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# The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher

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The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 24 Jan 2017, 11:17
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The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher education programs has increased over the past decades. This is partly shown by the fact that in 1959, only 11 percent of the women between twenty and twenty-one were enrolled in college, while in 1981, 30 percent of the women between twenty and twenty-one were enrolled in college.

To evaluate the argument above, it would be most useful to compare 1959 and 1981 with regard to which of the following characteristics?

(A) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-one who were not enrolled in college
(B) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-five who graduated from college
(C) The percentage of women who, after attending college, entered highly paid professions
(D) The percentage of men between twenty and twenty-one who were enrolled in college
(E) The percentage of men who graduated from high school

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Originally posted by SudiptoGmat on 27 Jan 2010, 18:49.
Last edited by carcass on 24 Jan 2017, 11:17, edited 1 time in total.
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The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher  [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2011, 21:46
1
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The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher education programs has increased over the past decades. This is partly shown by the fact that in 1959, only 11 percent of the women between twenty and twenty-one were enrolled in college, while in 1981, 30 percent of the women between twenty and twenty-one were enrolled in college.
To evaluate the argument above, it would be most useful to compare 1959 and 1981 with regard to which of the following characteristics?
(A) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-one who were not enrolled in college
(B) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-five who graduated from college
(C) The percentage of women who, after attending college, entered highly paid professions
(D) The percentage of men between twenty and twenty-one who were enrolled in college
(E) The percentage of men who graduated from high school

I could not understand the reasoning behind the answer.
##### General Discussion
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Re: The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher  [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2010, 18:56
1
The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher education programs has increased over the
past decades. This is partly shown by the fact that in 1959, only 11 percent of the women between twenty and
twenty-one were enrolled in college, while in 1981, 30 percent of the women between twenty and twenty-one
were enrolled in college.

P1 - Prop of Women enrolled has gone up in past decaded
P2 - 1959 - 11% (20-21) while 1981 - 30% (20-21)
To evaluate the argument above, it would be most useful to compare 1959 and 1981 with regard to which of
the following characteristics?
(A) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-one who were not enrolled in college - Out of Scope
(B) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-five who graduated from college - Out of Scope
(C) The percentage of women who, after attending college, entered highly paid professions - Irrelevant
(D) The percentage of men between twenty and twenty-one who were enrolled in college - Irrelevant (Women are the only ones considered in this argument)
(E) The percentage of men who graduated from high school - the first line says proportion of women AMONG students (Men and Women) - BEST ANSWER
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Re: The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher  [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2010, 20:45
1
SudiptoGmat wrote:
The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher education programs has increased over the
past decades. This is partly shown by the fact that in 1959, only 11 percent of the women between twenty and
twenty-one were enrolled in college, while in 1981, 30 percent of the women between twenty and twenty-one
were enrolled in college.
To evaluate the argument above, it would be most useful to compare 1959 and 1981 with regard to which of
the following characteristics?
(A) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-one who were not enrolled in college
(B) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-five who graduated from college
(C) The percentage of women who, after attending college, entered highly paid professions
(D) The percentage of men between twenty and twenty-one who were enrolled in college
(E) The percentage of men who graduated from high school

My take is A.

The very first sentence is not a premise but a conclusion of the stimulus. The percentage of women | among students enrolled in higher education programs | has increased over the past decades. So the percentage of women has increased, is the conclusion. This conclusion is followed by a supporting premise that those between ages twenty and twenty-one (NICE!!!! ) were, in '59 - 11% and in '81 - 30%. Now to substantiate the claim and properly support the given premise, we need to know what the population of women of that given particular age group was at both the times. This can be understood only from option A. Just because a percentage was given in the stimulus doesn't mean the claim stands strong. We need to know the wholesome to be able to compare accurately. Or some means to get to the perfect wholesome. Option A alone gives the relevant information.
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Re: The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher  [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2010, 01:44
3

Men in College + Women in College : 100 %

For the % enrolment of women to go up , % enrolment of men has to reduce.
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Re: The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher  [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2010, 01:56
5
1
Classic example of the "scope shift".

