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# The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex

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Re: The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex [#permalink]

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12 Feb 2017, 10:50
The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex where final tryouts are held for athletes representing the United States in the Olympics, is geared toward enhancing athletes' performance and toward their preparation for internation competition.

A) is geared toward enhancing athletes' performance and toward their preparation for internation competition
B) is geared to enhance the performance of athletes and to prepare them
C) are geared to enhance athlete's performance and their preparation
D) are geared toward the enhancement of athletes' peformance and toward preparing them
E) are geared toward enhancing the performance of athletes and preparing them
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Re: The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex [#permalink]

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13 Feb 2017, 13:26
nahid78 wrote:
Hello. mikemcgarry,
Another one...
I was hesitating between C and E.
I couldn't find meaning differences between them, and picked C. As I found it concise.
Why is C wrong?

Thanks again.... and again...

Dear nahid78,

I'm happy to respond. Here's the question with (C) & (E).

The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex where final tryouts are held for athletes representing the United States in the Olympics, is geared toward enhancing athletes' performance and toward their preparation for international competition.

C) are geared to enhance athletes' performance and their preparation

E) are geared toward enhancing the performance of athletes and preparing them

Part of this is the parallelism and part of this is the idiom.

In the original, notice there are two actions
(1) enhancing athletes' performance
(2) their preparation
The prompt does not do a good job of presenting those two in parallel. Choice (E) does an excellent job of putting them in parallel, whereas (C) changes their relationship--in (C), the action of "enhancing" applies to both parts, "athletes' performance and their preparation." This is a small change to the meaning.

Also, when the verb "gear" is used metaphorically, it idiomatically takes the preposition "toward." The construction "geared toward" sounds natural, whereas the construction "geared to" sounds awkward. I want to emphasize that this is an idiom that appears relatively infrequently--one might take 100 GMATs in a row and never see a question involving this particular idiom.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex [#permalink]

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05 Apr 2017, 06:12
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LogicGuru1 wrote:
maheshsrini wrote:
The sports medicine program of the Olympic Training Centre is geared toward enhancing athletes' performance and toward their preparation for international competition.

a) ....
b) is geared to enhance performance of athletes and to prepare them.
c) are geared to enhance athletes' performance and their preparation.
d) are geared toward the enhancement of athletes' performance and toward preparing them.
e) are geared toward enhancing the performance of athletes and preparing them.

OA will be posted later.

The first decision point is to find the subject of the sentence and its grammatical number (singular or plural)
Lets do that here by removing non essential parenthetical information from the sentence

The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex where final tryouts are held for athletes representing the United States in the Olympics, is geared toward enhancing athletes' performance and toward their preparation for international competition.

As we can see the Subject is "PROGRAMS" which is plural, therefore our options will start with "ARE" and not "IS"

A and B are out
SECONDLY we can see that the coordinating conjunction "AND" is used therefore there should be separate subjects in each clause before and after "and"

a) is geared toward enhancing athletes' performance and toward their preparation
WRONG:- SV AGREEMENT

b) is geared to enhance the performance of athletes and to prepare them
WRONG:- SV AGREEMENT

c) are geared to enhance athletes' performance and their preparation
WRONG:- athletes' is used not as a noun but as an adjective that modifies the noun performance. The position of the apostrophe in athletes' denoted that it is used as an adjective. The subject of the clause becomes performance
Therefore there is pronoun error in the clause. "Their " is a pronoun that refers back to performance but logically it should refer back to athlete.

d) are geared toward the enhancement of athletes' performance and toward preparing them
WRONG:- Not parallel - "enhancement" and "preparing" are not parallel forms of verb
SAME AS C. athletes' is used not as a noun but as an adjective that modifies the noun performance. The position of the apostrophe in athletes' denoted that it is used as an adjective. The subject of the clause becomes performance
Therefore there is pronoun error in the clause. "Their " is a pronoun that refers back to performance but logically it should refer back to athlete.

e) are geared toward enhancing the performance of athletes and preparing them
CORRECT:- A proper subject athletes (plural) exist in the second clause and the pronoun "them" correctly refers back to athlete.
Enhancing and preparing are parallel

