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The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute

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The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2004, 03:39
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The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale—the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

(A) Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.
(B) No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.
(C) The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.
(D) Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.
(E) The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.

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Re: CR: Neanderthals and bone flutes [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2008, 00:22
hbs2012 wrote:
Question 17 set 1

The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale- the seven-note musical scale used in much of Wstern music since the RENAISSANCE. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?
a. Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.

1. The argument does not argue "how many musical instrument the Neanderthals made", A out

b. No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute fround at the Neanderthal campsite.
2. The argument does not focus on "musical instrument", but on "the diatonic musical scale developed and used by N" so B out.

c. The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campside at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also containedskeletal remains of cave bears.

3. The argument does not concern about WHERE and WHAT the flute was made from", so whether it was made from bear bone or something bone does not matters. C out

d. Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.

The conclusion is based solely on the bone flute excavated in N. So any evidence that links the flute and the scale strenghtens the hypothesis

e. The cave-bear leg bone used to make the neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.

5. The same reasoning as that in C, whether the flute was made from CAVE-BEAR leg bone is outside the scope. E out

help


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Re: CR: Neanderthals and bone flutes [#permalink]

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New post 31 Dec 2008, 04:19
IMO E. In fact, the passage says they found a FRAGMENT with four spaces. but we don't know anything about the remaining three spaces. For sure, the bone MUST have been long enough to support all the seven notes, and this is what choice E tells us.

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Re: CR: Neanderthals and bone flutes [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jan 2009, 11:09
None of them are discussing the argument w.r.t to conclusion . Conclusion says about period (thousands of years) .
You guys are speaking bout length of bone which is w.r.t premise .

Dont you think B is close . Can some one throw light on this if you are really confident.

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Re: CR - bone flute (CHALLENGING) [#permalink]

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New post 27 May 2009, 04:34
Q:What is the hypothesis?
A:That
> the diatonic musical scale was developed (thousands of yrs before it was adoped by Western Musicians) and
> the diatonic musical scale was used (thousands of yrs before it was adoped by Western Musicians)

So if any option fail to support both the points will be incorrect.

options:
A: Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.
-- it does not help in establishing that the bone flute was diatonic

B:No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.
-- but the flute found had only third to sixth notes so we cannot assume here that the flute was diatonic

C:The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.
--This options helps in establishing that the flute was very old (thousands of yrs old) because it was made from cave bear bone (and cave bears were wiped out) but this option does not help me establish that the flute was diatonic

D:Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.
--This option establish neither the use nor the development

Finally, we are left with

E:The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.
-- To establish time and development the option says: 'The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute' since it is a 'The cave-bear leg bone flute' its gotta be very old.
To establish diatonic use the options says: 'flute would have been long capable of playing a complete diatonic scale'

Pls correct me if m wrong
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Re: CR, please provide your answer with explanations [#permalink]

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New post 28 May 2009, 02:52
Negate E

It should be clear... then they would not have had bones long enough to make the flute.
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Re: The spacing of [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2009, 01:34
In order to strengthen the given argument will need to find an option which can prove that diatonic scale can be played using this bone flute.

A. Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals. - doesnt strengthen the argument
B. No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatomic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite. -- the question is not about this being the first flute used to play the diatonic scale
C. The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears. -- The question is all about if the scale can be played using this bone flute.
D. Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.-- Out of scope
E. The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.-- Atleast this option helps us make sure that the flute is long enuf that diatonic scale can be played. What if the size of the flute is not long enuf to play the diatonic flute. Hence I think E is the better of all.

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Re: The spacing of [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2009, 18:22
perfectstranger wrote:
Could someone please explain the reasoning ? I made B . Thanks a lot


B isn't correct because it only says that the Neanderthals' flute was the earliest. The musicologists' theory is not about who or when the diatonic scale was invented, but only that the scale was used thousands of years before Western musicians.

The contenders are D and E, and E is stronger, so E wins.

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Re: question to solve [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2009, 11:20
IMO E

Hypothesis - Dianotic scale existed before the Renaissance (we need to strengthen argument)

A - Does not say anything about the scale
B - somewhat weakens the argument as it indicates this is the starting point
C - again not about the scale but about the flute
D - Possible answer as it supports that the scale could have been developed

I like E - the information given says the "fragment" can play 3-6. With E it shows all the holes required could have existed on the bone and with the holes existing so does the scale.

It came down to D and E for me.

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Re: Diatomic scale [#permalink]

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New post 28 Oct 2009, 09:42
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The conclusion here is that diatonic scale was used long before western musicians started using it. B is not significant to the question because we are not trying to prove that the flute was the first to use diatonic scale, we just want to prove that diatonic scale was used before the western musicians used it. But if the info in E is not provided, we cant say the flute was used to play diatonic scale - not all notes are possible with the fragment of bone discovered.
So IMO answer should be E.

