passing" is not idiomatic in option A. B the passage of the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act in 1999, which allows companies to seed up to$100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent that they will sell
In B which refers to the year 1999: incorrect
C the passage in 1999 of the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which allows companies to seed up to $100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling C is the correct option. D the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which was passed in 1999, and it allows companies to seek up to$100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent to sell
E the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, passed in 1999, and it allows companies to seek up to $100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling D has a mistake of this kind: "the ACT -modifier- and it allows". If you read the whole sentence, it seems to say that "The proliferation lead to the act and allows": this sentence has not the correct structure. E is not parallel "Act passed and it allows", moreover the structure of the sentence is not correct (see D). _________________ It is beyond a doubt that all our knowledge that begins with experience. Kant , Critique of Pure Reason Tips and tricks: Inequalities , Mixture | Review: MGMAT workshop Strategy: SmartGMAT v1.0 | Questions: Verbal challenge SC I-II- CR New SC set out !! , My Quant Rules for Posting in the Verbal Forum - Rules for Posting in the Quant Forum[/size][/color][/b] Retired Moderator Status: worked for Kaplan's associates, but now on my own, free and flying Joined: 19 Feb 2007 Posts: 3846 Location: India WE: Education (Education) Followers: 822 Kudos [?]: 6334 [2] , given: 324 Re: The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters, people who [#permalink] ### Show Tags 09 Mar 2011, 22:03 2 This post received KUDOS The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters, people who register the Internet domain names of high-profile companies in hopes of reselling the rights to those names for a profit, led to passing the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act in 1999, allowing companies to seek up to$100,000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling them later.

A) passing the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act in 1999, allowing companies to seek up to $100,000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling –- The proliferation by itself can not lead to the passing of the act. There must be somebody to pass the act is missing. ‘Led to’ needs either a noun or a noun phrase or a gerund to follow it. ‘Passing the act; is not a gerund; ‘Passing of’ the act is a gerund. B) the passage of the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act in 1999, which allows companies to seek up to$100,000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent that they will sell - which modifies 1999; it should modify the act.
C) the passage in 1999 of the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which allows companies to seek up to $100,000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling----- correct modification of which. Right answer. D) the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which was passed in 1999, and it allows the companies to seek up to$100,000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent to sell—---what does it refer to; the subject proliferation or the act?

E) the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, passed in 1999 and allowing companies to seek up to $100,000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent that they will sell— -----and allowing companies is wrong in the context. If you use ‘and’, a coordinate conjunction, the structure needs a clause with verb. Allowing is not a verb but a present participle. _________________ “Better than a thousand days of diligent study is one day with a great teacher” – a Japanese proverb. 9884544509 Manhattan GMAT Instructor Joined: 29 Apr 2010 Posts: 126 Followers: 61 Kudos [?]: 401 [2] , given: 1 Re: GMAT Prep Question [#permalink] ### Show Tags 13 Mar 2011, 16:20 2 This post received KUDOS Expert's post Vivesomnium, while "the passage of" might seem a little awkward at first, try ignoring the lengthy modifier between the first two commas to see the underlying structure: THE PROLIFERATION...led to...[something else] Potential parallelism issue! We want the thing that follows to be a noun, and there is an extant noun form of "passing" that is not being used--"passage." So if you recognized that on your initial read you can cross off A. B and C use "passage," and D and E use the name of the act itself-- both these options are acceptable. As a few people have pointed out above, B violates the ", which" rule-- 1999 is not the thing that allowed companies to seek damages. Eliminate. (diebeatsthegmat is also correct in identifying "they" as ambiguous--double whammy!) (D) uses the pronoun "it," which is one of those red-flag pronouns--make sure "it" has a clear and correct antecedent. There are a couple of singular nouns before "it" in the sentence, so we have a slightly ambiguous situation. Sometimes pronoun ambiguity is tolerated, but the structure here implies the actual antecedent here is the wrong one. SUBJECT-VERB...and...SUBJECT-VERB THE PROLIFERATION led to...and IT (the PROLIFERATION) allows --That's not the intended meaning! Eliminate. So now we're down to C and E. The structure of C is good-- The proliferation...led to...the passage...of the...Act, which allows companies to seek....damages. The structure of E is not-- The proliferation...led to..the Act, PASSED and ALLOWING... (not parallel) Additionally, "they" is potentially ambiguous. Another double-whammy-- E is out. That leaves us with C! _________________ JP Park | Manhattan GMAT Instructor | Los Angeles Manhattan GMAT Discount | Manhattan GMAT Reviews Senior Manager Joined: 16 Apr 2009 Posts: 325 Followers: 1 Kudos [?]: 134 [1] , given: 14 Re: The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters, people who [#permalink] ### Show Tags 23 Aug 2009, 17:49 1 This post received KUDOS This is a tough and good question for me , IMO C , Explainations below A passing the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act in 1999, allowing companies to seed up to$100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling them later. - wrong

