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# The subway system in New City has recently been running a

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The subway system in New City has recently been running a [#permalink]

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21 Sep 2012, 21:09
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The subway system in New City has recently been running a severe budget deficit. Analysts have concluded that, to avoid a crisis, subway revenues must increase by 50% from the current level, beginning with the coming quarter. Subway riders are currently charged a flat fare per ride; the chairperson of New City's transit authority has concluded that a 50% increase in this fare, effective at the beginning of the coming quarter, will be sufficient to avert any crisis.

Each of the following, if true, calls into question the chairperson's conclusion EXCEPT

A Subway fares are paid with single-ride tokens that are purchased in advance and do not expire.

B On the most heavily traveled routes in New City's downtown, express bus fares range from 25 to 40 percent greater than current subway fares.

C Under New City's tax code, subway fare increases of more than 25 percent trigger reductions in the amount of tax money allocated to the subway system.

D New City's economy is adding many more jobs in suburban areas, which are inaccessible by subway, than in the urban areas that the subway system serves.

E Mobile phones, upon which a significant percentage of New City's workers have come to depend for essential communication while commuting, will be banned on the subway from the coming quarter onward
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
If you have any questions
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Re: Except type CR Subway [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2012, 22:08
Archit143 wrote:
The subway system in New City has recently been running a severe budget deficit. Analysts have concluded that, to avoid a crisis, subway revenues must increase by 50% from the current level, beginning with the coming quarter. Subway riders are currently charged a flat fare per ride; the chairperson of New City's transit authority has concluded that a 50% increase in this fare, effective at the beginning of the coming quarter, will be sufficient to avert any crisis.

Each of the following, if true, calls into question the chairperson's conclusion EXCEPT

A Subway fares are paid with single-ride tokens that are purchased in advance and do not expire.

B On the most heavily traveled routes in New City's downtown, express bus fares range from 25 to 40 percent greater than current subway fares.

C Under New City's tax code, subway fare increases of more than 25 percent trigger reductions in the amount of tax money allocated to the subway system.

D New City's economy is adding many more jobs in suburban areas, which are inaccessible by subway, than in the urban areas that the subway system serves.

E Mobile phones, upon which a significant percentage of New City's workers have come to depend for essential communication while commuting, will be banned on the subway from the coming quarter onward

I don't get it ? hard to understand the OA .

If many more jobs are added to the suburban areas, which are inaccessible by subway, how will increase in ticket fares lead to an increase in revenue ?

I think it assumes that in the coming quarter suburban areas will be accessible by the subways.

Any thoughts on this ?
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Re: Except type CR Subway [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2012, 22:12
ankit0411 wrote:
I don't get it ? hard to understand the OA .

If many more jobs are added to the suburban areas, which are inaccessible by subway, how will increase in ticket fares lead to an increase in revenue ?

I think it assumes that in the coming quarter suburban areas will be accessible by the subways.

Any thoughts on this ?

Hi Ankit

The question asks you to find one option which does not weaken the conclusion. You are mistaking that with finding one option which strengthen the question.

There is a difference between "Not weaken" and "Strengthen"

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Re: The subway system in New City has recently been running a [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2012, 22:14
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+1 D

It is a non-strengthen question (I am not sure if it is called by this but I would like to call it that )

Premise - The subway system in New City has recently been running a severe budget deficit. Analysts have concluded that, to avoid a crisis, subway revenues must increase by 50% from the current level, beginning with the coming quarter. Subway riders are currently charged a flat fare per ride

Conclusion - the chairperson of New City's transit authority has concluded that a 50% increase in this fare, effective at the beginning of the coming quarter, will be sufficient to avert any crisis.

A Subway fares are paid with single-ride tokens that are purchased in advance and do not expire. (Weakens)
B On the most heavily traveled routes in New City's downtown, express bus fares range from 25 to 40 percent greater than current subway fares. (Weakens)
C Under New City's tax code, subway fare increases of more than 25 percent trigger reductions in the amount of tax money allocated to the subway system. (Weakens)
D New City's economy is adding many more jobs in suburban areas, which are inaccessible by subway, than in the urban areas that the subway system serves. (No effect)
E Mobile phones, upon which a significant percentage of New City's workers have come to depend for essential communication while commuting, will be banned on the subway from the coming quarter onward (Weakens)

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Re: Except type CR Subway [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2012, 00:00
getgyan wrote:
ankit0411 wrote:
I don't get it ? hard to understand the OA .

If many more jobs are added to the suburban areas, which are inaccessible by subway, how will increase in ticket fares lead to an increase in revenue ?

I think it assumes that in the coming quarter suburban areas will be accessible by the subways.

Any thoughts on this ?

Hi Ankit

The question asks you to find one option which does not weaken the conclusion. You are mistaking that with finding one option which strengthen the question.

There is a difference between "Not weaken" and "Strengthen"

Yea, Got that

I was mislead by the tag "strengthen" , but now I get the difference.