Thanks for the detailed explanation
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Re: The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex [#permalink]

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08 Apr 2017, 02:44
sag wrote:
maheshsrini wrote:
The sports medicine program of the Olympic Training Centre is geared toward enhancing athletes' performance and toward their preparation for international competition. Highlighted Text is Singular

a) ....
b) is geared to enhance performance of athletes and to prepare them.
c) are geared to enhance athletes' performance and their preparation.
d) are geared toward the enhancement of athletes' performance and toward preparing them. change of meaning in enhancement
e) are geared toward enhancing the performance of athletes and preparing them.

OA will be posted later.

to enhance better than enhancing. Therefore, B.

As per question it is -- "The sports medicine programs" which must be Plural. Therefore, use of "are" is correct.

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Re: The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex [#permalink]

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08 Apr 2017, 05:48
seekmba wrote:
the correct question is:

'Sports Medicine Programs' is plural...hence we need 'are'

The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex where final try outs are held for athletes representing the US in the Olympics, is geared toward enhancing athletes' performance and toward their preparation for international competition.

A.) is geared toward enhancing athletes' performance and toward their preparation
B.) is geared to enhance the performance of athletes and to prepare them
C.) are geared to enhance athletes performance and their preparation
D.) are geared toward the enhancement of athletes' performance and toward preparing them
E.) are geared toward enhancing the performance of athletes and preparing them - CORRECT

Sir,
If you write the sports medicine programs in the way you've written - Sports Medicine Programs - then I'm afraid it turns into a proper noun and in that case, I think, we have to treat it as a singular entity.

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Re: The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex [#permalink]

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08 Apr 2017, 06:02
It's straight E[GRINNING FACE WITH SMILING EYES]

Sent from my vivo 1601 using GMAT Club Forum mobile app

Last edited by nks2611 on 09 Apr 2017, 04:28, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex [#permalink]

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09 Apr 2017, 02:46
I choose E and got it right, but I still couldn't understand why C is wrong.

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Re: The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex [#permalink]

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09 Apr 2017, 05:14
Top Contributor
"Enhance athletes performance" is wrong diction. It should be "athletes' performance" with an apostrophe. In addition, "them" refers to the programs rather than the athletes as already pointed out.
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Re: The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex [#permalink]

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14 Aug 2017, 22:47
mikemcgarry wrote:
nahid78 wrote:
Hello. mikemcgarry,
Another one...
I was hesitating between C and E.
I couldn't find meaning differences between them, and picked C. As I found it concise.
Why is C wrong?

Thanks again.... and again...

Dear nahid78,

I'm happy to respond. Here's the question with (C) & (E).

The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex where final tryouts are held for athletes representing the United States in the Olympics, is geared toward enhancing athletes' performance and toward their preparation for international competition.

C) are geared to enhance athletes' performance and their preparation

E) are geared toward enhancing the performance of athletes and preparing them

Part of this is the parallelism and part of this is the idiom.

In the original, notice there are two actions
(1) enhancing athletes' performance
(2) their preparation
The prompt does not do a good job of presenting those two in parallel. Choice (E) does an excellent job of putting them in parallel, whereas (C) changes their relationship--in (C), the action of "enhancing" applies to both parts, "athletes' performance and their preparation." This is a small change to the meaning.

Also, when the verb "gear" is used metaphorically, it idiomatically takes the preposition "toward." The construction "geared toward" sounds natural, whereas the construction "geared to" sounds awkward. I want to emphasize that this is an idiom that appears relatively infrequently--one might take 100 GMATs in a row and never see a question involving this particular idiom.

Does all this make sense?
Mike

Dear Mike,
I have a doubt in C. I think 'their' is properly referring to athletes here as possessive pronoun can refer to possessive noun. Please confirm.
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Re: The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex [#permalink]

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15 Aug 2017, 16:27
anje29 wrote:
Dear Mike,
I have a doubt in C. I think 'their' is properly referring to athletes here as possessive pronoun can refer to possessive noun. Please confirm.