B the passage of the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act in 1999, which allows companies to seed up to $100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent that they will sell - wrong C the passage in 1999 of the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which allows companies to seed up to$100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling - correct

D the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which was passed in 1999, and it allows companies to seek up to $100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent to sell - wrong , what is "it" referring to -> proliferation or Act E the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, passed in 1999, and it allows companies to seek up to$100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling -- wrong , no clear reference
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Re: Consumer Protection Act in 1999 [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2010, 11:30
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Hey Gaura,

That's quite normal, because this is a bit weird. However, we're allowed to modify ACTION nouns in this way. There are certain nouns that imply actions: explosion, revolution, passage, etc. I can say "The 1995 explosion" or "The explosion in 1995". I can't do this for regular nouns: chair, bacon, monkeys. I can't say "The monkeys of 1995", or "The chair of 1995" (except in rare cases, if there's an actual category like "Wines of 1995").

Hope that clears it up!

-t
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25 Mar 2011, 14:14
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Hi Mickey,

Good question--if you don't recognize that "passing" has an existing noun counterpart, a helpful clue here might be that all the other answer choices use the definite article "the"-- the original does not.

The structure is "the proliferation...led to...the passage"

Additionally, the use of the -ing form of "allowing" makes the phrase that follows technically modify the verb "led" rather than the act itself...you miiiight be able to make an argument for that (since that action --the leading to the act-- did ultimately, well, lead to the act, which then allowed the companies to seek damages), but that's a stretch. A more direct expression of the meaning is that the ACT was what really allowed companies to seek damages.

Does that help?
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Re: The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters, people who [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2013, 01:09
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fozzzy wrote:
Hey Zarrolou one question regarding option A

Suppose this question was idiomatically correct and had led to the passage is the modifier correct in this option?

allowing companies to seek up to 100000 in damages? Since its presenting the result of the previous clause...

Lets create a new option

The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters, people who register the Internet domain names of high-profile companies in hopes of reselling the rights to those names for a profit, led to passing the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act in 1999, allowing companies to seed up to $100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling them later. F) the passage in 1999 of the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act (this is option C), allowing companies to seed up to$100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling them later. (this is option A).

No. The sentence would not be correct. A shorter version may calrify

"The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters led to the passage of the Act, allowing companies to seed up (...)"
"allowing companies to seed up" does not present the results of the action, the next clause "allowing companies to seed up" presents something that the act does.

Moreover one of the rules of the ING modifier of this form is that the ING verb must make sense with the subject of the previous clause:
The proliferation (subject) does not make sense with the verb "allowing companies to seed up", the intended subject of the "allow" verb is the Act.
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Re: The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters, people who [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2008, 06:35
A passing the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act in 1999, allowing companies to seed up to $100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling them later. Wrong. "Passing" wrong tense. Activity already finished. B the passage of the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act in 1999, which allows companies to seed up to$100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent that they will sell
"they" not clear. Companies or criminals?

C the passage in 1999 of the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which allows companies to seed up to $100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling Seems OK. D the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which was passed in 1999, and it allows companies to seek up to$100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent to sell
"and it allows..." is wrong construction. False parallelism.

E the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, passed in 1999, and it allows companies to seek up to $100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling "and it allows..." is wrong construction. False parallelism. VP Joined: 03 Apr 2007 Posts: 1351 Followers: 4 Kudos [?]: 679 [0], given: 10 Re: The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters, people who [#permalink] ### Show Tags 30 Jun 2008, 07:15 ssandeepan wrote: The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters, people who register the Internet domain names of high-profile companies in hopes of reselling the rights to those names for a profit, led to passing the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act in 1999, allowing companies to seed up to$100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling them later.

