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# The steel industry has changed radically over the last two

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The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2008, 05:29
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The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by abhimahna on 17 Aug 2017, 01:24, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2014, 05:55
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The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel
once conducted operations from mining at one end of
the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down
altogether.

A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel Current construction has two verbs in the subordinate clause; need to find answer that has relative pronoun so as to make the sentence more logical.

B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that OK - Conjunction "as" is a trap in that it refers to "since" or "because" not "while"; "while" would make the sentence illogical

C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that Has the industry changed and large companies downsizing or has the industry changed since the downsizing?; "with" = add, thereby changing the meaning of the sentence.

D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that Here is trap answer because "while" = "as" in certain occasions; however, "as" must be "since" or "because" in order to make the sentence logical. Has the industry changed while companies have downsized or has the industry changed since the companies have downsized -- "while" is illogical

E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel "and" creates two independent clauses, thereby changing the meaning of the sentence. Has the industry changed and companies downsized or has the industry changed since companies downsized?

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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03 Jun 2015, 21:52
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The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of
the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

as provides the reason hence as is correct

A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

That is required as we are introducing a dependent clause. If that is not there, the subject becomes integrated companies and there are two verbs "conducted" and "have downsized or shut". Either I need a conjunction "and" to make the actions parallel or I need a that to make a dependent clause.

B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that -> that is required and hence correct
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that -> with is not providing reason and hence is not correct. With seems to modify how the steel industry have radically changed and it has changed "with integrated steel industries". Actually, radically changed because large integrated steel industries have done X.
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that -> While can be used for two reasons:
1) Contrast
2) simultaneous actions
None of the usage make sense here
.
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel -> Cause and effect relationship is changed to parallelsim
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2008, 00:03
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going with B here is why:

A and E are out because to describe "Bethlehem Steel" we need to use a relative pronoun "that"

to decide between BCD look at the carcass of the sentence:

industry has changed with companies shut down - doesn't make sense, so C out
industry has changed while companies shut down - doesn't make sense, so D out
industry has changed as companies shut down - makes sense thus B

atletikos wrote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2008, 00:15
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Bethlehem Steel once conducted --> Implied we need one conjunction ..to correct this run on sentence. A &E are out.
Among BCD,
d) two decades, while large, integrated--> While indicates that there should be change in the direction of the statement.
This is not the case here. Hence ruled out.
two decades, as large, integrated -->
two decades, with large, integrated -->
Confused between B&C, but would pick B. As with large .. looks incomplete to me.

atletikos wrote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of
the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down
altogether.

A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2008, 08:30
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Please Underline SC Questions.

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2008, 06:30
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OA is B

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2010, 06:58
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atletikos wrote:
OA is B

What is the source of this question?

If B is the OA how can this sentence be correct?

The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades,[highlight]as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that[/highlight] once conducted operations from mining at one end of
the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down
altogether.

remove the fluff "such as Bethlehem Steel "

The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades,[highlight]as large, integrated companies, , that[/highlight] once conducted operations from mining at one end of
the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down
altogether.

- Is "that" correct in the above sentence?

Also "Have" corresponds to "companies" . See the flaw?

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2008, 09:37
IMO :C
Will furnish my line of reasoning , if it is correct .

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2008, 10:29
IMO C.

downsizing and shutting down plants are radical shift of the steel companies. With is required here.

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2008, 13:07
B in my opinion.
the 'have greatly downsized' needs an 'as...' and will not work with a 'with..'

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2008, 00:28
Hi .. I would go with A.

Because . That is not appropriate since we are using have in the non-underlined part, And also demonstrative pronoun is not mandatory to be used. So A wins.

Let me know if i was correct. Pls post the OA soon.

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2010, 15:20
",that" construction sounds very bad for me, since it is a essential modifier.
If it were ",which" I would like it more.
Please some thoughts on this.
Thanks.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2015, 12:12
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2015, 12:47
atletikos wrote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades,
as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of
the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down
altogether.

"AS" = presents how (can be substituted with because) the industry has changed
after Bethlehem Steel we need "that"
A, C, D, and E are out. B is the only answer choice left.
however I don't like the comma before "that".
C, D, and E - change the meaning of the sentence as well.

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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03 Jun 2015, 22:40
mvictor wrote:
"AS" = presents how (can be substituted with because) the industry has changed

I am finding it slightly difficult to understand the meaning of the sentence, if I substitute "as" with "because" here:(.

The steel industry has changed radically, because large companies have greatly downsized.

I feel there is no direct cause and effect relationship here. My interpretation is that the downsizing of the large companies is just a symptom of the radical change of the steel industry.

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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03 Jun 2015, 23:51
gmatgrl wrote:
mvictor wrote:
"AS" = presents how (can be substituted with because) the industry has changed

I am finding it slightly difficult to understand the meaning of the sentence, if I substitute "as" with "because" here:(.

The steel industry has changed radically, because large companies have greatly downsized.

I feel there is no direct cause and effect relationship here. My interpretation is that the downsizing of the large companies is just a symptom of the radical change of the steel industry.

I want to get in to Harvard because Harvard presents the best possible opportunities post MBA

I want to get in to Harvard as Harvard presents the best possible opportunities post MBA

Both are identical.

The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades ? Why

As integrated industries have greatly downsized.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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05 Jun 2015, 00:27
kinjiGC wrote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades ? Why

As integrated industries have greatly downsized.

I was thinking why it cannot be the other way round:

Integrated industries have greatly downsized? Why

Because steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades (and hence, to "respond" to that radical change in the steel industry, Integrated industries had no option life, except downsizing).

Actually the point I am getting confused here is that I don't see any direct cause and effect relationship. It's just two simultaneous events that have been mentioned. Or may be I am analyzing it more than is necessary.

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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14 Mar 2016, 09:14
I understand the subject is unclear on A, but I'm not sure I still understand the need for "that". Would B still be correct if "that" was removed as it would seem that "integrated companies" would still be the clear subject?

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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15 Mar 2016, 16:49
Quote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

Reason why ‘that’ is required:

Let’s now split the sentence into the components.

1. The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades

2. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other ---subordinate clause one.
3. have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether. This clause is now dangling without proper conjugation with the subordinate clause.
Now we can see that the subject large integrated companies has two verbs namely, which is grammatically incorrect. This fault is fixed by turning the first subordinate clause into a relative noun and noun modifier, rendering ‘have ….” as the working verb for the subordinate clause. Without the 'that' , the subordinate clause will turn out to bea double - verbed fragment.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two   [#permalink] 15 Mar 2016, 16:49

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