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The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute

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The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2004, 03:39
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The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale—the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

(A) Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.
(B) No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.
(C) The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.
(D) Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.
(E) The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.

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New post 24 Jul 2007, 04:37
"a fragment of a bone" part in the first row seems crucial clue to reach E.

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The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute [#permalink]

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New post 05 Feb 2008, 10:47
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The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale—the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?
A. Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.
B. No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatomic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.
C. The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.
D. Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.
E. The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.
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Re: CR: diatonic musical scale [#permalink]

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New post 05 Feb 2008, 11:01
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The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale—the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

the assumption: a bone flute is dated thousands of years ago.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

A. Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals. - irrelevant
B. No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatomic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite. - it is not an ideal one but the best from others.
C. The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears. - irrelevant.
D. Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale. - irrelevant.
E. The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale. - weaken
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Re: CR: diatonic musical scale [#permalink]

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New post 05 Feb 2008, 12:17
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should be E -

frgament hole spacings followed the normal diatonic scale notes spacing

so - C-C#-D-D#-E-F-F#-G-G#-A-A#-B-c

some prior knowledge does help :wink:

will add to it..

- there can be many musical scales with different spacings between adjacent notes
- the fragment only gave a partial yet true picture of a complete diatonic scale

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Re: CR: diatonic musical scale [#permalink]

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New post 05 Feb 2008, 13:47
srp: thanks for the interesting piece of knowledge.

However, the correct answer (E) could be deduced just by extending the hypohesis asumptions without requiring extra knowledge. the theory was based on the partial piece of an instrument and we do strengthen the argument by saying that structurally the bone was big enough to make the whole instrument. If we find that the bone is too small, then the theory goes down the drain.

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Re: CR: diatonic musical scale [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2008, 03:05
jay02 wrote:
srp: thanks for the interesting piece of knowledge.

However, the correct answer (E) could be deduced just by extending the hypohesis asumptions without requiring extra knowledge. the theory was based on the partial piece of an instrument and we do strengthen the argument by saying that structurally the bone was big enough to make the whole instrument. If we find that the bone is too small, then the theory goes down the drain.


I thought we were making diatonic scale instead of an instrument and practically speaking you can build diatonic scale with instruments as small as 6 inches to as big as an elephant ; ). But yes, you can deduce the answer without requiring extra knowledge. I only said it helps sometimes. :)

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Re: CR, please provide your answer with explanations [#permalink]

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New post 08 Apr 2008, 21:58
dishant007 wrote:
The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale—the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

A. Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.
B. No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatomic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.
C. The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.
D. Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.
E. The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.


We have to support that "diatonic musical scale" was made around the time Neanderthals lived. Keep in mind that the question says nothing that discovery of the flute is not an evidence that Neanderthals invent a full "diatonic musical scale".

I picked E. Because the flute is long enough to play "full diatonic scale", the Neanderthal can possibly invent the "full diatonic scale". This supports the hypothesis.

A so what? If the flute is the only instrument, then surely the Neanderthals did not really invent a full "diatonic musical scale".
B Even if bone flute is the earliest instrument that use a diatonic scale, this does not support that a full "diatonic musical scale" is created around the Neanderthals period.
C Irrelevant. Skeleton of bear?
D Irrelevant. Simplest instrument doesn't mean Neanderthals invent a full "diatonic musical scale"

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Re: CR-bone flute [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2008, 09:21
A. Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.
- this doesn't strengthen the hypothesis. - even if there were more such musical instruments how does it matter..
B. No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.
- even if it is,it would only strengthen the hypothesis.
C. The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.
-irrelevant
D. Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.
- correct
E. The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.
- irrelevant. how does it matter who's bone it was..

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Re: CR-bone flute [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2008, 09:34
i've seen this question before on the forums.....

The answer is E..... not because it was a particular animal's bone ..... :lol:

but if you apply negation to E ... tells us that bone wasnt long enough to produce the sound ... goes against the hypothesis .....

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Re: CR-bone flute [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2008, 09:58
durgesh79 wrote:
i've seen this question before on the forums.....

The answer is E..... not because it was a particular animal's bone ..... :lol:

but if you apply negation to E ... tells us that bone wasnt long enough to produce the sound ... goes against the hypothesis .....


even if i negate it still it doesnt go against the hypothesis. refer to option E -
The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.
- even if a complete diatonic scale cannot be played on the flute still a few notes can be played(refer the evidence) - that may be good enough to mark the origin of the diatonic scale.

And let's not go by what answer we have seen elsewhere..let's discuss..may be had i seen this elsewhere and if i was not convinced i would have posted this question on the forum to get a better solution. For all you know the person who posted it might have done for the same reason.
Please "logically" convince me that iam wrong..that would definitely help. :-)
or else pls. post the link of the forum you saw this question in that would help too.

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Re: CR-bone flute [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2008, 10:09
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aviator83 wrote:
durgesh79 wrote:
i've seen this question before on the forums.....