Conclusion argues that proportion of women among the students enrolled has increased. It means that there were more women on campus (women/all students)

Evidence used is that of proportion of women enrolled among 20-21 year old females. It's very different proportion: (women enrolled)/(all women between 20-21).

To reconcile the evidence with the desired conclusion we should also examine the same proportion for men - (D)
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Re: The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher  [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2010, 03:45
1
SudiptoGmat wrote:
The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher education programs has increased over the
past decades. This is partly shown by the fact that in 1959, only 11 percent of the women between twenty and
twenty-one were enrolled in college, while in 1981, 30 percent of the women between twenty and twenty-one
were enrolled in college.
To evaluate the argument above, it would be most useful to compare 1959 and 1981 with regard to which of
the following characteristics?
(A) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-one who were not enrolled in collegeComparison is b/w the women among the students enrolled and the men among the students enrolled.Those who do did not enroll are irrelevant to the argument.
(B) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-five who graduated from collegeAge group changed.hence not comapring parallel things
(C) The percentage of women who, after attending college, entered highly paid professionsirrelevant
(D) The percentage of men between twenty and twenty-one who were enrolled in collegeThis can clearly evaluate whether the proportion has increased or is it an assumption.
(E) The percentage of men who graduated from high school.% of men who graduated is nt the issue.The matter of question is the students who enrolled.

To compare the proportion of women among students enrolled in higher education programs it would be best to compare 1959 to 1981 wiht regard to the number of men among the students.
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Re: The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher  [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2010, 13:52
I ca not write any better logic. OA is

Thanks guys. This was a really god discussion.
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Re: The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher  [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2010, 23:32
D

conclusion is proportion increased against what? so we need to know percentage of men
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Re: The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher  [#permalink]

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07 Jun 2010, 04:21
Shouldn't it be A? It states the proportion of women increased. And then it only gives the increase of women in age group of 20 to 21. What about women beyond 21 or below 20? The proportion probably decreased in that group. Hence, the overall proportion probably could be the same?

Can someone explain.

Thanks
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Re: The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher  [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2010, 12:19
2
I am not sure if my explanation would be any better than the ones given above...

An implicit assumption that I am making here is that the age group being referred to is 20-21

1) The argument states that the proportion of women among students enrolled in college has increased. This means that the ratio W/(W+M) has increased.
2) 1959: Of the women between 20-21, only 11% were enrolled in college. Assuming the number of women between 20-21 to be 100, then W here comes out to be 11
3) 1981: Of the women between 20-21, only 30% were enrolled in college. W here comes out to be 30

30/(30+M) > 11/(11+M) -> To evaluate this, all we need to know is M. Hence D.
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Re: The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher  [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2010, 15:50
study wrote:
Shouldn't it be A? It states the proportion of women increased. And then it only gives the increase of women in age group of 20 to 21. What about women beyond 21 or below 20? The proportion probably decreased in that group. Hence, the overall proportion probably could be the same?

Can someone explain.

Thanks

Your right, looking at one age group does not justify whether the total proportion has increased or decreased. Note that if we really wanted to evaluate whether the total proportion of women had increased or decreased, then we would have to compare the total number or women and male students across all ages.

However we can only choose from the answers provided. And the only one that has any bearing is D. None of the other answers help you compare the proportion of women to men.

Hope that kinda helps ...
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Re: Critical reasoning from OG10  [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2011, 22:13
techyrajeev wrote:
The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher education programs has increased over the past decades. This is partly shown by the fact that in 1959, only 11 percent of the women between twenty and twenty-one were enrolled in college, while in 1981, 30 percent of the women between twenty and twenty-one were enrolled in college.
To evaluate the argument above, it would be most useful to compare 1959 and 1981 with regard to which of the following characteristics?
(A) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-one who were not enrolled in college
(B) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-five who graduated from college
(C) The percentage of women who, after attending college, entered highly paid professions
(D) The percentage of men between twenty and twenty-one who were enrolled in college
(E) The percentage of men who graduated from high school

I could not understand the reasoning behind the answer.

