It is currently 19 Oct 2017, 13:50

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

Events & Promotions

Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
Affiliations: Volunteer Operation Smile India, Creative Head of College IEEE branch (2009-10), Chief Editor College Magazine (2009), Finance Head College Magazine (2008)
Joined: 26 Jul 2010
Posts: 459

Kudos [?]: 174 [0], given: 24

Location: India
WE2: Entrepreneur (E-commerce - The Laptop Skin Vault)
Concentration: Marketing, Entrepreneurship
GMAT 1: 710 Q49 V38
WE: Marketing (Other)
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 30 Jul 2010, 00:19
Its D because for correct construction and "it" is singular while "profits" is plural therefore A is wrong
_________________

Kidchaos

http://www.laptopskinvault.com

Follow The Laptop Skin Vault on:
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/TheLaptopSkinVault
Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/LaptopSkinVault

Consider Kudos if you think the Post is good
Unless someone like you cares a whole awful lot. Nothing is going to change. It's not. - Dr. Seuss

Kudos [?]: 174 [0], given: 24

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 29 Jul 2010
Posts: 6

Kudos [?]: 3 [0], given: 4

Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 30 Jul 2010, 00:57
IMO C. OA is C and not D. You can check other forums and posts in this forum.

Request you to cite the source and the correct OA so as to remove any unnecessary confusion.

Kudos [?]: 3 [0], given: 4

VP
VP
avatar
Joined: 16 Jul 2009
Posts: 1489

Kudos [?]: 1447 [0], given: 2

Schools: CBS
WE 1: 4 years (Consulting)
Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 30 Jul 2010, 02:18
My question was about the usage of "with", not about the example provided.

According to seekmba, "with" modifies the entire precedent clause. Could anybody corroborate that?

As per my source, OA is D; although it is true that in other forums OA is C.
_________________

The sky is the limit
800 is the limit


GMAT Club Premium Membership - big benefits and savings

Kudos [?]: 1447 [0], given: 2

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 08 Jan 2010
Posts: 177

Kudos [?]: 3 [0], given: 13

Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 30 Jul 2010, 03:25
I also went for .....C...........

removing the "," "With" is acceptable as it would again modify profits ........I don't understand ....some one please put in perspective ......

Kudos [?]: 3 [0], given: 13

2 KUDOS received
Retired Moderator
User avatar
P
Status: worked for Kaplan's associates, but now on my own, free and flying
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 4287

Kudos [?]: 7901 [2], given: 363

Location: India
WE: Education (Education)
Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 29 Dec 2010, 20:10
2
This post received
KUDOS
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
There is a rule in modification that if a modifier is inessential, then it has to be set off with a comma, in which case the clause should complete the intended meaning in full without considering the modifier. In D and E, the prepositional modifiers are separated by a comma, but the intended meaning of the passage can not be completed without considering the modifiers. Therefore, the use of comma before the preposition ‘with’ is grammatically incorrect. Hence D and E can be dropped.
_________________

“Better than a thousand days of diligent study is one day with a great teacher” – a Japanese proverb.
9884544509

Kudos [?]: 7901 [2], given: 363

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 14 Jul 2011
Posts: 16

Kudos [?]: 24 [0], given: 0

Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 20 Jul 2011, 22:14
OG says the underlined part need to clarify the sequence by using verb tenses.
Here are the explanation for the choices:

A The verb tenses do not distinguish between the times at which these indicators occurred; the singular it does not agree with the plural profits.
B The verb tenses do not distinguish between the times when the indicators occurred; the singular it does not agree with the plural profits.
C Correct. The verb tenses clearly indicate the sequence of events.
D It is not clear what connection is being described by with; the prepositional phrase makes the sentence wordy and unclear.
E It is not clear what connection is being described by with; the prepositional phrase makes the sentence wordy and unclear.

IF the sequence is the first priority, I think E best resolves this problem "having fallen..." clearly indicates that the action falling happened before the action increase.
Why is E wrong?
1) because it starts with "with+ing" pattern?
I've noticed that OG seems to avoid this "with" pattern. But could anyone tell me why is it wrong? if it's a noun modifier, then it makes perfect sense to modify "profits".
2) because it contains "having"? GMAT seems to avoid this form too.