Option D doesn't really have any effect on the argument above.
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Re: The subway system in New City has recently been running a [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2012, 01:48
getgyan wrote:
+1 D

It is a non-strengthen question (I am not sure if it is called by this but I would like to call it that )

Premise - The subway system in New City has recently been running a severe budget deficit. Analysts have concluded that, to avoid a crisis, subway revenues must increase by 50% from the current level, beginning with the coming quarter. Subway riders are currently charged a flat fare per ride
Conclusion - the chairperson of New City's transit authority has concluded that a 50% increase in this fare, effective at the beginning of the coming quarter, will
be sufficient to avert any crisis.

A Subway fares are paid with single-ride tokens that are purchased in advance and do not expire. (Weakens)
B On the most heavily traveled routes in New City's downtown, express bus fares range from 25 to 40 percent greater than current subway fares. (Weakens)
C Under New City's tax code, subway fare increases of more than 25 percent trigger reductions in the amount of tax money allocated to the subway system. (Weakens)
D New City's economy is adding many more jobs in suburban areas, which are inaccessible by subway, than in the urban areas that the subway system serves. (No effect)
E Mobile phones, upon which a significant percentage of New City's workers have come to depend for essential communication while commuting, will be banned on the subway from the coming quarter onward (Weakens)

It does figure that d has no effect on the conclusion above. but can you please elaborate on how E is weakening it? i found E to be completely out of scope and thus having no effect on the conclusion in a better way than D.
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Re: The subway system in New City has recently been running a [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2012, 02:26
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puneetgupta6 wrote:
It does figure that d has no effect on the conclusion above. but can you please elaborate on how E is weakening it? i found E to be completely out of scope and thus having no effect on the conclusion in a better way than D.

Hi Puneet

Good question. First of all, in questions like these we have to assume the options as correct and then proceed further.

In option D it states that Mobile phones, upon which a significant percentage of New City's workers have come to depend for essential communication while commuting, will be banned. If it is a major loss to the commuters, they might want to find an alternative option like bus/private vehicles to commute so that they don’t have to incur a loss. If the commuters will stop travelling via subway this will imply further loss to the system. This weakens the conclusion that the crisis will be averted.

Makes sense?

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Re: The subway system in New City has recently been running a [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2012, 02:44
sure does, many thanks. completely gave up on assumption on that front, my bad
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Re: The subway system in New City has recently been running a [#permalink]

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18 Jun 2014, 05:38
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Re: The subway system in New City has recently been running a [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2014, 15:21
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Hi,
Can someone explain option B to me?
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Re: The subway system in New City has recently been running a [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2014, 03:27
Hi, Could someone explain how option B weakens the conclusion.
I crossed off all the choices except B and D. But went with B
(or)
Can anyone explain whether my interpretation for eliminating choice B is correct.
On the most heavily traveled routes in New City's downtown, express bus fares range from 25 to 40 percent greater than current subway fares
Weakener : Even after increasing the bus fares from 25 to 40% in heavy traffic areas, there was a budget deficit .So increasing the fares upto 50% from original fare may/may not avert the crisis.
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Re: The subway system in New City has recently been running a [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2014, 11:25
getgyan wrote:
+1 D

D New City's economy is adding many more jobs in suburban areas, which are inaccessible by subway, than in the urban areas that the subway system serves. (No effect)

Question here if I may....
If adding more jobs in areas which are inaccessible by subway, and not knowing that the population doesn't grow, can we speculate that some of the people now going to work will start going to different areas, ones that aren't accessible by subway, and thus the subway will loose some if it's commuters?
Where's the flaw in this logic?
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The subway system in New City has recently been running a [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2014, 00:45
Hi

Choice D , mentions that new jobs will be added in suburban areas, which may increase the ridership of other means of transport. However as per the premise with the current level of ridership, the budget deficit can be overcome by increase in fare.
It ll be inaccurate to consider that the current riders in the subway(that runs in the urban areas) will stop working in the urban areas and move to the sub-urban ones.
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Re: The subway system in New City has recently been running a [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2014, 01:32
dream21 wrote:
Hi

Choice D , mentions that new jobs will be added in suburban areas, which may increase the ridership of other means of transport. However as per the premise with the current level of ridership, the budget deficit can be overcome by increase in fare.
It ll be inaccurate to consider that the current riders in the subway(that runs in the urban areas) will stop working in the urban areas and move to the sub-urban ones.

Still, there are many question marks for me here.
Why can we consider people pre-purchasing tokens (in option A) as a valid reason that will weaken the conclusion of the manager, but can't consider people changing jobs and stop using the subway?
It's stated that there is a major increase in jobs that won't be accessible by subway....
Still not getting it.....
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Re: The subway system in New City has recently been running a [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2014, 15:49
ronr34 wrote:
dream21 wrote:
Hi

Choice D , mentions that new jobs will be added in suburban areas, which may increase the ridership of other means of transport. However as per the premise with the current level of ridership, the budget deficit can be overcome by increase in fare.
It ll be inaccurate to consider that the current riders in the subway(that runs in the urban areas) will stop working in the urban areas and move to the sub-urban ones.

