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# The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are

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Senior Manager
Joined: 17 Aug 2005
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The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2007, 14:42
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The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

(A) which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell

(B) which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen

(C) which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling

(D) with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling

(E) with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2007, 15:12
buckkitty wrote:
The results of the companyâ€™s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
(A) which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
(B) which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
(C) which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
(D) with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
(E) with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen

Profits -> plural.

we need the non-essential modifier which to correctly modify the profits. So I will pick C for the correct use of the modifier and subject-verb agreement.
Director
Joined: 28 Dec 2005
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Re: The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2007, 15:15
Hmm, I was leaning towards E. I think the use of which is wrong here, since that part of the sentence conveys information that is essential.

Besides, the subject seems to be results and not profits. But now Im confused. I still have a long way to go with SC...
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Re: The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2007, 15:23
hsampath wrote:
Hmm, I was leaning towards E. I think the use of which is wrong here, since that part of the sentence conveys information that is essential.
(

An essential modifier 'that' is used only when we identify the noun by its characteristics. 'which' is used when the characteristics of the noun are not used to identify the noun and when the characteristics are purely informative.

In this case, we are talking about the company's profits and the profits happened to have increased. It is not that there are multiple types of profits for a company and we want to refer only to a specific kind of profits, which have increased.
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Re: The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2007, 17:44
hsampath wrote:
Hmm, I was leaning towards E. I think the use of which is wrong here, since that part of the sentence conveys information that is essential.

Besides, the subject seems to be results and not profits. But now Im confused. I still have a long way to go with SC...

E would be a sentence fragment as the clause "The results of the companyâ€™s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits" is independent

so we need a relative pronoun which

C does it
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Re: The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2007, 17:58
trivikram wrote:
hsampath wrote:
Hmm, I was leaning towards E. I think the use of which is wrong here, since that part of the sentence conveys information that is essential.

Besides, the subject seems to be results and not profits. But now Im confused. I still have a long way to go with SC...

E would be a sentence fragment as the clause "The results of the companyâ€™s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits" is independent

so we need a relative pronoun which

C does it

Thanks ncprasad and trivikram. I re-read E and I see where I went wrong, it isnt even a complete sentence!
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Re: The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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10 Feb 2007, 01:56
I am leaning towards D)

In E), the usage 'after having fallen over the last two years' seems to be little awkward.
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Re: The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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10 Feb 2007, 13:53
C - clearly is the correct answer; the S/V agreement and tenses flow better "increased..." to "falling..."
Senior Manager
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Re: The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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13 Feb 2007, 07:45
OA is C.

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Re: The results of the companys cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2007, 12:35
Does this sentence not require past perfect (comparing two situations in the past). In that case is C correct.
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The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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16 May 2009, 08:18
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The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen
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Last edited by nguyendinhtuong on 24 May 2017, 08:37, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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16 May 2009, 08:34
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IMO C

The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
a. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell -->incorrect modifier it. They is better to match profits
b. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen -->...had increased ... after it had fallen... is surely ungrammatical. Besides, same error as A
c. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling -->best. The first three months is an indefinitely time and likely to last until now, so present perfect is best.
d. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling -->with + Noun phrase + after + present participle + ... is ungrammatical. Besides, it seems to modify for the results, not for profits, meaning The results have a 5% increase (???) after the result fell over the last 2 years --> awkward meaning
e. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen --> same errors as D
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2010, 11:11
I know C is right, but I have a question isn't D a bunch of prepositional phrases that are actually modifying the main verb in the previous clause "are evident" therefore they are grammatically right, furthermore preposition "after" clearly indicates the sequence of the two events so why do we need to use tense to show the time sequence between the two
Note: in mgmat sc it says if the sequence is clear then we do not have to use complicated tense.
Note: I dont think "increase" here is a verb because "five percent" is acting as an adjective or prearticle that is modifying "increase" so without the "five percent" the phrase would be "an increase" therefore "increase" is acting as the object of the prepositional phrase therefore it's not a verb.