Please explain~~~Thanks

Kudos [?]: 24 [0], given: 0

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 06 Jun 2011
Posts: 141

Kudos [?]: 73 [0], given: 15

Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 12 Mar 2012, 00:23
Hi,

C) which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after falling

(E) with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after having fallen

there is no particular rule about with or which that I can remember.
however here which preceded with comma correctly identifies profits

the problem with "with" is what does it refers to? profits/results/cost cutting measures?
also having is often not preferred in GMAt

Kudos [?]: 73 [0], given: 15

Manager
Manager
User avatar
Status: Duke!
Joined: 20 Jan 2012
Posts: 130

Kudos [?]: 41 [0], given: 10

GMAT 1: 710 Q49 V38
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 08 Apr 2012, 05:38
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
The following question appeared in several topics before. the OA is:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C
.
MY question is not about which answer is correct. My question is:

Why is it OK to use present participant ("falling")?
I have expected it to be "had fallen", since it happened 2 years ago and after it the profits got better ("increased), or in other words:
1st action (Past Perfect) ---> 2nd action (Past Simple) ---> PRESENT.


The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen

Kudos [?]: 41 [0], given: 10

5 KUDOS received
Retired Moderator
User avatar
P
Status: worked for Kaplan's associates, but now on my own, free and flying
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 4287

Kudos [?]: 7901 [5], given: 363

Location: India
WE: Education (Education)
Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 08 Apr 2012, 06:25
5
This post received
KUDOS
2
This post was
BOOKMARKED
1. The pronoun ‘it’ has no locus standi here; we should say ‘they’ since the pronoun refers to the plural profits – A and B gone

2. The fall in profits is not a one-time affair that happened at a specific time two years ago. It has been falling for the past two years. Therefore, it might be right to use a present perfect or a present participle rather than a past perfect, since we do not have a bonafide simple past tense to intervene between the past perfect and the present tense of the text.

3. However, the problem in D and E is one of modification. The prepositional phrase - with a five percent increase- modifies the subject ‘the results’ rather than the profits This is wrong becos it is the profits that have gone up. It is illogical to say that the results went up 5%.

4. That is the reason C wins, by using the relative pronoun ‘which’
_________________

“Better than a thousand days of diligent study is one day with a great teacher” – a Japanese proverb.
9884544509

Kudos [?]: 7901 [5], given: 363

VP
VP
User avatar
Status: Far, far away!
Joined: 02 Sep 2012
Posts: 1120

Kudos [?]: 2327 [0], given: 219

Location: Italy
Concentration: Finance, Entrepreneurship
GPA: 3.8
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Mar 2013, 10:49
ratinarace wrote:
The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profi ts, which increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

(A) which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after they fell
(B) which had increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after they had fallen
(C) which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after falling
(D) with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after falling
(E) with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after having fallen


"which" is correctly used and better than "with".
So D E out.

(A) which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after they fell
The verbs do not give a good idea of the sequence of the events. The simple past ("increased" and "fell") is used to describe "short" actions, in this case we are talking of what the profits did "during the first 3 months" and "over the last two years".
(B) which had increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after they had fallen.
"they had fallen over the last two years" is correct, this is an action that occurred over a long period of time in the past and is now over.
However, again, parallelism doesn't give us a good idea of the sequence of the events. And moreover "which had increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year" is not logically correct; I would change it maybe to "which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year", to because this action is recent and maybe is still "happening".
(C) which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after falling.
"have increased" is the correct verb, as I explained above. "after falling" clearly explains the sequence.

IMO C
_________________

It is beyond a doubt that all our knowledge that begins with experience.

Kant , Critique of Pure Reason

Tips and tricks: Inequalities , Mixture | Review: MGMAT workshop
Strategy: SmartGMAT v1.0 | Questions: Verbal challenge SC I-II- CR New SC set out !! , My Quant

Rules for Posting in the Verbal Forum - Rules for Posting in the Quant Forum[/size][/color][/b]

Kudos [?]: 2327 [0], given: 219

Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 26 Jul 2011
Posts: 120

Kudos [?]: 134 [0], given: 16

Location: India
WE: Marketing (Manufacturing)
Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Mar 2013, 22:31
official answer indeed is C.