this is interesting.. does this mean that in 1959, of 100 students, there were 11 women in college
whereas in 1980, of 100 students, there were 30 women in college..
to make sure that this is correct, we need % of men between 20 and 21.. which according, to above example should be 89% in 1959 and 70% in 1980...
So D.
------------------------

but my confusion is- This is partly shown by the fact that in 1959, only 11 percent of the women between twenty and twenty-one were enrolled in college, while in 1981, 30 percent of the women between twenty and twenty-one were enrolled in college.
does this mean that of women population in the city or locality, 11% were enrolled, OR
does this mean in the college, of all enrolled students, 11% were women.
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Re: Critical reasoning from OG10  [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2011, 22:59
3
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techyrajeev wrote:
The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher education programs has increased over the past decades. This is partly shown by the fact that in 1959, only 11 percent of the women between twenty and twenty-one were enrolled in college, while in 1981, 30 percent of the women between twenty and twenty-one were enrolled in college.
To evaluate the argument above, it would be most useful to compare 1959 and 1981 with regard to which of the following characteristics?
(A) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-one who were not enrolled in college
(B) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-five who graduated from college
(C) The percentage of women who, after attending college, entered highly paid professions
(D) The percentage of men between twenty and twenty-one who were enrolled in college
(E) The percentage of men who graduated from high school

I could not understand the reasoning behind the answer.

1959:
Total number of students enrolled=100
Women (20-21): 11
Men: 0
Obviously then, Women NOT(20-21): 89

Thus, proportion of women enrolled in 1959=100%

1981:
Total number of students enrolled=100
Women (20-21): 30
Men: 70
Obviously then, Women NOT(20-21): 0
Thus, proportion of women enrolled in 1981=30%

Thus, the proportion of woman in total students decreased from 1959 to 1981.

1959:
Total number of students enrolled=100
Women (20-21): 11
Men: 89
Obviously then, Women NOT(20-21): 0

Thus, proportion of women enrolled in 1959=11%

1981:
Total number of students enrolled=100
Women (20-21): 30
Men: 0
Obviously then, Women NOT(20-21): 70
Thus, proportion of women enrolled in 1981=100%

Thus, the proportion of woman in total students increased from 1959 to 1981.

Conclusion:
If we know what percent of men were enrolled in 1959 and 1981, we can exactly find the proportion of women among the students enrolled.

Ans: "D"
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Re: Critical reasoning from OG10  [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2011, 23:23
In simple words, in order to support that the percentage of women increased, one needs to know the class composition which has a direct impact on the increase or decrease of the women %age in class.

The stem talks about "The proportion of women among students....". We can infer that class is composed of both men and women & not only of women of various age groups.

(F) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-five who were enrolled in college

This definitely would have added some confusion (to choose between D & F) and in that case the information that class is composed of both men and women (inferred from stem) would have been helpful.
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Re: Critical reasoning from OG10  [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2011, 12:02
In this question, we are attacking the premise of the argument, is that ok?
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Re: Critical reasoning from OG10  [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2011, 12:48
fluke wrote:
techyrajeev wrote:
The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher education programs has increased over the past decades. This is partly shown by the fact that in 1959, only 11 percent of the women between twenty and twenty-one were enrolled in college, while in 1981, 30 percent of the women between twenty and twenty-one were enrolled in college.
To evaluate the argument above, it would be most useful to compare 1959 and 1981 with regard to which of the following characteristics?
(A) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-one who were not enrolled in college
(B) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-five who graduated from college
(C) The percentage of women who, after attending college, entered highly paid professions
(D) The percentage of men between twenty and twenty-one who were enrolled in college
(E) The percentage of men who graduated from high school

I could not understand the reasoning behind the answer.

1959:
Total number of students enrolled=100
Women (20-21): 11
Men: 0
Obviously then, Women NOT(20-21): 89

Thus, proportion of women enrolled in 1959=100%

1981:
Total number of students enrolled=100
Women (20-21): 30
Men: 70
Obviously then, Women NOT(20-21): 0
Thus, proportion of women enrolled in 1981=30%

Thus, the proportion of woman in total students decreased from 1959 to 1981.

