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The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated

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The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2004, 03:39
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The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale—the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

(A) Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.

(B) No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.

(C) The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.

(D) Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.

(E) The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.

Last edited by hazelnut on 19 Oct 2017, 06:51, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

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New post 17 Apr 2013, 23:24
mun23 wrote:
sagarsabnis wrote:
The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is
required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale-the seven-note musical scale used in much
of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale
was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?


(A) Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.

(B) No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found
at the Neanderthal campsite.

(C) The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated
was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.

(D) Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.

(E) The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute
capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.


Finding the content of the argument difficult.....Need explanation


@Mun23:

Premise: four holes on a fragment of a bone flute that is required to play the third through sixth notes.
Conclusion: the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians

Assumption: the complete bone flute could be used to play from 1st to 7th notes. If it can't be used to play the diatonic scale-the seven-note musical scale, we can conclude the music scale played by Neanderthal is different from that played by Western musicians.

E clearly states the assumption. KEY words here are "fragment of a bone flute"

Hope it helps.
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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2013, 05:06
Hi,

I'll go with E.

Premise:

- a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is enough to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale
- These "note musical scale" was used in much of Western music since the Renaissance.

Conclusion:

the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

POE:

(A) Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals. Doesn't support the hypothesis : If this is true, would it help to know if the diatonic musical scale was developed and used by Neanderthals ? No, For sure

(B) No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.

(C) The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.OuuuuuuuuT of SCOPE

(D) Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale. Same as A ; Irrelevant

(E) The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.


So, we are left with B and E .

E shows that the Neanderthal were capable of playing a complete diatonic scale --> Conclusion Supported
B doesn't really support the argument becaue it is not based on the excavation it self IMO and moreover it is only related to other muscial instrument not the flute.
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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2013, 19:21
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Very good explanation from Rock750.
I just want to elaborate a little bit.

Premise: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale
Conclusion: the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians

Assumption: the diatonic used by Neanderthal is the same as the diatonic seven-note musical scale used by the Western. ==> if a part of a bone flute demonstrates four notes, the whole bone flute should demonstrate all seven notes.

E states the same ==> E is correct.
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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

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New post 14 May 2013, 22:24
All duplicate threads on this topic have been merged.

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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jul 2013, 05:54
Just wanted to ask if my reasoning for elimination of choice B is correct.
Choice B says that
Quote:
No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.

It doesn't mention any time frame, while the conclusion of the argument says thousands of years ago. So, even if a musical instrument was found after the flute in question, it could be thousands of years ago.
Please correct me if I am wrong here as eliminating an answer choice incorrectly is an issue of concern.

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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

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nitin6305 wrote:
Just wanted to ask if my reasoning for elimination of choice B is correct.
Choice B says that
Quote:
No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.

It doesn't mention any time frame, while the conclusion of the argument says thousands of years ago. So, even if a musical instrument was found after the flute in question, it could be thousands of years ago.
Please correct me if I am wrong here as eliminating an answer choice incorrectly is an issue of concern.


What you say is correct, but it's not the main point.

We want to prove that the instrument with 4-holes was able to play a 7 note scale.

We want to support that "Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians", so we are looking for an answer that states that he flute was able to play the full scale.

B is not correct not because does not mention any time frame, but because does not give us such info.

Hope it's clear
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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2013, 23:23
marine wrote:
The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale—the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

(A) Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.
(B) No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.
(C) The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.
(D) Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.
(E) The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.



A is a limitation but is easily eliminated
B. as has confused some of you, actually just attacks your assumption alliterally that the oldest find proves more strongly as the option argument is just showing the age of the tool without timeframe and not contributing to the 7 note scale argument
C. building on about cave bears, cannot sight argument ( the concept of distance is very useful and if you can grasp it, at least i am with you)
D. Can be again used in a folow up argument not here
E. a simple fit, and the option makes this one a classic GMAT question used in all formats of the GMAT yet by providing just the right info that fits the entire argument simply.

