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The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure

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The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure [#permalink]

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The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure that led to its deterioration have been corrected, according to the firm of consulting engineers.

(A) The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure that led to its deterioration.
(B) The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure, leading to its deterioration.
(C) leading to its deterioration, the Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure.
(D) The defects that the Statue of Liberty had in its supporting structure that led to its deterioration.
(E) The defects in the supporting structure of the Statue of Liberty which led to its deterioration.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
How is OA correct?
My doubt about OA : 1. Doesn't "which" modify only preceding words in the GMAT world?
2. When "which" is used, should't there be a comma before "which"?

Also, I have several other questions.
1. What's wrong with b and c? I think that the Statue of Liberty's defect IS LEADING its deterioration.
Is "its" before deterioration a problem? Does it have a ambiguity issue?

2. If "which" or "that" doesn't modify only preceding words like "which" in the OA, can't a be the OA?
What's wrong with a?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure [#permalink]

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eybrj2 wrote:
The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure that led to its deterioration have been corrected, according to the firm of consulting engineers.

A) The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure that led to its deterioration.
B) The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure, leading to its deterioration.
C) leading to its deterioration, the Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure.
D) The defects that the Statue of Liberty had in its supporting structure that led to its deterioration.
E) The defects in the supporting structure of the Statue of Liberty which led to its deterioration.



How is OA correct?
My doubt about OA : 1. Doesn't "which" modify only preceding words in the GMAT world?
2. When "which" is used, should't there be a comma before "which"?

Also, I have several other questions.
1. What's wrong with b and c? I think that the Statue of Liberty's defect IS LEADING its deterioration.
Is "its" before deterioration a problem? Does it have a ambiguity issue?

2. If "which" or "that" doesn't modify only preceding words like "which" in the OA, can't a be the OA?
What's wrong with a?


Remember one rule: Nouns in the possessive case (before 's) and after preposition are poor antecedents. So we are very clear why OA is E:
A) The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure that led to its deterioration.
"Its" here refers to defects , not the Statue of Liberty . Defects can not be deteriorated.
B) The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure, leading to its deterioration.
The same mistake to A
C) leading to its deterioration, the Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure.
The same mistake to A
D) The defects that the Statue of Liberty had in its supporting structure that led to its deterioration.
Second "that" modifies "supporting structure " or " defects" ? Ambiguous.
E) The defects in the supporting structure of the Statue of Liberty which led to its deterioration.

OA: "which" modifies "defects" , not "Statue of Liberty" because "Statue of Liberty" is after the preposition "of".
"which" in this case is essential to clear the meaning , therefore we do not put commas there.

Hope it helps
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Re: The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure [#permalink]

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The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure that led to its deterioration have been corrected, according to the firm of consulting engineers.

A) The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure that led to its deterioration
B)The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure, leading to its deterioration
C) Leading to its deterioration, the Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure
D) The defects that the Statue of Liberty had in its supporting structure that led to its deterioration
E) The defects in the supporting structure of the Statue of Liberty which led to its deterioration


I found this question on the GMATPILL, but I got it wrong.
I was between two options.
Why is the OA better than the other ones, I do not want to say which other option I considered because I do not want to spoil the question to the ones who want to try it.
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Re: The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure [#permalink]

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I am responding to a pm asking me to comment on this question.

I concur with many of the others on this page, and would say: in my estimation, the correct "conclusion" to draw is not A, B, C, D, or E, but rather that one should avoid this question source like the plague. Not all GMAT question sources are of equal caliber --- some (MGMAT, Magoosh, etc.) are excellent and as good as the OG, but some are mediocre, and some are downright bad. Caveat emptor!

Here, for free, is a Magoosh SC question:
http://gmat.magoosh.com/questions/1126
After you submit an answer, the next page has a video explanation. Each of our 800+ GMAT practice questions has it's own video explanation, to accelerate your learning.

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Re: The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure [#permalink]

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rwj wrote:
I have a doubt. What if option (D) was put this way, without the second "that". Would it be right then ?

" The defects that the Statue of Liberty had in its supporting structure led to its deterioration."


It is still wrong. Let put it into the whole sentence and you will see

The defects that the Statue of Liberty had in its supporting structure led to its deterioration have been corrected, according to the firm of consulting engineers.

This is a fragment sentence.
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Re: The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure [#permalink]

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mdacosta wrote:
E looks goofy but acceptable

can an expert please help on why (C) is incorrect? it seems "Leading to its deterioration" correctly modifies "defects"


I like the phrase "goofy but acceptable." Often true of SC sentences!