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Re: Diatomic scale [#permalink]

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New post 13 Nov 2009, 13:10
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Option E is the best choice here. We know that the spacing of the holes supports the diatonic scale argument. The length of the bone flute strengthens the argument even more. We have two pieces of evidence now to support our hypothesis, instead of just one.

It doesn't really matter if there are older or newer flutes. If we discovered an older flute, then the assertion that "the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians" doesn't change. If there are no flutes older than the one found, then the argument remains the same - the oldest diatonic flute was still used by Neanderthals thousands of years ago.
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The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute [#permalink]

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New post 29 Dec 2009, 14:36
The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is
required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale-the seven-note musical scale used in much
of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale
was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?


(A) Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.

(B) No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found
at the Neanderthal campsite.

(C) The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated
was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.

(D) Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.

(E) The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute
capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.

Can any one please tell me whats wrong in B??

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Re: The spacing [#permalink]

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New post 29 Dec 2009, 16:44
sagarsabnis wrote:
The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is
required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale-the seven-note musical scale used in much
of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale
was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

(A) Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.
(8) No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found
at the Neanderthal campsite.
(e) The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated
was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.
(D) Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.
(E) The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute
capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.

Can any one please tell me whats wrong in B??


Choice B is "No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found",
even if this is true it does no good to the conclusion. If there was an older musical instrument than flute it doesn't influence the outcome
"the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians."
I am a bit undecided between D and E but I will opt for E since it supports the fact that the flute is long enough to support the diatonic scale.
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Re: The spacing [#permalink]

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New post 29 Apr 2011, 09:05
of the seven notes of the scale 3-6 can be played on the bone flute. the conclusion is the seven note scale was discovered thousands of years back by neanderthals. for the remaining 3 notes 1,2 and 7, the bone had to be long enough and E says just that.
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Re: A 12th OG problem, pls help to explain.(6) [#permalink]

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New post 03 Aug 2011, 09:41
I initially picked b, but upon reading the spoiler I think E makes sense. E explicitly states that the cave-bear leg bone would have been capable of playing a complete diatonic scale , which is what the questions needs to strengthen.

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Re: CR - bone flute (CHALLENGING) [#permalink]

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New post 15 Aug 2011, 06:12
It is one of the few questions from The Official Guide I really like.

Premise : The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale- the seven note musical scale.

Conclusion: Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

The unequivocal assertion that the diatonic musical scale is the seven-note musical scale makes the argument decisive along the line of reasoning.
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Re: The spacing [#permalink]

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New post 17 Sep 2011, 09:01
sagarsabnis wrote:
The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale-the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

(A) Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.
(B) No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.
(C) The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated
was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.
(D) Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.
(E) The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute
capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.

Can any one please tell me whats wrong in B??


The problem with B is that it already establishes that the flute uses the diatonic scale and was used, and just goes on to confirm that the flute is the oldest instrument using the scale.

However, read the question closely and it asks how you can confirm that musicologists can be sure that the diatonic scale itself was used at the time. E answers that because it tells us that the cave-bear whose bone was used existed at the time of the Neanderthal and that its leg bone could have been used for an instrument employing the diatonic scale.

Hope this helps.
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Re: CR - 14/17: Bone flute [#permalink]

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New post 05 Nov 2011, 14:37
I chose E).
If the fragment of the bone could not be long enough to make a flute with the entire seven-note scale, then the bones existence would not provide support for the hypothesis (that the scale was developed and used 1000s of years before Western musicians.
:D

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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute [#permalink]

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In this problem "FRAGMENT" is the key word. The passage describes about BONE FRAGMENT and not of the BONE itself.
Bone fragment is part of a bone (some cave-bear bone). The passage goes on to say that this bone fragment had enough length(and actual holes) so as to enable one to play 3-6 notes (say frag-1). The missing 1,2,7 notes of the diatonic scale was probably on some other fragment of the bone (say Frag-2).

So if somehow we know that the the complete bone(length of frag1 + frag2) had the capability to play the entire diatonic scale then we can deduce that diatonic scale was actually invented by the neanderthals and the musicians later adopted it.

Ans.E gives you that evidence.

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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2012, 13:58
Aren't we assuming here that Neanderthals were 1000 years old?? What if it is only 500 years old? that doesn't help the conclusion?

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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2012, 20:59
(A) Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals. - probably is a red flag
(B) No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found
at the Neanderthal campsite. - A little out of scope because the solution states the time and age
(C) The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated
was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears. - Irrelevant
(D) Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale. - Irrelevant
(E) The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute
capable of playing a complete diatonic scale. - Correct because it confirms that the bone flute was indeed made during Neanderthal times.

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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute   [#permalink] 01 Sep 2012, 20:59

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