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# The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are

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The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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16 May 2009, 08:18
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63% (01:55) correct 38% (01:07) wrong based on 4004 sessions

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The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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16 May 2009, 08:28
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C. A comes closest, but is not parallel - both "increase" and "fall" should have "profits" as their subjects. Also, because the year hasn't finished yet, we should use present perfect.
Do you agree?
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling CORRECT
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen
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16 May 2009, 08:34
IMO C should be the correct ans.
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16 May 2009, 08:34
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IMO C

The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell -->incorrect modifier it. They is better to match profits
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen -->...had increased ... after it had fallen... is surely ungrammatical. Besides, same error as A
c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling -->best. The first three months is an indefinitely time and likely to last until now, so present perfect is best.
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling -->with + Noun phrase + after + present participle + ... is ungrammatical. Besides, it seems to modify for the results, not for profits, meaning The results have a 5% increase (???) after the result fell over the last 2 years --> awkward meaning
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen --> same errors as D
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17 May 2009, 10:55
A and B are out for wrong use of pronoun "it".
D and E are out for modifier issue.

C.
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18 May 2009, 19:25
OA is C. Thanks
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24 Apr 2010, 11:11
I know C is right, but I have a question isn't D a bunch of prepositional phrases that are actually modifying the main verb in the previous clause "are evident" therefore they are grammatically right, furthermore preposition "after" clearly indicates the sequence of the two events so why do we need to use tense to show the time sequence between the two
Note: in mgmat sc it says if the sequence is clear then we do not have to use complicated tense.
Note: I dont think "increase" here is a verb because "five percent" is acting as an adjective or prearticle that is modifying "increase" so without the "five percent" the phrase would be "an increase" therefore "increase" is acting as the object of the prepositional phrase therefore it's not a verb.

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Last edited by elevinty on 24 Apr 2010, 12:14, edited 2 times in total.
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24 Apr 2010, 12:35
elevinty wrote:
I know C is right, but I have a question isn't D a bunch of prepositional phrases that are actually modifying the main verb in the previous clause "are evident" therefore they are grammatically right, furthermore preposition "after" clearly indicates the sequence of the two events so why do we need to use tense to show the time sequence between the two
Note: in mgmat sc it says if the sequence is clear then we do not have to use complicated tense.
Note: I dont think "increase" here is a verb because "five percent" is acting as an adjective or prearticle that is modifying "increase" so without the "five percent" the phrase would be "an increase" therefore "increase" is acting as the object of the prepositional phrase therefore it's not a verb.

uummm.. Not sure how to answer ur question but theres another reason why 'D' is wrong. First in second clause two events are happening 5 pc increase in first three months nd 'fall' in previous 2 years and the main clause is talking in present.. 'are evident'. When two things are said in past, its imp to distinguish which occurred earlier.

Also when you see the whole statemnt together the first is the main clause and second is subordinate clause.dependent on first. using 'with' as second clause wud make it a stand alone independent clause, you can flip and test.. this makes 'D' and 'E' out.
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24 Apr 2010, 13:13
thank you nilesh376 for your initiative, but here is what I think:
"uummm.. Not sure how to answer ur question but theres another reason why 'D' is wrong. First in second clause two events are happening 5 pc increase in first three months nd 'fall' in previous 2 years and the main clause is talking in present.. 'are evident'. When two things are said in past, its imp to distinguish which occurred earlier."

that's what I said but there is preposition "after" in the second phrase(I dont think the second statement which you refer to it as a second clause is infact a clause because there is no a clear subject and there are only partial predicate therefore the whole phrase which is long is acting as a adverb that is modifying the main verb in the main clause) back to what I was saying the word "after" indicates the time sequence so again why do we need to use tense.

<using 'with' as second clause wud make it a stand alone independent clause, you can flip and test.. this makes 'D' and 'E' out.>

am not sure about this, "with" is actually a preposition therefore it is not used to introduce a n independent clause, also "with" is sometimes used to introduce an absolute phrase but there is no way that it can introduce an independent clause because it actually would not have a complete meaning.

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25 Apr 2010, 00:56
elevinty wrote:
thank you nilesh376 for your initiative, but here is what I think:
"uummm.. Not sure how to answer ur question but theres another reason why 'D' is wrong. First in second clause two events are happening 5 pc increase in first three months nd 'fall' in previous 2 years and the main clause is talking in present.. 'are evident'. When two things are said in past, its imp to distinguish which occurred earlier."

that's what I said but there is preposition "after" in the second phrase(I dont think the second statement which you refer to it as a second clause is infact a clause because there is no a clear subject and there are only partial predicate therefore the whole phrase which is long is acting as a adverb that is modifying the main verb in the main clause) back to what I was saying the word "after" indicates the time sequence so again why do we need to use tense.