There's a funky little thing with "-ing" modifiers: they can modify just a noun, or they can modify an entire clause. In this case, I suppose that the question-writer's objection to (C) is that the modifier "leading to its deterioration" illogically modifies the entire clause "the Statue of Liberty's defects... have been corrected." But if you think that "leading to its deterioration" is just modifying "the Statue of Liberty's defects," then I suppose that (C) is fine. But it's debatable -- and an official GMAT question won't really leave room for debate the way this one does.

Like most non-official questions, this one has its flaws, and needs to be taken with a grain of salt. The GMAT spends $1500-3000 on each question, and even the best test-prep companies can't compete. So please don't spend much time worrying about this one.
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Re: The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2012, 02:37
According to the discussion of the following question: "A possessive pronoun can refer to a possessive ('s)."
So why can't A be the answer in this case?


With her archaeologist husband, travels inspired several mystery novels by Agatha Christie; travelers to Egypt can still stay at the Old Cataract Hotel, the model for the hotel in one of Christie's most famous books.


With her archaeologist husband, travels inspired several mystery novels by Agatha Christie

Agatha Christie used her travels with her archaeologist husband to inspire several mystery novels

Because her husband was an archaeologist, Agatha Christie was able to use their travels as inspiration for several of her mystery novels

Together with her archaeologist husband, Agatha Christie was inspired to incorporate their travel into several of her mystery novels

Agatha Christie's travels with her archaeologist husband served as inspiration for several of her mystery novels

E is the answer.
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Re: The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2012, 11:10
I was between D and E
D) The defects that the Statue of Liberty had in its supporting structure that led to its deterioration
E) The defects in the supporting structure of the Statue of Liberty which led to its deterioration

I tought that the use of Which in the last option was not correct, but I am still trying to figure out why is it correct
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Re: The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2012, 11:20
Is E the answer? Can‘t take it. First, which has no comma before it and which modifies statue as if the statue led to its deterioration

A) The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure that led to its deterioration ----- supporting structure that led --- touch rule error of that. Did the structure lead to its deterioration
B)The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure, leading to its deterioration…….. Correct modification, the present participle rightly modifies the entire phrasal noun before the comma
C) Leading to its deterioration, the Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure …. Weirdly, this sentence has a twisted meaning. It means - the Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure have been corrected, according to the firm of consulting engineers, leading to its deterioration.
D) The defects that the Statue of Liberty had in its supporting structure that led to its deterioration …. structure that led to touch rule error.
E) The defects in the supporting structure of the Statue of Liberty which led to its deterioration … wrong; already explained

The answer must be B
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Re: The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2012, 11:41
daagh wrote:
Is E the answer? Can‘t take it. First, which has no comma before it and which modifies statue as if the statue led to its deterioration

A) The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure that led to its deterioration ----- supporting structure that led --- touch rule error of that. Did the structure lead to its deterioration
B)The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure, leading to its deterioration…….. Correct modification, the present participle rightly modifies the entire phrasal noun before the comma
C) Leading to its deterioration, the Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure …. Weirdly, this sentence has a twisted meaning. It means - the Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure have been corrected, according to the firm of consulting engineers, leading to its deterioration.
D) The defects that the Statue of Liberty had in its supporting structure that led to its deterioration …. structure that led to touch rule error.
E) The defects in the supporting structure of the Statue of Liberty which led to its deterioration … wrong; already explained

The answer must be B




Sir,

Is B not a sentence fragment.

In C, leading to its deterioration correctly modifying the statu of liberty's structure.

Please clarify. Regards.
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Re: The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2012, 12:56
daagh wrote:
Is E the answer? Can‘t take it. First, which has no comma before it and which modifies statue as if the statue led to its deterioration

A) The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure that led to its deterioration ----- supporting structure that led --- touch rule error of that. Did the structure lead to its deterioration
B)The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure, leading to its deterioration…….. Correct modification, the present participle rightly modifies the entire phrasal noun before the comma
C) Leading to its deterioration, the Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure …. Weirdly, this sentence has a twisted meaning. It means - the Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure have been corrected, according to the firm of consulting engineers, leading to its deterioration.
D) The defects that the Statue of Liberty had in its supporting structure that led to its deterioration …. structure that led to touch rule error.
E) The defects in the supporting structure of the Statue of Liberty which led to its deterioration … wrong; already explained

The answer must be B


I just found in a source that 'which' can also be used without comma (Expendable which). Here is the link http://grammar.quickanddirtytips.com/wh ... -that.aspx

Can anybody clarify on this???
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Re: The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure [#permalink]

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New post 12 Sep 2012, 21:27
Here is my take on the question

A, B And C - These have the possessive "Statue of Liberty's" .......which cannot be the antecedent of "its" that follow later on ....."its" should have "Statute of Liberty" as its antecedent , not the possessive "Statue of Liberty's"

D, which gets rid of the possessive, is wordy. Also it has the touch rule error for "that", which implies that "that" refers to supporting structure instead of defects. Hence D cannot be the right answer.

