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# The steel industry has changed radically over the last two

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2014, 01:50
mayur666 wrote:
I still dont understand whats wrong with C and D.
Can anyone explain. And is there any specific rules for the usage of as, with and while.

Two independent clause cannot be connected using word "with". So, "C" and "D" are wrong.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2015, 13:03
plumber250 wrote:
Hi,

The key word as you have noticed is 'as', this is a close synonym for 'because'.

As is correct here because we are looking to link a statement

With an explanation for that statement (the rest of the question).

Neither 'with' nor 'while' are appropriate here. I could go into length as to their usage, but this sort of general question is better served via google.

All the best,

James

Hello

Can you please explain in detail what is wrong with 'with' in choice C.

Comma + with serves as an adverbial modifier. Is it correct here ?

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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15 Feb 2015, 00:22
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rajatgugnani wrote:
Can you please explain in detail what is wrong with 'with' in choice C.

Hi Rajat, as suggested in one of the posts above, with cannot connect two clauses. For example, following would be incorrect:

The world cup will be interesting to watch, with 14 teams are vying for the coveted title of the world champion.

with is trying to connect two independent clauses:
i) The world cup will be interesting to watch
ii) 14 teams are vying for the coveted title of the world champion.

Better way would be:

The world cup will be interesting to watch, as 14 teams are vying for the coveted title of the world champion.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2015, 14:32
I have a silly question to ask ;
Isn't that [Singular] in option B referring to [plural] Companies.
I rejected this option because of this reason and choose A.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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05 Dec 2015, 02:42
iDisappear wrote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel
once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.
A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

I rejected B because the comma after integrated companies is not justified. Large and integrated companies are modifiers of Benthelem Steel. There should be no comma after integrated companies, it is making the statement awkward. If we ignore the part between the commas then : as large such as Benthelem Steel is not making any sense.

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2015, 03:46
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I am afraid you have missed out on the parsing of the sentence. ‘Large, integrated’ are co-ordinate adjectives that modify the noun ‘companies’. Since they both modify the same noun, rules allow their separation by a comma rather than being joined by the conjunction ‘and’. The comma there is not the comma that sets off inessential elements.

On the other hand, the phrase ‘, such as Bethlehem Steel,’ is a modifier that modifies large integrated companies as an example. As you know, examples are not critical mission carriers. So if you want to drop something, then you must drop the phrase ‘, such as Bethlehem Steel,’ and read further on.
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
B. (revised) as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

You can see B makes sense now.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2015, 04:22
daagh wrote:
I am afraid you have missed out on the parsing of the sentence. ‘Large, integrated’ are co-ordinate adjectives that modify the noun ‘companies’. Since they both modify the same noun, rules allow their separation by a comma rather than being joined by the conjunction ‘and’. The comma there is not the comma that sets off inessential elements.

On the other hand, the phrase ‘, such as Bethlehem Steel,’ is a modifier that modifies large integrated companies as an example. As you know, examples are not critical mission carriers. So if you want to drop something, then you must drop the phrase ‘, such as Bethlehem Steel,’ and read further on.
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
B. (revised) as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that

You can see B makes sense now.

Thanks for your response. It utterly makes sense.

Can you please help me to clear one more doubt. I am always confused about usage of 'that'. If I am write 'that' can be used for singulars and not plurals. In the above question isn't companies Plural. Can you please correct me again ?

I know 'that' is correct above but please explain me when to use 'that' and when to use 'those'.

Thanks,

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2015, 06:12
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‘That’ has several uses, the main ones being as a pronoun, as a relative pronoun an adjective or as a subordinate conjunction.

As a pronoun:
When used as a pronoun, ‘that’ is used singular items and those is used for plurals. Eg:
He saw a movie that was produced in Bollywood. Movie is singular hence ‘that’
He sees a lot of movies especially those made in Kerala. Movies is plural hence ‘those’

As a relative pronoun.
But ‘that’ can also stand for plurals as a relative pronoun: Eg: He sees a lot of movies that are made in Chennai. The relative pronoun ‘that’ stands for the plural 'movies' and is acceptable. But because ‘those’ cannot be used as a relative pronoun, even in plural cases only ‘that’ is used as a relative pronoun.

As subordinate conjunction:
‘That’ can also act as a subordinate conjunction to introduce a relative clause, especially in reported speeches. Eg: Many find that IAS is a tough exam. Here ‘that’ introduces the subordinate clause ‘that IAS is a tough exam’. As conjunction, ‘that’ is not subject singular - plural rules.

I think if you look into the structure and meaning of lot of sentences that use ‘that’, then things will clear up. Certain usages are decided more by contexts than by thumb rules.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2015, 07:14
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Further to what I said in my previous reply, I am attaching a file that gives a list of GMAT examples in which 'that' is used as a relative pronoun and as a subordinate conjunction. Search for these examples in the forum and look for the correct usage of 'that' from the OAs.
Attachments

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2015, 07:25
daagh wrote:
‘That’ has several uses, the main ones being as a pronoun, as a relative pronoun an adjective or as a subordinate conjunction.

As a pronoun:
When used as a pronoun, ‘that’ is used singular items and those is used for plurals. Eg:
He saw a movie that was produced in Bollywood. Movie is singular hence ‘that’
He sees a lot of movies especially those made in Kerala. Movies is plural hence ‘those’

As a relative pronoun.
But ‘that’ can also stand for plurals as a relative pronoun: Eg: He sees a lot of movies that are made in Chennai. The relative pronoun ‘that’ stands for the plural 'movies' and is acceptable. But because ‘those’ cannot be used as a relative pronoun, even in plural cases only ‘that’ is used as a relative pronoun.