<using 'with' as second clause wud make it a stand alone independent clause, you can flip and test.. this makes 'D' and 'E' out.>

am not sure about this, "with" is actually a preposition therefore it is not used to introduce a n independent clause, also "with" is sometimes used to introduce an absolute phrase but there is no way that it can introduce an independent clause because it actually would not have a complete meaning.

sorry my mistake i shud say the second phrase..

see this way.. if you use 'with' preposition in 'D' . whom its referring to? sure it is 'its profits' just because its close to 'profits' and not to 'the result' the main subject or in fact 'the company'. does the preposition 'with' helps to link two phrases?. the second phrase is talking about increase and decrease of a figure which is profit and rely on a word which wud clearly refer to profit, introducing relative clause 'which' refers to profits and joins the two clause and phrase.

Using after or before preposition not always convey the same meaning. the verb should have a proper tense when used in the statement.

do below have same meaning??
we reached the station after, the train left already

or

I wrote the letter before he arrived

I had written the letter before he arrived

hope it makes sense
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29 Jul 2010, 15:41
According to my source OA is D.
Could anybody clarify?
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01 Sep 2010, 12:32
noboru wrote:
According to my source OA is D.
Could anybody clarify?

Nobody is going to clarify between C and D?
Thanks
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02 Sep 2010, 08:53
Noboru, the OA mentioned in your source is incorrect. The correct answer is C.
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02 Sep 2010, 09:02
Ya i have seen this question earlier as well . OA is C.
noboru : did you wite the exam recently .. I guess I have seen your score for the first time !
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08 Sep 2010, 12:38
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gauravnagpal wrote:
Ya i have seen this question earlier as well . OA is C.
noboru : did you wite the exam recently .. I guess I have seen your score for the first time !

It's good to know, since I prefer C.

Yes, I did it one month ago and got 680 (Q50, V32). I'm registered to take it next week but I don't know whether I am prepare to achieve a 700+.
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22 Nov 2010, 06:56
I didn't go with C because "falling over" sounded like the profits literally fell over

i guess falling over is ok, need to hope i don't get something else similar
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22 Nov 2010, 13:37
Could anybody further explain what's wrong with D?
Thanks.
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Hey noboru,

I'll take the bait! My rationale for C over D has a few points:

1) "Which" in C is a clear modifier - it directly says that the profits have increased after the profits fell, so it has a very clear meaning whereas, at first glance to me, "with" seemed a little less direct. Honestly, upon first glance that was enough for me - C was clearer, and therefore better, than D.

2) Upon further review, I'll even say this - what is the subject of the verb "falling" in D? We haven't set up "profits" as a subject (as we did with "which" as a reflexive pronoun in C), so D has an unclear meaning - what fell?

3) "with" in D should have a meaning as something that joins two things, so it seems like it would link "are evident in its profits...with an increase", making "profits" and "an increase" as two separate and equivalent items...and that's an illogical meaning because the "increase" doesn't have a clear number or value in that case. You can't simply have "an increase" - that increase has to be attached to a number, a figure, etc. So the word "with" in D introduces a lack of clarity throughout the underlined portion - the increase is vague and the verb "falling" has no subject. D is incorrect on several counts.
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22 Nov 2010, 22:38
C.

guys please provide source of the question.
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23 Nov 2010, 01:38
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That was very useful!
Many thanks!

VeritasPrepBrian wrote:
Hey noboru,

I'll take the bait! My rationale for C over D has a few points:

1) "Which" in C is a clear modifier - it directly says that the profits have increased after the profits fell, so it has a very clear meaning whereas, at first glance to me, "with" seemed a little less direct. Honestly, upon first glance that was enough for me - C was clearer, and therefore better, than D.

2) Upon further review, I'll even say this - what is the subject of the verb "falling" in D? We haven't set up "profits" as a subject (as we did with "which" as a reflexive pronoun in C), so D has an unclear meaning - what fell?

3) "with" in D should have a meaning as something that joins two things, so it seems like it would link "are evident in its profits...with an increase", making "profits" and "an increase" as two separate and equivalent items...and that's an illogical meaning because the "increase" doesn't have a clear number or value in that case. You can't simply have "an increase" - that increase has to be attached to a number, a figure, etc. So the word "with" in D introduces a lack of clarity throughout the underlined portion - the increase is vague and the verb "falling" has no subject. D is incorrect on several counts.

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Re: SC: cost-cutting !!GMATPREP!!   [#permalink] 23 Nov 2010, 01:38

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