The answer is E..... not because it was a particular animal's bone ..... :lol:

but if you apply negation to E ... tells us that bone wasnt long enough to produce the sound ... goes against the hypothesis .....


even if i negate it still it doesnt go against the hypothesis. refer to option E -
The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.
- even if a complete diatonic scale cannot be played on the flute still a few notes can be played(refer the evidence) - that may be good enough to mark the origin of the diatonic scale.

And let's not go by what answer we have seen elsewhere..let's discuss..may be had i seen this elsewhere and if i was not convinced i would have posted this question on the forum to get a better solution. For all you know the person who posted it might have done for the same reason.
Please "logically" convince me that iam wrong..that would definitely help. :-)
or else pls. post the link of the forum you saw this question in that would help too.


i was too lazy to type "bone flute" in the search box and hit the enter .... :P

Anyway let met try to convince.....

The hypothesis : "the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians."

Now I'm not a musician but i can say that to develope a scale you need to produce all the sounds required to product it ... there are seven notes and the bone flute they found was wable to produce .... only 3 to 6, so definetly the whole scale can not be produced using this particular bone flute ....... now even if i assume that there could be another bone flute (which was never found) may have produced all 7 notes ... its not possible becuase the bone of the poor animal wasnt long enough ...... :lol:

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Re: CR-bone flute [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2008, 01:27
I suppose it must be C
Because C proves that this flute can not be put to the area of excavations significantly later than mentioned Neanderhal period

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Re: CR-bone flute [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2008, 07:09
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I did some more resarch on the CR and realised the following:

Question - Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

Ok..so what is the hypothesis here ?
diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Is there a evidence to support the hypothesis?
yes...there is a fragmnet of bone flute found which has 4 holes.

Ok now some music lessons
diatonic scale is a seven-note musical scale

What is the author assuming here?
The 4 holes on the fragment are required to play 3rd thru 6th notes on the diatonic scale

Now lets go back to the question
Question - Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?
In other words - We need an answer which will confirm that the fragment was indeed from a flute which played diatonic music

E. The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.E fi

E fits .

Please let me know if you agree with this logic.

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Re: CR-bone flute [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2008, 08:14
Please post the Qs ,,,,,,
Its not possible to revisit all the previous Qs in the forum. So if you raise a Q , which you obviously found difficult, will help every one to have a look in the Q.

Its better many times than NEVER.

For this Q, after great explanations it seems E.

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Re: CR-bone flute [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2008, 11:47
"even if i negate it still it doesnt go against the hypothesis. refer to option E -
The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.
- even if a complete diatonic scale cannot be played on the flute still a few notes can be played(refer the evidence) - that may be good enough to mark the origin of the diatonic scale."

If that incomplete set of notes was sufficient to be called a diatonic scale or to deduce that complete diatonic scale must have existed, musicologists would not pose an hypothesis.

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Re: CR-bone flute [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2008, 13:28
dearxavier wrote:
"even if i negate it still it doesnt go against the hypothesis. refer to option E -
The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.
- even if a complete diatonic scale cannot be played on the flute still a few notes can be played(refer the evidence) - that may be good enough to mark the origin of the diatonic scale."

If that incomplete set of notes was sufficient to be called a diatonic scale or to deduce that complete diatonic scale must have existed, musicologists would not pose an hypothesis.


I thought the negation" test was used for assumption questions. Can you explain how you apply the negation test to strengthen type questions?

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Re: CR-bone flute [#permalink]

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I dont know what the negation test is.
My reasoning does have a slight flaw, but its negalible for this test, and E remains the best choice.

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Re: CR [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2008, 05:39
Nihit wrote:
The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale—the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

A. Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.
B. No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatomic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.
C. The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.
D. Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.
E. The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale


Hypothesis is from the excavation, which indicates the usage of seven note...which was used in Renaissance. So what supports the hypothesis? The evidence shows only three to six...but the argument says 'seven-note musical scale'. Answer should be E.

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Re: CR: Neanderthals and bone flutes [#permalink]

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New post 25 Dec 2008, 13:15
hbs2012 wrote:
Question 17 set 1

The [color=#BF0000]spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale- the seven-note musical scale used in much of Wstern music since the RENAISSANCE. [/color]

Spacing of four holes shows the importance of length

Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?
a. Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.

So what?

b. No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute fround at the Neanderthal campsite.

Does not establish how the musical scale was developed and used 1000's of years ahead


c. The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campside at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also containedskeletal remains of cave bears.


Good one. Hold it. proves that flute was made from CB bone.


d. Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.

So what?

e. The cave-bear leg bone used to make the neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.

Not only proves flute was made from CB bone but also says length is enough to make a diatonic scale
help


Hence E

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Re: CR: Neanderthals and bone flutes [#permalink]

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New post 26 Dec 2008, 04:29
E is the only option that supports the conclusion. Else, the four holes could be because of some natural phenomena, etc.

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Re: CR: Neanderthals and bone flutes   [#permalink] 26 Dec 2008, 04:29

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