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The steel industry has changed radically over the last two

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2017, 11:38
iDisappear wrote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel
once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.
A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel


The steel industry...... two decades -> independent clause. We need a conjunction to connect the 2nd clause.
So C is out.

A -> Bethlehem Steel is the subject, but it doesn't agree with the plural verb 'have'. Out
E -> Same as A. Bethlehem Steel doesn't agree with plural verb 'have'. Out.
D -> alters the meaning of the sentence, and makes it slightly non-sensical. Out. We need as/because to tell us why the industry has radically changed. This sentence tells us the industry has changed while large companies have shut down.

B -> Integrated companies is the subject, and agrees with the plural verb 'have'. 'As' serves as a subordinating conjunction, and shares the intended meaning as to why the industry has changed.

B is the correct answer.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2017, 08:24
iDisappear wrote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel
once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.
A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel



Imo B

as large because we want show that the steel industry is changing and the given example of Bethlehem Steel proves that .
C changes the meaning it is suggesting that the steel industry is changing with Bethlehem Steel but that is not so .
Bethlehem Steel is changing because of the changes in the steel industry .
Also we need "that" so A is clearly wrong
C and use wrong preposition.
E we need similar structure after and .
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2017, 11:20
B. The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel that once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

Could someone clarify if bold phrase could qualify "such as Bethlehem Steel"? I am not sure if the phrase points to "such as Bethlehem Steel" or to "large, integrated companies".

Thanks in advance.

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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2017, 22:40
sevenplusplus wrote:
B. The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel that once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

Could someone clarify if bold phrase could qualify "such as Bethlehem Steel"? I am not sure if the phrase points to "such as Bethlehem Steel" or to "large, integrated companies".

Thanks in advance.

Hi sevenplusplus, that refers to large, integrated companies.

The simple reason is to note that there is a comma before that. In normal situations, that does not have a comma preceding it.

This comma is actually a delimiter for the following non-essential phrase: such as Bethlehem Steel.

So, the core of the sentence is:

....large, integrated companies that once conducted operations from...

Now, it is clear that that is referring to large, integrated companies.
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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2017, 22:43
EducationAisle wrote:
sevenplusplus wrote:
B. The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel that once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

Could someone clarify if bold phrase could qualify "such as Bethlehem Steel"? I am not sure if the phrase points to "such as Bethlehem Steel" or to "large, integrated companies".

Thanks in advance.

Hi sevenplusplus, that refers to large, integrated companies.

The simple reason is to note that there is a comma before that. In normal situations, that does not have a comma preceding it.

This comma is actually a delimiter for the following non-essential phrase: such as Bethlehem Steel.

So, the core of the sentence is:

....large, integrated companies that once conducted operations from...

Now, it is clear that that is referring to large, integrated companies.


Thanks for help clarifying this. Greatly appreciate it.


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Re: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2017, 21:04
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.

A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
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The steel industry has changed radically over the last two [#permalink]

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New post 02 Oct 2017, 17:51
iDisappear wrote:
The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated
companies such as Bethlehem Steel
once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.
A. as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel
B. as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
C. with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
D. while large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that
E. and large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel


Contenders: A, B and C

A: The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, as large, integrated companies such as Bethlehem Steel once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases shut down altogether.

As a rule of thumb, "Such as X and Y.." should be a modifier. Hence it requires either a that or a which construction. Which is inappropriate here, as "...once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other..."
is an essential modifier and requires that constriction.

of course which isn't in any of the options anyway, making life a little easier.

B: as large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that once conducted operations from mining at one
end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.

- ", such as Bethlehem Steel, " - a non-essential modifier separated by commas - correct use
- "once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other" - an essential modifier - modifying companies - is correctly used with a that construction.


C: with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether.

- With cannot start a full sentence.
- With distorts the meaning. If we strip out the fluff, the sentence becomes

The steel industry has changed radically over the last two decades, with large, integrated companies, such as Bethlehem Steel, that once conducted operations from mining at one end of the process to shipping at the other have greatly downsized, or in some cases
shut down altogether

You need an "as" instead of a with to convey a causal relation.

So B is correct

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The steel industry has changed radically over the last two   [#permalink] 02 Oct 2017, 17:51

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