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The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2010, 00:19
Its D because for correct construction and "it" is singular while "profits" is plural therefore A is wrong
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2010, 00:57
IMO C. OA is C and not D. You can check other forums and posts in this forum.

Request you to cite the source and the correct OA so as to remove any unnecessary confusion.

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2010, 02:18
My question was about the usage of "with", not about the example provided.

According to seekmba, "with" modifies the entire precedent clause. Could anybody corroborate that?

As per my source, OA is D; although it is true that in other forums OA is C.
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2010, 03:25
I also went for .....C...........

removing the "," "With" is acceptable as it would again modify profits ........I don't understand ....some one please put in perspective ......

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2010, 20:10
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There is a rule in modification that if a modifier is inessential, then it has to be set off with a comma, in which case the clause should complete the intended meaning in full without considering the modifier. In D and E, the prepositional modifiers are separated by a comma, but the intended meaning of the passage can not be completed without considering the modifiers. Therefore, the use of comma before the preposition ‘with’ is grammatically incorrect. Hence D and E can be dropped.
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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20 Jul 2011, 22:14
OG says the underlined part need to clarify the sequence by using verb tenses.
Here are the explanation for the choices:

A The verb tenses do not distinguish between the times at which these indicators occurred; the singular it does not agree with the plural profits.
B The verb tenses do not distinguish between the times when the indicators occurred; the singular it does not agree with the plural profits.
C Correct. The verb tenses clearly indicate the sequence of events.
D It is not clear what connection is being described by with; the prepositional phrase makes the sentence wordy and unclear.
E It is not clear what connection is being described by with; the prepositional phrase makes the sentence wordy and unclear.

IF the sequence is the first priority, I think E best resolves this problem "having fallen..." clearly indicates that the action falling happened before the action increase.
Why is E wrong?
1) because it starts with "with+ing" pattern?
I've noticed that OG seems to avoid this "with" pattern. But could anyone tell me why is it wrong? if it's a noun modifier, then it makes perfect sense to modify "profits".
2) because it contains "having"? GMAT seems to avoid this form too.

Please explain~~~Thanks

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2012, 00:23
Hi,

C) which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after falling

(E) with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after having fallen

there is no particular rule about with or which that I can remember.
however here which preceded with comma correctly identifies profits

the problem with "with" is what does it refers to? profits/results/cost cutting measures?
also having is often not preferred in GMAt

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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08 Apr 2012, 05:38
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The following question appeared in several topics before. the OA is:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C
.
MY question is not about which answer is correct. My question is:

Why is it OK to use present participant ("falling")?
I have expected it to be "had fallen", since it happened 2 years ago and after it the profits got better ("increased), or in other words:
1st action (Past Perfect) ---> 2nd action (Past Simple) ---> PRESENT.

 The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fellb. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallenc. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after fallingd. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after fallinge. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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08 Apr 2012, 06:25
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1. The pronoun ‘it’ has no locus standi here; we should say ‘they’ since the pronoun refers to the plural profits – A and B gone

2. The fall in profits is not a one-time affair that happened at a specific time two years ago. It has been falling for the past two years. Therefore, it might be right to use a present perfect or a present participle rather than a past perfect, since we do not have a bonafide simple past tense to intervene between the past perfect and the present tense of the text.

3. However, the problem in D and E is one of modification. The prepositional phrase - with a five percent increase- modifies the subject ‘the results’ rather than the profits This is wrong becos it is the profits that have gone up. It is illogical to say that the results went up 5%.

4. That is the reason C wins, by using the relative pronoun ‘which’
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2013, 10:49
ratinarace wrote:
The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profi ts, which increased 5 percent during the fi rst 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

(A) which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after they fell
(B) which had increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after they had fallen
(C) which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after falling
(D) with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after falling
(E) with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after having fallen

"which" is correctly used and better than "with".
So D E out.

(A) which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after they fell
The verbs do not give a good idea of the sequence of the events. The simple past ("increased" and "fell") is used to describe "short" actions, in this case we are talking of what the profits did "during the first 3 months" and "over the last two years".
(B) which had increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after they had fallen.
"they had fallen over the last two years" is correct, this is an action that occurred over a long period of time in the past and is now over.
However, again, parallelism doesn't give us a good idea of the sequence of the events. And moreover "which had increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year" is not logically correct; I would change it maybe to "which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year", to because this action is recent and maybe is still "happening".
(C) which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after falling.
"have increased" is the correct verb, as I explained above. "after falling" clearly explains the sequence.

IMO C
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2013, 22:31
official answer indeed is C.

...Thank you all for your inputs

@aditya, @sdasI actually have manipulated the original question, removing the pronoun error from option A and B..
My purpose of doing so is to understand the difference between option A and option C purely on the basis of the verbs.....coming back to the doubt that I have

in option A, doesn't the use of "after" clarifies the sequencing? or is it that we need past perfect here?? @aditya...yes I feel we need to clearly identify the sequencing as there are two events increased and fell both happening in the past

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26 Mar 2013, 01:41
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

Second clause is briefing about profits so "which" is appropriate.
Thus D and E are out.

Now subject given is plural so we cant use "it" for the same. Thus eliminate A and B

So C

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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20 Apr 2013, 02:05
daagh wrote:
1. The pronoun ‘it’ has no locus standi here; we should say ‘they’ since the pronoun refers to the plural profits – A and B gone

2. The fall in profits is not a one-time affair that happened at a specific time two years ago. It has been falling for the past two years. Therefore, it might be right to use a present perfect or a present participle rather than a past perfect, since we do not have a bonafide simple past tense to intervene between the past perfect and the present tense of the text.