1959:
Total number of students enrolled=100
Women (20-21): 11
Men: 89
Obviously then, Women NOT(20-21): 0

Thus, proportion of women enrolled in 1959=11%

1981:
Total number of students enrolled=100
Women (20-21): 30
Men: 0
Obviously then, Women NOT(20-21): 70
Thus, proportion of women enrolled in 1981=100%

Thus, the proportion of woman in total students increased from 1959 to 1981.

Conclusion:
If we know what percent of men were enrolled in 1959 and 1981, we can exactly find the proportion of women among the students enrolled.

Ans: "D"

Although I agree that D is the best choice here. But I don't agree with the explanation that of total 100 students enrolled in the class, 11 women enrolled and 0 men enrolled. Who are these rest of the 89 people enrolled in the class? kids? animals?
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Re: Critical reasoning from OG10  [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2011, 15:44
1
sgupta0827 wrote:
fluke wrote:
techyrajeev wrote:
The proportion of women among students enrolled in higher education programs has increased over the past decades. This is partly shown by the fact that in 1959, only 11 percent of the women between twenty and twenty-one were enrolled in college, while in 1981, 30 percent of the women between twenty and twenty-one were enrolled in college.
To evaluate the argument above, it would be most useful to compare 1959 and 1981 with regard to which of the following characteristics?
(A) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-one who were not enrolled in college
(B) The percentage of women between twenty and twenty-five who graduated from college
(C) The percentage of women who, after attending college, entered highly paid professions
(D) The percentage of men between twenty and twenty-one who were enrolled in college
(E) The percentage of men who graduated from high school

I could not understand the reasoning behind the answer.

1959:
Total number of students enrolled=100
Women (20-21): 11
Men: 0
Obviously then, Women NOT(20-21): 89

Thus, proportion of women enrolled in 1959=100%

1981:
Total number of students enrolled=100
Women (20-21): 30
Men: 70
Obviously then, Women NOT(20-21): 0
Thus, proportion of women enrolled in 1981=30%

Thus, the proportion of woman in total students decreased from 1959 to 1981.

1959:
Total number of students enrolled=100
Women (20-21): 11
Men: 89
Obviously then, Women NOT(20-21): 0

Thus, proportion of women enrolled in 1959=11%

1981:
Total number of students enrolled=100
Women (20-21): 30
Men: 0
Obviously then, Women NOT(20-21): 70
Thus, proportion of women enrolled in 1981=100%

Thus, the proportion of woman in total students increased from 1959 to 1981.

Conclusion:
If we know what percent of men were enrolled in 1959 and 1981, we can exactly find the proportion of women among the students enrolled.

Ans: "D"

Although I agree that D is the best choice here. But I don't agree with the explanation that of total 100 students enrolled in the class, 11 women enrolled and 0 men enrolled. Who are these rest of the 89 people enrolled in the class? kids? animals?

It's neither animals nor aliens. It's the number of women who are not between 20 and 21. You got to learn how to interpret a solution before criticizing it. See the text in red above.
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Re: Critical reasoning from OG10  [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2011, 18:20
fluke wrote:
It's neither animals nor aliens. It's the number of women who are not between 20 and 21. You got to learn how to interpret a solution before criticizing it. See the text in red above.

I know man. I suck at it and need to learn. Since you insisted, I went over the explanation again, and I agree your illustration has no problem at all--I missed the NOT part. Must have been the long day the other day. I hope you are not considering me for your foe list
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Re: Critical reasoning from OG10  [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2011, 18:34
sgupta0827 wrote:
fluke wrote:
It's neither animals nor aliens. It's the number of women who are not between 20 and 21. You got to learn how to interpret a solution before criticizing it. See the text in red above.

I know man. I suck at it and need to learn. Since you insisted, I went over the explanation again, and I agree your illustration has no problem at all--I missed the NOT part. Must have been the long day the other day. I hope you are not considering me for your foe list

ha ha!!!

No big deal, good friend!!!

God knows how many times have I overlooked something and blamed the other party. :D

Thanks for giving it due consideration!!!
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