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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2013, 22:56
Sometimes in the strengthen question i use the negate approach to negate answer choices and see if they weaken the conclusion or not. If the answer is yes then the information stated in the answer choice would in all probability strengthen.
Lets take an example here and see how we can work this out.

Negate all choices:

(A) Bone flutes weren’t the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.
-does not add any thing to our conclusion

(B) Older musical instruments that used the diatonic scale have been discovered.
-does not add any thing to our conclusion , this answer choice simply states that there exists some other musical instruments that existed and are pretty old.

(C) The flute was made of something other than cave-bear bones.
-does not add any thing to our conclusion

(D) There are simpler instruments that can play the full diatonic scale.
-does not add any thing to our conclusion

(E) The cave-bear leg bone was too short to play a complete diatonic scale.
-Bulls Eye
If this true then then the bone couldnt be played as a flute and our conclusion could break down.
Now come back to the original answer choice and think that if the bone was long enough to be played as a flute with diatonic musical notes , it could act as an evidence that the diatonic musical scale was produced much before the Renaissance times.

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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

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New post 24 Oct 2013, 03:27
E is correct, mainly because all the other answer are out of scope for me. E states that the bone flute could be the premise of the Western diatonic musical scale..

Answer: E
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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

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New post 19 Dec 2013, 04:18
Hi Verbal Experts,
Need some explanation on this question...

Here's mine - IMO E states that complete bone could be used to play complete diatonic scale-from 1st to 7th notes, by the Neanderthal BUT it doesn't state explicitly that diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Whereas B says that the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite is the first musical instrument to have used a diatonic scale. Hence, it clearly supports the conclusion that diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians. But not sure why B is discarded and E is the OA...!!

Please share your detail analysis on the basis of these two options - B & E.
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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

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bagdbmba wrote:
Hi Verbal Experts,
Need some explanation on this question...

Here's mine - IMO E states that complete bone could be used to play complete diatonic scale-from 1st to 7th notes, by the Neanderthal BUT it doesn't state explicitly that diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Whereas B says that the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite is the first musical instrument to have used a diatonic scale. Hence, it clearly supports the conclusion that diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians. But not sure why B is discarded and E is the OA...!!

Please share your detail analysis on the basis of these two options - B & E.


Hi bagdmba,

Thank you for your query.

In this question we are asked to find a new piece of information that will support the musicologists hypothesis that :

diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians

The basis for the above theory:

The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale

What is a diatonic scale:

the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance.

Now any piece of information that will solidify the connection between this bone flute fragment and the diatonic scale will be the right choice for supporting the proposed hypothesis.

Answer choice B says:

(B) No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.


The information given above effectively means that there is no known record of a musical instrument that was diatonic and that pre-dates the bone flute. Now is the hypothesis proposed by the musicologists concerned with proving that the found flute fragment was part of the first ever diatonic instrument? The answer is a big NO! It does not matter whether there was any instrument before the bone flute that could play the diatonic scale. All we need to establish is that the whole flute (whose fragment has been found) itself was diatonic. The information given in answer choice B does not help in doing so.

Whereas choice E says:

(E) The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.

Now, this choice rightly solidifies the connection between the diatonic scale and the bone flute. Please note that in the prompt, we are told that the four holes could play third through the sixth note but the diatonic scale has seven notes. This means, if we factor in the information given in answer choice E, we can establish that the fragment of the bone flute found was could have been part of a longer flute which could have played all the seven notes of the diatonic scale. Hence, choice E is the correct answer.

Hope the above analysis helps!

Neeti.
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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2013, 08:00
egmat wrote:
bagdbmba wrote:
Hi Verbal Experts,
Need some explanation on this question...

Here's mine - IMO E states that complete bone could be used to play complete diatonic scale-from 1st to 7th notes, by the Neanderthal BUT it doesn't state explicitly that diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Whereas B says that the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite is the first musical instrument to have used a diatonic scale. Hence, it clearly supports the conclusion that diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians. But not sure why B is discarded and E is the OA...!!