3. However, the problem in D and E is one of modification. The prepositional phrase - with a five percent increase- modifies the subject ‘the results’ rather than the profits This is wrong becos it is the profits that have gone up. It is illogical to say that the results went up 5%.

4. That is the reason C wins, by using the relative pronoun ‘which’

How the prepositional phrase "with a five percent increase" modifies the subject "the results" and not "profits".

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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20 Apr 2013, 05:56
How the prepositional phrase "with a five percent increase" modifies the subject "the results" and not "profits".[/quote]

Hey there, it is actually modifying profits and not the results - that is what is the intended meaning of the sentence.

Think about it this way - can measures increase in %? No it cannot. But can profits increase in % - of course it can...

Hope this helps
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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20 Apr 2013, 07:05
We have to read choices D and E together with the comma after profits. A prepositional modifiers set off by a comma is an adverbial modifier, referring to either the subject or the entire clause. But we do not want that. We want something to modify the profits, done best by modifiers such as which or that; that is the reason C wins
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2013, 18:45
Guys ,

I have a small doubt . I picked 'C' because Profits are plural and 'Which have' is best one than 'Which had'. But , when to use 'have +v3' and 'had+v3'? Is this is the issue with -plural subject or other thing? Please clarify my doubt..........

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2014, 09:03
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen

What does "it" refer to, in A and B? The profits? That's plural... So A/B gone.

C) makes sense

D) "with a" doesn't make sense, the rest does but this is enough to eliminate D, since we already have C

E) makes the same mistake as D, so we go with C.

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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11 Feb 2014, 03:37
FuzzyBuzzard wrote:
Jump up...

After reviewing this topic and also other topics about the same question, I didn't find an answer to my question:
Why is it OK to use present participant ("falling")?
I have expected it to be "had fallen", since it happened 2 years ago and after it the profits got better ("increased), or in other words:
1st action (Past Perfect) ---> 2nd action (Past Simple) ---> PRESENT.

Thank you.

EDIT: people just answer the original SC question, without even looking at the latest posts and what was asked in them!

I was also wondering the same thing and I came to this conclusion:

Verbs ending with '-ing' are flexible in that they can serve as modifiers and can assume the tense of the main verb of the clause.

To rephrase it: 'Profits, after falling the last two years, have increased.'

Because 'falling' modifies 'Profits' -- which 'have increased' -- 'falling' also assumes a past tense.

Makes sense?

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2014, 21:57
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akhil911 wrote:
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen

My question is why is D or E not correct and C correct - is it because of the use of with in choices D and E or do they contain any additional error.
The only difference between C and D is the usage of with and which.
Can someone please guide on the usage of these words.

Dear Akhil,
Thank you for your query.
You are correct. Structurally speaking, the difference between C and D is the difference between their respective uses of “which” and “with”. However, logically speaking, choice C is any day a lot clearer in conveying the intended meaning of the author than either choice D or E is. Let’s see why:

In choice D or E, it is not clear exactly how the prepositional phrase starting with “with” relates back to the sentence. Now, the whole phrase starting with “with” is a prepositional phrase, which can modify either a noun or a verb. Accordingly, the two possible things that could be modified with this modifier are (ref: underlined sections) :

a. The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits…
or
b. The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits

Now, the context of the sentence dictates that the “with” phrase modify “profits” as, logically speaking, the profits have increased after falling for two years. So let’s test whether this meaning comes across clearly with the “with” modifiers :

(D) The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling over the last two years.
(E) The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen over the last two years.

Now, do you think that the “with” modifiers in the above two sentences clearly refer back to the profits?! The answer is NO! This is because these phrases could be deemed as modifying the action in the previous clause. In other words, it could be taken to suggest that:

The results are evident because of a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling over the last two years.

The above meaning makes logical sense. However, is this sense compatible with the intended meaning of the author? The answer is NO! Also, besides the fact that choices D and E form rather awkward sentences, in the “with” modifying phrases, we are just told about a five percent increase, but we are not told exactly what entity has increased during the first three months of this year. The same goes for the “falling” bit. We do not know exactly what fell over the last two years.

Accordingly, it makes more sense to use “which” here. This is because “which” is typically used to convey extra-information about the noun preceding it. In the correct choice, “which” unambiguously refers back to “profits”. A simple example of the same usage is explained below:

The green shoes, which I tried on, are designed by the famous shoe designer Romano Ray.

In the above sentence, the noun “shoes” is already described as “green” in color. Therefore, the “which” clause- which I tried on- gives us extra information about the shoes.

To solidify your understanding of the topic and to learn the nuances of the same, please visit our in-depth article on the subject: noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html

Please also revise the concept of “Types of modifier” if you are an e-GMATer.

Hope the above discussion helps!

Regards,

Neeti.
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13 May 2014, 21:32
Couple of question:
1. I have question regarding the 'tense' used in A & B. Please find below choice by eliminating the pronoun error. please let me know if they are correct.

a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling

2. Question regarding 'with'
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen
In both cases 'with' is incorrect.
Is 'with' always incorrect to start a modifier ? Or can 'with' used to start modifier is any case ? Is there any example that shows correct usage of 'with' ?

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