...Thank you all for your inputs

@aditya, @sdasI actually have manipulated the original question, removing the pronoun error from option A and B..
My purpose of doing so is to understand the difference between option A and option C purely on the basis of the verbs.....coming back to the doubt that I have

in option A, doesn't the use of "after" clarifies the sequencing? or is it that we need past perfect here?? @aditya...yes I feel we need to clearly identify the sequencing as there are two events increased and fell both happening in the past

Kudos [?]: 134 [0], given: 16

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 27 Feb 2013
Posts: 13

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 4

Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 26 Mar 2013, 01:41
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.


Second clause is briefing about profits so "which" is appropriate.
Thus D and E are out.

Now subject given is plural so we cant use "it" for the same. Thus eliminate A and B

So C

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 4

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 10 Jan 2010
Posts: 78

Kudos [?]: 29 [0], given: 11

Schools: IIM
Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 20 Apr 2013, 02:05
daagh wrote:
1. The pronoun ‘it’ has no locus standi here; we should say ‘they’ since the pronoun refers to the plural profits – A and B gone

2. The fall in profits is not a one-time affair that happened at a specific time two years ago. It has been falling for the past two years. Therefore, it might be right to use a present perfect or a present participle rather than a past perfect, since we do not have a bonafide simple past tense to intervene between the past perfect and the present tense of the text.

3. However, the problem in D and E is one of modification. The prepositional phrase - with a five percent increase- modifies the subject ‘the results’ rather than the profits This is wrong becos it is the profits that have gone up. It is illogical to say that the results went up 5%.

4. That is the reason C wins, by using the relative pronoun ‘which’


How the prepositional phrase "with a five percent increase" modifies the subject "the results" and not "profits".

Kudos [?]: 29 [0], given: 11

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
Joined: 23 Mar 2011
Posts: 461

Kudos [?]: 279 [0], given: 59

Location: India
GPA: 2.5
WE: Operations (Hospitality and Tourism)
Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 20 Apr 2013, 05:56
How the prepositional phrase "with a five percent increase" modifies the subject "the results" and not "profits".[/quote]

Hey there, it is actually modifying profits and not the results - that is what is the intended meaning of the sentence.

Think about it this way - can measures increase in %? No it cannot. But can profits increase in % - of course it can...

Hope this helps
_________________

"When the going gets tough, the tough gets going!"

Bring ON SOME KUDOS MATES+++



-----------------------------
Quant Notes consolidated: http://gmatclub.com/forum/consolodited-quant-guides-of-forum-most-helpful-in-preps-151067.html#p1217652

My GMAT journey begins: http://gmatclub.com/forum/my-gmat-journey-begins-122251.html

All about Richard Ivey: http://gmatclub.com/forum/all-about-richard-ivey-148594.html#p1190518

Kudos [?]: 279 [0], given: 59

Retired Moderator
User avatar
P
Status: worked for Kaplan's associates, but now on my own, free and flying
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 4287

Kudos [?]: 7901 [0], given: 363

Location: India
WE: Education (Education)
Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 20 Apr 2013, 07:05
We have to read choices D and E together with the comma after profits. A prepositional modifiers set off by a comma is an adverbial modifier, referring to either the subject or the entire clause. But we do not want that. We want something to modify the profits, done best by modifiers such as which or that; that is the reason C wins
_________________

“Better than a thousand days of diligent study is one day with a great teacher” – a Japanese proverb.
9884544509

Kudos [?]: 7901 [0], given: 363

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 15 Nov 2012
Posts: 6

Kudos [?]: [0], given: 4

Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 21 Apr 2013, 18:45
Guys ,

I have a small doubt . I picked 'C' because Profits are plural and 'Which have' is best one than 'Which had'. But , when to use 'have +v3' and 'had+v3'? Is this is the issue with -plural subject or other thing? Please clarify my doubt..........

Kudos [?]: [0], given: 4

Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 12 Jan 2013
Posts: 218

Kudos [?]: 79 [0], given: 47

GMAT ToolKit User
Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 07 Jan 2014, 09:03
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen



What does "it" refer to, in A and B? The profits? That's plural... So A/B gone.

C) makes sense

D) "with a" doesn't make sense, the rest does but this is enough to eliminate D, since we already have C

E) makes the same mistake as D, so we go with C.

Kudos [?]: 79 [0], given: 47

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 18 Jun 2013
Posts: 10

Kudos [?]: 3 [0], given: 3

Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 11 Feb 2014, 03:37
FuzzyBuzzard wrote:
Jump up...