Please share your detail analysis on the basis of these two options - B & E.


Hi bagdmba,

Thank you for your query.

In this question we are asked to find a new piece of information that will support the musicologists hypothesis that :

diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians

The basis for the above theory:

The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale

What is a diatonic scale:

the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance.

Now any piece of information that will solidify the connection between this bone flute fragment and the diatonic scale will be the right choice for supporting the proposed hypothesis.

Answer choice B says:

(B) No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.


The information given above effectively means that there is no known record of a musical instrument that was diatonic and that pre-dates the bone flute. Now is the hypothesis proposed by the musicologists concerned with proving that the found flute fragment was part of the first ever diatonic instrument? The answer is a big NO! It does not matter whether there was any instrument before the bone flute that could play the diatonic scale. All we need to establish is that the whole flute (whose fragment has been found) itself was diatonic. The information given in answer choice B does not help in doing so.

Whereas choice E says:

(E) The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.

Now, this choice rightly solidifies the connection between the diatonic scale and the bone flute. Please note that in the prompt, we are told that the four holes could play third through the sixth note but the diatonic scale has seven notes. This means, if we factor in the information given in answer choice E, we can establish that the fragment of the bone flute found was could have been part of a longer flute which could have played all the seven notes of the diatonic scale. Hence, choice E is the correct answer.

Hope the above analysis helps!

Neeti.


HI Neeti,
Thanks for your detail reply but unfortunately the doubt still remains wide open :-(

I think our job is to provide support in favor of the conclusion/hypothesis which says that diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians. Right?

Hence, please tell me how option E does that? There is no mention of time in this option!

Please clarify.
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Hi baddmba,

Thank you for your post. Please find my comments below your analysis that:

IMO E states that complete bone could be used to play complete diatonic scale-from 1st to 7th notes, by the Neanderthal BUT it doesn't state explicitly that diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.


You are not focusing on the aspect that by showing that the bone -flute could play the complete diatonic scale (a new piece of information provided in choice E), a central assumption made by the musicologists is strengthened. We indeed need to support their hypothesis BUT in doing so we do need to consider the reasoning provided by them. As of now the logic cited by the musicologists is that since the fragment showed that the flute had the potential to play the third note up till the sixth one, the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians. This means that they are taking for granted that the whole flute could play the complete seven notes of the diatonic scale. This is the assumption that answer choice E supports. As regards the time aspect mentioned by the musicologists, the basis for the same is the fact that the fragment was excavated from a Neanderthal campsite. Since that is a premise, we have to take the time connection on face value. Hence, by supporting that the whole bone-flute, whose fragment was excavated from a Neanderthal campsite (the time aspect), could play the diatonic scale, answer choice E supports the musicologists’ hypothesis.

Hope the above analysis helps :) .

Neeti.
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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2013, 23:16
What we have to show is that the diatonic music scale was developed and used before the westerners did. If we can show that the Neanderthals could have done it, it would definitely support the argument.

Choice E which says that the bone used to make the flute found at the site could have been developed into a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale, then the Neanderthals would actually have used the full diatonic scale which is much before the westerners did.

Choice B is wrong because even if it is known that there was no musical instrument known to have used the full diatonic scale in a time prior to that of the flute, we do not know whether the flute found at the site itself could have used a full diatonic scale. It therefore does not support the hypothesis that the full diatonic scale was used much before the westerners did.
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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2014, 01:07
The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale—the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Clearly mentioned conclusion: Diatonic music scale (contains 7 notes) was developed and used thousands of years ago.
Arrive at this conclusion because the flute found can be used to play upto 6th note.