As subordinate conjunction:
‘That’ can also act as a subordinate conjunction to introduce a relative clause, especially in reported speeches. Eg: Many find that IAS is a tough exam. Here ‘that’ introduces the subordinate clause ‘that IAS is a tough exam’. As conjunction, ‘that’ is not subject singular - plural rules.

I think if you look into the structure and meaning of lot of sentences that use ‘that’, then things will clear up. Certain usages are decided more by contexts than by thumb rules.

Thanks very much...Kudos to you.

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2016, 12:08
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For those still confused between B (OA) and C, it comes down to the meaning of the words:

conjunction: as
1. used to indicate that something happens during the time when something is taking place.
"Frank watched him as he ambled through the crowd"

preposition: with

1. accompanied by (another person or thing).
"a nice steak with a bottle of red wine"

2. possessing (something) as a feature or accompaniment.
"a flower-sprigged blouse with a white collar"

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2016, 07:37
Maksym wrote:
heman2727 wrote:
plumber250 wrote:
Hi,

The key word as you have noticed is 'as', this is a close synonym for 'because'.

As is correct here because we are looking to link a statement

With an explanation for that statement (the rest of the question).

Neither 'with' nor 'while' are appropriate here. I could go into length as to their usage, but this sort of general question is better served via google.

All the best,

James

But James, there can be two aspects to view this SC question:

a) 'How the steel industry has changed?'-'Option 'c' replies to this answer with the help of an prepositional modifier.
b) 'Why the industry has changed?'- Option 'b' replies to this answer with the help of 'as...' (suboordinate clause)

My doubt is: How to identify what is the question's intent? To answer question 'How..' or 'Why..'?

Regards,
Heman2727

I also have the same question. Would be grateful if someone can provide detailed answer!

I think the original sentence talks about 'why' n not 'How'.

B is correct

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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23 Mar 2017, 03:16
iDisappear wrote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel
once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.
A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel

Between B & C
C is not even a sentence

The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades with integrated companies have greatly downsized.

with can't be followed by a complete sentence

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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25 Mar 2017, 14:28
The purpose of this phrase is to explain changes in the steel industry. In the past there were large integrated companies, but these companies have now greatly downsized or shut down completely.

A) The steel industry has changed..., as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from X to Y have greatly downsized, or... shut down altogether.
--> we need THAT in order for this phrase to make sense. Without THAT the phrase is awkward and incomplete.
We can correct the phrase by inserting THAT in order to make the changes in the industry clear:
* The steel industry has changed..., as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel THAT once conducted operations from X to Y have greatly downsized, or shut down altogether.

B) correct

C) The steel industry has changed..., with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that once conducted operations from X to Y have greatly downsized, or shut down altogether.
--> The industry has changed with integrated companies have greatly downsized or shut down is ungrammatical.

D) The steel industry has changed..., while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that once conducted operations from X to Y have greatly downsized, or shut down altogether.
--> This phrase loses its purpose, namely to explain changes in the steel industry. The purpose in the original phrase is to demonstrate that the industry has changed, because two decades ago there were large integrated companies but they have all greatly downsized or shut down. While is wrong.

E) The steel industry has changed..., and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from X to Y have greatly downsized, or shut down altogether.
--> The industry changed because of something. When we say the industry changed and companies downsized the meaning is significantly changed.

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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25 Mar 2017, 15:01
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

1st split:
as vs. with vs. and
with and and don't make any sense here. We are left with A and B.

Such as B.Steel is an apposition and should be separated by commas + we need to connect the rest of the sentence ('once conducted opperations') to 'integrated companies'. B uses that and therefore is a correct answer.

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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26 Mar 2017, 03:14
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.
A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
changed as <sentence>.
Correct.

C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
changed with <companies> that..
Not followed by 'noun'/ 'clause'
no sense.
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
similar-
changed while <companies> that..
no sense.
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2017, 23:55
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.

A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel --> that is missing
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2017, 09:17
Dear experts

Is it posible for "once conducted" to be a verb-ed modifier that modify "companies"?

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2017, 10:41
as large, integrated companies...in option B is correct (as acts as because)
with large, integrated companies...in option C is wrong and
'that' is required is required to address the subject in primary clause.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2017, 05:43
I can't get why we need that. Would u plz clarify?

[q uote="daagh"]
Quote:
"X" once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

X once conducted Y from A to B HAVE VER-ed,

So HAVE VERB-ed doesn't take X as SUBJECT ????

"X" once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

This clause per se is ungrammatical because there are two actions here that are not properly conjugated. So this is a run-on.

1. "X" once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other
2. have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

Now you can amend the error in two ways. The first is the way the text does. i.e. - by introducing a relative pronoun such as that or which at the right juncture, say just after the subject. The construction becomes a complex sentence involving a sub-clause and a main clause with the two given verbs smugly fitting in their own subjects
The other way is to convert it into a compound sentence with the introduction of an appropriate co-ordinate conjunction such as and, but etc;
1. The amended sentence will read as: "X" once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other, but have/ has greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

Now you may see that the second verb have /has downsized can take X as the subject and only for the sake of brevity, it is elliptical.[/quote]

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two   [#permalink] 11 Jul 2017, 05:43

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