Dear anje29,

I'm happy to respond.

Yes, the possessive pronoun "their" has, as its antecedent, the possessive noun "athletes'." Usually, possessive nouns can't be antecedents, but they can be antecedents of possessive pronouns.

Mike
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Re: The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2017, 06:48
1
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The sports medicine programs of the Olympic Training Centre is geared toward enhancing athletes' performance and toward their preparation for international competition.

a) ....
b) is geared to enhance performance of athletes and to prepare them.
c) are geared to enhance athletes' performance and their preparation.
d) are geared toward the enhancement of athletes' performance and toward preparing them.
e) are geared toward enhancing the performance of athletes and preparing them.
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The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex [#permalink]

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22 Dec 2017, 02:06
The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center,a complex where final try outs are held for athletes representing the US in the Olympics , is geared toward enhancing athletes' performance and toward their preparation for international competition.

The shaded portion is just a extra information..I have deliberately lightened its color to make it easy for you to ignore... so leave it aside...

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Re: The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex [#permalink]

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27 Dec 2017, 11:57
I am very confused.
There is a rule that complex and simple gerund phrases are never parallel.

I thought that 'enhancing the performance' is a complex gerund, and 'preparing them' is a simple form of it. Isn't that true?

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Re: The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex [#permalink]

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27 Dec 2017, 13:23
You are overcomplicating the problem.... Subject- programs therefore use ARE.

Next use parallelism..D & E
Clearly E wins

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The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex [#permalink]

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27 Dec 2017, 13:53
maria14ac wrote:
I am very confused.
There is a rule that complex and simple gerund phrases are never parallel.

I thought that 'enhancing the performance' is a complex gerund, and 'preparing them' is a simple form of it. Isn't that true?

Hello maria14ac,

The very basic principle of parallelism is that those elements make a parallel list that has the same role in a sentence.

Now, the rule says that a conventional noun entity CANNOT be parallel to a verb-ing form of the noun (commonly known as gerund). The reason is that a conventional noun denotes a person, place, or thing. But a gerund denotes an action.

However, this is not the case we find in Choice E of this official sentence.

Choice E says: XYZ are geared toward
enhancing the performance of athletes and
preparing them for international competition

Both the entities are gerunds and hence, are parallel. There being gerunds is enough to make them parallel.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex [#permalink]

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28 Dec 2017, 11:24
egmat wrote:
maria14ac wrote:
I am very confused.
There is a rule that complex and simple gerund phrases are never parallel.

I thought that 'enhancing the performance' is a complex gerund, and 'preparing them' is a simple form of it. Isn't that true?

Hello ,

The very basic principle of parallelism is that those elements make a parallel list that has the same role in a sentence.

Now, the rule says that a conventional noun entity CANNOT be parallel to a verb-ing form of the noun (commonly known as gerund). The reason is that a conventional noun denotes a person, place, or thing. But a gerund denotes an action.

However, this is not the case we find in Choice E of this official sentence.

Choice E says: XYZ are geared toward
enhancing the performance of athletes and
preparing them for international competition

Both the entities are gerunds and hence, are parallel. There being gerunds is enough to make them parallel.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

thank you for the explanation. Sorry, perhaps I deep dive into details too much. Are both simple forms of gerund then?

When you refer to a conventional noun entity, you mean 'enhancment' which is not parallel to 'preparing'. This one is clear for me. But look at this example:

Simple - Eating apples quickly. - Eating is more like a verb.
Complex - The quick Eating of apples. - More of a noun/subject like.

I enjoyed drinking the water and the wine tasting. - These can never be parallel, cause both are different forms of gerund.

I translate this example to our case:

XYZ geard toward preparing them and enhancing the perormance of them. In which 'preparing' sounds more like a verb for me and enhancing sounds like a noun.

Maybe it is just my bad English and I don't see the difference between simple and complex forms in each particular case. Then I need to devote more time to gerund rules.

Thank you.

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Re: The Sports Medicine Programs of the Olympic Training Center, a complex   [#permalink] 28 Dec 2017, 11:24

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