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# The science of economics, which for four decades was

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27 Oct 2011, 05:50
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51% (02:09) correct 49% (01:12) wrong based on 284 sessions

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The science of economics, which for four decades was dominated by Keynesians, who at first stressed the government’s role in stimulating the economy but who were ultimately led away from solutions based on government intervention.
A) economics, which for four decades was
B) economics that was to be
C) economics, one which has, for decades, been
D) economics is one that for four decades has been
E) economics, for four decades, is on that was
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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27 Oct 2011, 10:09
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The point is that choices A, B, and C are fragments without a working verb for the subject; D is the correct one because it uses the right tense of the verb ‘has been’, for an event that began four decides ago, and that continues.

The present perfect is strongly indicated by the prepositional phrase ‘for four decades’

Any allusion to Keynesians in the modifier clause started by the pronoun who , should be simply ignored as irrelevant to the main intent of the topic.

E (Incidentally there is a typo and it should be ‘one’ and not ‘on’) is good enough for grammar, but it is not clear what the prepositional modifier ‘for four decades’ is modifying. It wrongly seems to fall on the science rather than domination. Hence, E can be dropped

D remains the preferred choice.
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28 Oct 2011, 05:16
Thanks for the explanation.

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19 May 2015, 09:46
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Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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19 May 2015, 16:34
Does D change the meaning? I thought has been is something in the past that Has continued to the present. In A we have past tense, so not current.
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20 May 2015, 11:05
Hi Wofford09

I hear your concerns and am too intrigued by the change in tense from simple past "was" to present perfect "has been" in the correct answer choice D. I thought "had been" would be more perfect because in the original sentence the simple past "was" was used, so it would be more appropriate if we stick with the same tense whether it be simple past, past perfect, past continuous or any other form of past tenses. But the main clause has simple present "is," so the subordinate clauses' tense cannot be past perfect.

And I also noticed that the other two adjectival clauses modifying the Keynesians have simple past and they are not distorting any time frame in this SC. So, I think this SC doesn't really care about the time expressed in the main clause as well as in the complement clause.
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21 May 2015, 12:43
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Expert's post
The science of economics, which for four decades was dominated by Keynesians, who at first stressed the government’s role in stimulating the economy but who were ultimately led away from solutions based on government intervention.
The Keynesians remain the dominant school of thought. Therefore any past tense option can be eliminated - A, E
Of B, C, and D, D is the only answer that contains a main verb (is)
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21 Jul 2016, 23:51
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: The science of economics, which for four decades was   [#permalink] 21 Jul 2016, 23:51
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# The science of economics, which for four decades was

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