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# The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are

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Manager
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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01 Jan 2015, 16:23
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priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen

The original sentence has two errors -
1. The effect of profit increase is still evident (first part of the sentence says that). Hence present perfect tense should be used instead of past.
2. 'it' does not have an antecedent

A - WRONG because of the above reasons
B - WRONG tense 'had increased' + pronoun error as in (A)
C - Right
D - 'profits with five percent increase' is very awkward.
E - Same as D.

If you have alternate explanations to D & E , please do let me know
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2015, 18:17
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
Incorrect. "during" implies continuity.
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
Incorrect. No need of the past perfect.
c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
Correct.
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
Correct, but wordy (verb vs. participle)
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen
Correct, but wordy and also kind redundant (perfect participle already indicates cause->consequence)

I am going with C.
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2015, 05:28
nancykumar wrote:
Need Help, what is "falling " in choice C ( i think it is acting as verb-ing modifier ) so "after falling " is is modifying what ?

"which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling"... this modifies the profits and hence "falling" refers to profits as well. The sentence mentions that the profits have increased after falling over the last two years. IMO, it is a verb-ing modifier as we do not have a helping verb to make it an actual verb.
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2015, 16:09
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen

The correct answer C is very tricky in this case because we have two things that happened in the past, but the present perfect tense is correct.

"After falling" doesn't require a past perfect tense because the context of the sentence makes clear that it happened first.

The present perfect tense "have increased" is ok because the increased profits in the first three months is presumably going to have a continued effect in the present (that is the company will continue to have profits).
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2016, 09:32
cyriuslevirus wrote:
In the case of the question, "profits increase and then fall"...

Hi cyriuslevirus, I think you got the sequence incorrect and perhaps, that's the reason for the confusion.

According to the sentence, profits fell and then increased (and not the other way round, as seems to be your understanding).
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Re: Belize borders Guatemala and Mexico [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2016, 02:25
daagh wrote:
After dumping B and C for their obvious Pronoun number agreement errors,

(A) Belizeans typically eat their meals with rice, and tortillas are rare --- Here the second sentence is hanging aloof without any relation to the first part. In an extreme way, it may lead wrongly to imply, that the Belizeans typically eat their meals with rice because tortillas are rare

(D) Belizeans typically eat their meals with rice, tortillas a rarity – Same problem as in A; The modifier is dangling without a proper noun to modify

(E) Belizeans typically eat their meals with rice, with tortillas as a rarity – Now the adverbial modifier ‘with tortillas as a rarity’ rightly modifies the previous clause through the action of Belizeans eating rice as a staple; correct choice

In another SC,
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen

with modifies The results
While here, with modifies rice

Quite confused
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2016, 06:27
PLIT1) THERE ARE TWO PARTS IN THIS SENTENCE. THE LATER PART IS PRESENTED FIRST, SO AFTER THE COMMA YOU NEED TO REMIND THE READER THE SECOND PART ACTUALLY TOOK PLACE FIRST. IN OTHER WORDS, THE CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER WAS REVERSED IN THIS SENTENCE. A, D AND E ARE OUT.

SPLIT 2) "WHICH" VS "WITH". THE WORD "WHICH" REFERS TO PROFITS CLEARLY VS "WITH". THE WORD "WITH" IS UNCLEAR AND INDIRECT. D AND E ARE OUT.

SPLIT3) SVA. PROFITS IS PLURAL AND THE SINGULAR PRONOUN "IT" REFERS BACK TO PROFITS IN A AND B. SO A AND B ARE OUT.
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Re: The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2017, 23:47
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Note that pronouns in possessive forms can refer to possessive nouns.

In this sentence -
"The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits"
"its" can refer to "company's". However, we cannot use the pronoun "it" to refer to "company's".

Option A - Incorrect.
the usage of "it" is incorrect as it cannot refer to the possessive noun "company's".

Option B - Incorrect.
the usage of pronoun "it" is incorrect.
"which had increased during the first three months of the year ..." - the usage of past perfect is incorrect. We can either use the simple past or present perfect.

"which have increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after falling over the last two years."

both the things in bold refer to "profits".
Also, note the usage of present perfect - "have increased". this implies that the statement was made at the end of the three month period.
the usage of past tense "increased" implies that the statement was made After the end of the three month period.

Option D - Incorrect.
Note that prepositional phrases generally serve as adverbial modifiers.
In this case, "with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months ..." seems to describe How "the results of the company's cost cutting measures Are evident ..."
WHEREAS "a 5 percent increase" and "after falling" should clearly refer to "profits".

Hence, we need a noun-modifier such as "which".

Option E - Incorrect.
Same error as D.
Also, note that "after + having fallen" is redundant.

"having + past participle" already describes a prior action in a sequence of events.
For example -
Having watched the movie, I went to the restaurant.
Here, "watched" happened before "went".
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Re: The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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19 Jan 2017, 08:53
fox123456 wrote:
The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

(A) which increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it fell
(B) which had increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it had fallen
(C) which have increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after falling
(D) with a 5 percent increase during the fi rst 3 months of this year after falling
(E) with a 5 percent increase during the fi rst 3 months of this year after having fallen

Thanks!

i can go to choice C as oa for this problem
but we have a problem in official answer.
in C, "falling" take the tense of main clause, which is "have increased. this mean "after they have fallen... over last two years". this is not logic.
in this case, subject should be present and full clause is " after the profits fell over last two years"

am I correct? is official answer wrong? sorry for these words. maybe i am wrong

pls, discuss this point
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The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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20 Jan 2017, 17:35
victory47 wrote:
fox123456 wrote:
The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

(A) which increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it fell
(B) which had increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it had fallen
(C) which have increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after falling
(D) with a 5 percent increase during the fi rst 3 months of this year after falling
(E) with a 5 percent increase during the fi rst 3 months of this year after having fallen

Thanks!

i can go to choice C as oa for this problem
but we have a problem in official answer.
in C, "falling" take the tense of main clause, which is "have increased. this mean "after they have fallen... over last two years". this is not logic.
in this case, subject should be present and full clause is " after the profits fell over last two years"

am I correct? is official answer wrong? sorry for these words. maybe i am wrong

pls, discuss this point

Before discussing this point, please recollect that when words such as "after" and "before" are used, the usage past perfect to depict an event in past of another past event is not required.

After I finished my homework, I went out.... correct.
When I had finished my homework, I went out..... correct.
After I had finished my homework, I went out... redundant.
Now consider the following:
After finishing my homework, I went out.... correct.

In option C it may seem that the tense of the action "fall" should depict that the "falling" happened before the action "increase". However the use of the word "after" already makes it clear that the action "falling" happened before the action "increase". Therefore usage of tense is not required to depict the sequence.
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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11 Apr 2017, 17:58
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are   [#permalink] 11 Apr 2017, 17:58

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