Assumption is 7th note can also be played by flute.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

(A) Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals --Out of scope. The conclusion clearly indicates that the flute is used to play diatonic scale. Even its only instrument. Can't judge if its used to play 7 notes. For example, sachin was the only batsman capable of scoring 100 against england, but we don't know if he had scored well against england.(dhoni might be there)
(B) No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite. Question is evidence to show that diatonic can play 7 notes or not. it is out of scope.
(C) The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears. - Composition of flute doesn't matter. The argument is not thesis on flutes and bears :).
(D) Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale. Flutes are simplest agreed. But is this flute capable of playing diatonic. Extremely cloes answer.
(E) The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.-- This indeed is the right answer. The passage gives details upto 6th note. The indicates that the bone is long enough and play the missing 7th note :)

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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

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New post 27 Aug 2014, 23:19
Hi Experts,

The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale—the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Can the GAP in logic be below:

Premise : talks about the Bone flute excavated at site which plays partial diatonic scale- used by westerners.

Conclusion: Diatonic scale developed/used thousands of years before used by westerners.

I know GAP is partial scale and full diatonic scale.

But my query is that are we assuming that "Neandereals" lived thousands of years before westerners lived.
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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2014, 12:02
The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale—the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance.
Musicologists therefore
hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Q type : Strengthener
Premise:
the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance.
Conclusion:
the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Looking at the part of the fragments conclusion is formed. It's assumed that the fragment was part of complete piece that is required to play the diatonic musical scale. Look at the options to identify the one which supports this assumption.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?

(A) Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.
>>So what .It doenst help me to make any inference abt the DMS.
(B) No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.
>>Doesnt matters if we dont find instrument of earlier date.Look at the conclusion does it strengthen it? No.
(C) The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.
>>Cave bear or its skelton r not concern here.
(D) Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.
>>Irrelevant.
(E) The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.
>>Correct.
Now lets negate it to double check.Does it weaken the arg? Yes, why because if the bone is not long enough to make complete diatonic scale then it means it was not developed and played completely during that period and hence it weakens the conclusion.
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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2016, 13:35
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2016, 06:56
dear experts,

I am sunk in D and E.

please help how to distinguish D and E.

and point out my fault


my reasoning as following:
The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated at a Neanderthal campsite is just what is required to play the third through sixth notes of the diatonic scale—the seven-note musical scale used in much of Western music since the Renaissance. Musicologists therefore hypothesize that the diatonic musical scale was developed and used thousands of years before it was adopted by Western musicians.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the hypothesis?


4 hole fragment flute is required to play 3~6 notes of diatonic scale,
because the flute is fragment, we don't whether the whole fragment can play another musical scale which is overlap 3-6 notes with diatonic scale.
so if strengthen , we need a premise that can prove the whole flute can play diatonic scale



(A) Bone flutes were probably the only musical instrument made by Neanderthals.

flute is only musical instrument, this is cannot prove the whole flute can play diatonic scale -- OUT

(B) No musical instrument that is known to have used a diatonic scale is of an earlier date than the flute found at the Neanderthal campsite.

no musical instrument before can use diatonic scale , this is cannot prove the whole flute can play diatonic scale -- OUT


(C) The flute was made from a cave-bear bone and the campsite at which the flute fragment was excavated was in a cave that also contained skeletal remains of cave bears.

this one only can prove the flute is thousands years old, cannot prove the whole flute can play diatonic scale -- OUT



(D) Flutes are the simplest wind instrument that can be constructed to allow playing a diatonic scale.

seems this is can prove the whole flute can play diatonic scale, it states flutes are the wind instrument that can be played a diatonic scales and the flutes are the simplest instrument --- keep it


(E) The cave-bear leg bone used to make the Neanderthal flute would have been long enough to make a flute capable of playing a complete diatonic scale.

seems this is can prove the whole flute can play diatonic scale ,it states the flute can play a complete diatonic scale --- keep it


thank a lot
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Re: The spacing of the four holes on a fragment of a bone flute excavated   [#permalink] 24 Sep 2016, 06:56

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