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Last edited by elevinty on 24 Apr 2010, 12:14, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2010, 12:35
elevinty wrote:
I know C is right, but I have a question isn't D a bunch of prepositional phrases that are actually modifying the main verb in the previous clause "are evident" therefore they are grammatically right, furthermore preposition "after" clearly indicates the sequence of the two events so why do we need to use tense to show the time sequence between the two
Note: in mgmat sc it says if the sequence is clear then we do not have to use complicated tense.
Note: I dont think "increase" here is a verb because "five percent" is acting as an adjective or prearticle that is modifying "increase" so without the "five percent" the phrase would be "an increase" therefore "increase" is acting as the object of the prepositional phrase therefore it's not a verb.

uummm.. Not sure how to answer ur question but theres another reason why 'D' is wrong. First in second clause two events are happening 5 pc increase in first three months nd 'fall' in previous 2 years and the main clause is talking in present.. 'are evident'. When two things are said in past, its imp to distinguish which occurred earlier.

Also when you see the whole statemnt together the first is the main clause and second is subordinate clause.dependent on first. using 'with' as second clause wud make it a stand alone independent clause, you can flip and test.. this makes 'D' and 'E' out.
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2010, 13:13
thank you nilesh376 for your initiative, but here is what I think:
"uummm.. Not sure how to answer ur question but theres another reason why 'D' is wrong. First in second clause two events are happening 5 pc increase in first three months nd 'fall' in previous 2 years and the main clause is talking in present.. 'are evident'. When two things are said in past, its imp to distinguish which occurred earlier."

that's what I said but there is preposition "after" in the second phrase(I dont think the second statement which you refer to it as a second clause is infact a clause because there is no a clear subject and there are only partial predicate therefore the whole phrase which is long is acting as a adverb that is modifying the main verb in the main clause) back to what I was saying the word "after" indicates the time sequence so again why do we need to use tense.

<using 'with' as second clause wud make it a stand alone independent clause, you can flip and test.. this makes 'D' and 'E' out.>

am not sure about this, "with" is actually a preposition therefore it is not used to introduce a n independent clause, also "with" is sometimes used to introduce an absolute phrase but there is no way that it can introduce an independent clause because it actually would not have a complete meaning.

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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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25 Apr 2010, 00:56
elevinty wrote:
thank you nilesh376 for your initiative, but here is what I think:
"uummm.. Not sure how to answer ur question but theres another reason why 'D' is wrong. First in second clause two events are happening 5 pc increase in first three months nd 'fall' in previous 2 years and the main clause is talking in present.. 'are evident'. When two things are said in past, its imp to distinguish which occurred earlier."

that's what I said but there is preposition "after" in the second phrase(I dont think the second statement which you refer to it as a second clause is infact a clause because there is no a clear subject and there are only partial predicate therefore the whole phrase which is long is acting as a adverb that is modifying the main verb in the main clause) back to what I was saying the word "after" indicates the time sequence so again why do we need to use tense.

<using 'with' as second clause wud make it a stand alone independent clause, you can flip and test.. this makes 'D' and 'E' out.>

am not sure about this, "with" is actually a preposition therefore it is not used to introduce a n independent clause, also "with" is sometimes used to introduce an absolute phrase but there is no way that it can introduce an independent clause because it actually would not have a complete meaning.

sorry my mistake i shud say the second phrase..

see this way.. if you use 'with' preposition in 'D' . whom its referring to? sure it is 'its profits' just because its close to 'profits' and not to 'the result' the main subject or in fact 'the company'. does the preposition 'with' helps to link two phrases?. the second phrase is talking about increase and decrease of a figure which is profit and rely on a word which wud clearly refer to profit, introducing relative clause 'which' refers to profits and joins the two clause and phrase.

Using after or before preposition not always convey the same meaning. the verb should have a proper tense when used in the statement.

do below have same meaning??
we reached the station after, the train left already

or

I wrote the letter before he arrived

I had written the letter before he arrived

hope it makes sense
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2010, 15:52
I have problems using "X, with Y" construcions.
Could anybody elaborate on this.

Here I provide just an example.

The results of the company’s cost- cutting measures are evident in its
profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this
year after it fell
over the last two years.
A. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it
fell
B. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after
C. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year
after falling
D. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after
falling
E. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after
having fallen
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Last edited by nguyendinhtuong on 24 May 2017, 07:30, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2010, 18:42
The results of the company’s cost- cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.

A. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell - 'profits' is plural whereas 'it' is singular
B. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen - no need to use 'had' twice
C. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling - 'have increased' is correct
D. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling - 'with' is modifying the entire preceding clause whereas we need to modify only 'profits'
E. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen - 'having' is almost always incorrect in GMAT
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2010, 19:30
Can someone explain how the OA is D
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Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2010, 22:39
Fell for A ...How is it D
Re: The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are   [#permalink] 29 Jul 2010, 22:39

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