After reviewing this topic and also other topics about the same question, I didn't find an answer to my question:
Why is it OK to use present participant ("falling")?
I have expected it to be "had fallen", since it happened 2 years ago and after it the profits got better ("increased), or in other words:
1st action (Past Perfect) ---> 2nd action (Past Simple) ---> PRESENT.

Thank you.

EDIT: :wall people just answer the original SC question, without even looking at the latest posts and what was asked in them!


I was also wondering the same thing and I came to this conclusion:

Verbs ending with '-ing' are flexible in that they can serve as modifiers and can assume the tense of the main verb of the clause.

To rephrase it: 'Profits, after falling the last two years, have increased.'

Because 'falling' modifies 'Profits' -- which 'have increased' -- 'falling' also assumes a past tense.

Makes sense?

Kudos [?]: 3 [0], given: 3

Expert Post
1 KUDOS received
e-GMAT Representative
User avatar
S
Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2311

Kudos [?]: 9037 [1], given: 335

Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 19 Apr 2014, 21:57
1
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
4
This post was
BOOKMARKED
akhil911 wrote:
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen


My question is why is D or E not correct and C correct - is it because of the use of with in choices D and E or do they contain any additional error.
The only difference between C and D is the usage of with and which.
Can someone please guide on the usage of these words.


Dear Akhil,
Thank you for your query. :)
You are correct. Structurally speaking, the difference between C and D is the difference between their respective uses of “which” and “with”. However, logically speaking, choice C is any day a lot clearer in conveying the intended meaning of the author than either choice D or E is. Let’s see why:

In choice D or E, it is not clear exactly how the prepositional phrase starting with “with” relates back to the sentence. Now, the whole phrase starting with “with” is a prepositional phrase, which can modify either a noun or a verb. Accordingly, the two possible things that could be modified with this modifier are (ref: underlined sections) :

a. The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits…
or
b. The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits

Now, the context of the sentence dictates that the “with” phrase modify “profits” as, logically speaking, the profits have increased after falling for two years. So let’s test whether this meaning comes across clearly with the “with” modifiers :

(D) The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling over the last two years.
(E) The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen over the last two years.

Now, do you think that the “with” modifiers in the above two sentences clearly refer back to the profits?! The answer is NO! This is because these phrases could be deemed as modifying the action in the previous clause. In other words, it could be taken to suggest that:

The results are evident because of a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling over the last two years.


The above meaning makes logical sense. However, is this sense compatible with the intended meaning of the author? The answer is NO! Also, besides the fact that choices D and E form rather awkward sentences, in the “with” modifying phrases, we are just told about a five percent increase, but we are not told exactly what entity has increased during the first three months of this year. The same goes for the “falling” bit. We do not know exactly what fell over the last two years.

Accordingly, it makes more sense to use “which” here. This is because “which” is typically used to convey extra-information about the noun preceding it. In the correct choice, “which” unambiguously refers back to “profits”. A simple example of the same usage is explained below:

The green shoes, which I tried on, are designed by the famous shoe designer Romano Ray.


In the above sentence, the noun “shoes” is already described as “green” in color. Therefore, the “which” clause- which I tried on- gives us extra information about the shoes.

To solidify your understanding of the topic and to learn the nuances of the same, please visit our in-depth article on the subject: noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html

Please also revise the concept of “Types of modifier” if you are an e-GMATer.

Hope the above discussion helps! :)

Regards,

Neeti.
_________________












| '4 out of Top 5' Instructors on gmatclub | 70 point improvement guarantee | www.e-gmat.com

Kudos [?]: 9037 [1], given: 335

Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 31 May 2012
Posts: 157

Kudos [?]: 194 [0], given: 69

Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 13 May 2014, 21:32
Couple of question:
1. I have question regarding the 'tense' used in A & B. Please find below choice by eliminating the pronoun error. please let me know if they are correct.

a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling


2. Question regarding 'with'
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen
In both cases 'with' is incorrect.
Is 'with' always incorrect to start a modifier ? Or can 'with' used to start modifier is any case ? Is there any example that shows correct usage of 'with' ?

I will offer kudos to every satisfactory answer :lol:

Kudos [?]: 194 [0], given: 69

Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are   [#permalink] 13 May 2014, 21:32

Go to page   Previous    1   2   3   4    Next  [ 73 posts ] 

Display posts from previous: Sort by

The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.