A passing the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act in 1999, allowing companies to seed up to $100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling them later. B the passage of the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act in 1999, which allows companies to seed up to$100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent that they will sell
C the passage in 1999 of the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which allows companies to seed up to $100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling D the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which was passed in 1999, and it allows companies to seek up to$100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent to sell
E the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, passed in 1999, and it allows companies to seek up to $100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling The correct answer is C ; I think it is because of the correct verb "lead to the passage of" and also it removes the misplaced modifiers in B where it is not clear if the act or 1999 allows companied to seed. Can somebody confirm my understanding is correct ? B has several problems : 1.Modifier issue 2.with the sole intent that they will sell - sounds incomplete, - is wordy - "intent of" - correct idom - they - cyberquatters,complanies,domains?? E was a close contender The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters, people who register the Internet domain names of high-profile companies in hopes of reselling the rights to those names for a profit, led to the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, passed in 1999, and it allows companies to seek up to$100000 in damages against those who register domain names with the sole intent of selling

Simplifying further:

The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters, people who X, led to the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, passed in 1999, and it allows companies to seek up to \$100000 in damages against those Y with the sole intent of selling

The above SC may not exhibit IIlism but I guess its grammatically correct

The answer choice has a different problem:
1. led to the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, passed in 1999
- logic is incoorect ,the sentence wordy
The law was passed in 1999 and it needs special emphasis.
Consumer Protection Act, passed in 1999
The passed in 1999 after the comma is more like "By the way, the law was passed"
led to the passage in 1999 of the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act is concise

Please let me know if you agree.
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Re: Consumer Protection Act in 1999 [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2009, 11:43
Between A and C, I would go with C.

Led to the passage of seems much better than passing, and which correctly refers to the act.
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Re: Consumer Protection Act in 1999 [#permalink]

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25 Jun 2010, 14:36
A is wrong: "led to the passing of..." isn't better than "led to the passage of the..."
"...act in 1999, allowing..." (suggests that companies were allowed to seek damages as a consequence of the passage of the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act. Not correct)

B. Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which allows... (suggests that which modifies the preceding clause (is it?). Further "sole intent that will sell" should be "sole intent of selling")

C. the passage in 1999 of the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which allows... with the sole intent of selling them later. The best of all.

D. the Anti-Cybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which was passed in 1999, and it allows...with the sole intent to sell... (unnecessarily wordy and choppy)

E. wordy and changes intended meaning of the original sentence.

Please I stand to be corrected. Thanks.
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Re: Consumer Protection Act in 1999 [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2010, 21:52
Tommy

That was eye opener. Yes I agree "it" is not ambiguous in D. The answer is between C and D. I was browsing through my notes and found that "intent to" is also idiomatic. Please can you throw some light on this.

Also isn't "they" ambiguous in choice B?

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Re: Consumer Protection Act in 1999 [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2010, 11:45
Actually, those action nouns are preferable rather than noun-gerunds.
In this case, "the passage" sounds better than "the passing".

Please tommy correct me if im wrong
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Re: The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters, people who [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2011, 06:00
ajit257 wrote:
Pkit
so c should be incorrect (going by the idiom rule) and also i believe we don't end sc's with 'ing'.. I know gmat cant be wrong but i can never get such question right. Please can you advise on how to tackle such a scenario. I chose the D for this very reason.

look above for the post of ugimba, which states that the OA in GMATprep is C.

Yes GMAT can't be wrong, i did not state that it is wrong.
For why reason you choosed D I did not understand too. Why you believe a SC could not end with "-ing"?

Example: I am swimming. I am running.
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Re: The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters, people who [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2011, 16:09
Pkit wrote:
ajit257 wrote:
Pkit
so c should be incorrect (going by the idiom rule) and also i believe we don't end sc's with 'ing'.. I know gmat cant be wrong but i can never get such question right. Please can you advise on how to tackle such a scenario. I chose the D for this very reason.

look above for the post of ugimba, which states that the OA in GMATprep is C.

Yes GMAT can't be wrong, i did not state that it is wrong.
For why reason you choosed D I did not understand too. Why you believe a SC could not end with "-ing"?

Example: I am swimming. I am running.

Thanks for your help Pkit. I chose D for the very reason ..wrong idiom : intent of ...it should be intent to and intention of. I think i misunderstood the part on ending a sc with "ing"
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Gmat: everything-you-need-to-prepare-for-the-gmat-revised-77983.html
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Ajit

Re: The proliferation of so-called cybersquatters, people who   [#permalink] 14 Feb 2011, 16:09

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