E, which is concise and also gets rid of the possessive is much better as compared to other 4. However, it should have a comma before which .....Having a comma before "which" will make "defects" the main subject of the sentence, and the correct antecedent of its that follows in the later half of the sentence.

However, if this question was presented in the GMAT (in the form it has been posted here), I would have still selected E, because all others are out-rightly incorrect.
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Re: The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure [#permalink]

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New post 20 Nov 2012, 23:58
After carefully reading the sentence, the focus is on what has been corrected.
Therefore, the true subject here is 'defects'.
This may explain why the correct answer begins the sentence with 'defects' as oppose to 'Statue of Liberty'. Using this logic, one can eliminate answer choices (A), (B), and (C).

Clearly (D) just doesn't sound right. This is mainly because 'that' is used twice.

This question is part of their frameworks called "onion layers"
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Re: The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2013, 00:16
Can we have more elaborate discussion on this one?
What is wrong with D?
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Re: The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2013, 01:27
Marcab wrote:
Can we have more elaborate discussion on this one?
What is wrong with D?

Wrong with D:
"structure that led to its deterioration"

Structure dint lead to the deterioration but the defects did!
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Re: The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2013, 07:02
Hi Marcab,

THAT must describe the noun and is placed after the noun.

The first THAT is correctly placed and supports the noun "defects".
The second THAT is placed after "structure". But this not correct.
Try answering the question What led to the deterioration? - Answer: Structure - This is wrong.

D) The defects that the Statue of Liberty had in its supporting structure that led to its deterioration.

Please feel free to post your point of view
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Re: The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2013, 09:22
eybrj2 wrote:
The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure that led to its deterioration have been corrected, according to the firm of consulting engineers.

A) The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure that led to its deterioration.
B) The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure, leading to its deterioration.
C) leading to its deterioration, the Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure.
D) The defects that the Statue of Liberty had in its supporting structure that led to its deterioration.
E) The defects in the supporting structure of the Statue of Liberty which led to its deterioration.



How is OA correct?
My doubt about OA : 1. Doesn't "which" modify only preceding words in the GMAT world?
2. When "which" is used, should't there be a comma before "which"?

Also, I have several other questions.
1. What's wrong with b and c? I think that the Statue of Liberty's defect IS LEADING its deterioration.
Is "its" before deterioration a problem? Does it have a ambiguity issue?

2. If "which" or "that" doesn't modify only preceding words like "which" in the OA, can't a be the OA?
What's wrong with a?


In the original statement, "that led to its deterioration" is a noun-modifier. And a noun-modifier must touch the noun that it modifies. Secondly, the reference of "its" is incorrect because it is refering to supporting structure, but we know that the intention of the sentence is to refer to Statue of Liberty, which is not present in the sentence, rather, its possessive form is present. So an alternate that removes these errors will be correct. Either the source of this question is a problem, or there is an error in retyping the question by the original poster, because none of the options look correct to me. Here's why

A. As explained above
B. "its" is ambiguous. Secondly, ", leading" (-ing verb with a comma) modifies the verb or the whole clause before it. But in this case, there is no action happening in the first part of the sentence.
C. "its" is ambiguous again. Secondly, the modifier "leading to its deterioration" should follow the noun that is being deteriorated or is referred to by "its". In this case, it is the defects.
D. The presence of "that" after "supporting structure" implies that the supporting structure led to the statue's deterioration. The ambiguity with "its" however has been resolved.
E. Incorrect usage and wrong placement of non-essential modifier.
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Re: The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2013, 16:10
IMO

A,B,C are in possesive so there is an pronoun(its) ambiguity .
left with D nd E. here its (its deterioration) can refer to 'supporting structure' or 'Statue of Liberty'
so i chose E where "its" is closer to 'Statue of Liberty' (last rule for pronoun to apply)

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Re: The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2013, 04:41
Can someone either delete or rectify this question there his is no chance OA can be E

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Re: The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2013, 11:59
(E) it is. Got confused with (A) and (D) also, but then the misplaced 'that' was a clear noNo.
Re: The Statue of Liberty's defects in its supporting structure   [#permalink] 23 May 2013, 11:59

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