Still, there are many question marks for me here.
Why can we consider people pre-purchasing tokens (in option A) as a valid reason that will weaken the conclusion of the manager, but can't consider people changing jobs and stop using the subway?
It's stated that there is a major increase in jobs that won't be accessible by subway....
Still not getting it.....

As @getgyan has rightly mentioned - You got to consider the given options as valid and acceptable...and then try to reason it out...If you follow that step thoroughly for all the options then the only option left that you can identify as a non-weakener is option 'D'...
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Re: The subway system in New City has recently been running a [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2014, 20:54
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dheeraj24 wrote:
Hi, Could someone explain how option B weakens the conclusion.
I crossed off all the choices except B and D. But went with B
(or)
Can anyone explain whether my interpretation for eliminating choice B is correct.
On the most heavily traveled routes in New City's downtown, express bus fares range from 25 to 40 percent greater than current subway fares
Weakener : Even after increasing the bus fares from 25 to 40% in heavy traffic areas, there was a budget deficit .So increasing the fares upto 50% from original fare may/may not avert the crisis.

Hi Dheeraj24,

I'd be happy to answer your question, and also quickly break down why D is right, and the others are wrong.

The subway system in New City has recently been running a severe budget deficit. Analysts have concluded that, to avoid a crisis, subway revenues must increase by 50% from the current level, beginning with the coming quarter. Subway riders are currently charged a flat fare per ride; the chairperson of New City's transit authority has concluded that a 50% increase in this fare, effective at the beginning of the coming quarter, will be sufficient to avert any crisis.

Each of the following, if true, calls into question the chairperson's conclusion EXCEPT

CONCLUSION: Increasing fares 50% will solve the 50% budget shortfall.

GOAL: Find 4 answers that Weaken, and find 1 that either Strengthens or does Nothing.

A Subway fares are paid with single-ride tokens that are purchased in advance and do not expire.
Weakens. This answer strongly suggests that some tokens would have already been purchased when the fare increase takes effect. Thus, the 50% fare increase would not be sufficient. Weaken.

B On the most heavily traveled routes in New City's downtown, express bus fares range from 25 to 40 percent greater than current subway fares.
The key issue with B is that it refers to NOW. If the SUBWAY fares go up by 50%, then the bus actually becomes a less expensive alternative, so subway riders might shift to buses. Thus, the 50% fare increase would not be enough. Weaken.

C Under New City's tax code, subway fare increases of more than 25 percent trigger reductions in the amount of tax money allocated to the subway system.
Although the fares might generate more revenue, this answer points out that other revenue would be lost. Thus the 50% fare increase would not be enough. Weaken.

D New City's economy is adding many more jobs in suburban areas, which are inaccessible by subway, than in the urban areas that the subway system serves.
The key issue here is ADDING jobs in other areas, not TAKING then from subway accessible areas. It doesn't matter what happens in other areas if it doesn't have an affect on the subway accessible areas. Therefore, this answer has ZERO effect on the proposal. Doesn’t weaken. Our right answer.

E Mobile phones, upon which a significant percentage of New City's workers have come to depend for essential communication while commuting, will be banned on the subway from the coming quarter onward
The key word here is DEPEND. These people depend on something that will soon be banned from use on subways. The GMAT is a literal exam. On the GMAT the word “depend” means that these people HAVE TO use this technology. Which in turn means that they wouldn’t be able to use the subway. That strongly suggests that subway ridership is likely to drop pretty significantly. Thus, the 50% fare increase will not be enough. Weaken.
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Re: The subway system in New City has recently been running a [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2014, 20:58
maggie27 wrote:
Hi,
Can someone explain option B to me?

Hi maggie27,

Sure, I'd be happy to help. I'm copying you here on my post from just a few minutes ago as to why B is wrong:

B On the most heavily traveled routes in New City's downtown, express bus fares range from 25 to 40 percent greater than current subway fares.
The key issue with B is that it refers to NOW. If the SUBWAY fares go up by 50%, then the bus actually becomes a less expensive alternative, so subway riders might shift to buses. Thus, the 50% fare increase would not be enough. Weaken.
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Re: The subway system in New City has recently been running a [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2015, 12:19
Hello

I am still not clear on who wins b/w A and D:
1. Option A - It tells a fact that is valid for subway tickets (always) - Closing on it saying that some tickets might already be purchased and 50% increase will not be immediately observed - OKAY
2. Option D - It tells that new jobs are added in suburban areas where subway doesn't work --> People change jobs to new jobs and hence the traffic in subway declines, does not translating to a 50% increase in revenue to counter costs --> This is an assumption of somewhat the same order as A, where we are assuming that new tickets will not be bought/tickets are not expired

Can you please elaborate on how to choose a winner in such confusing situations - I picked A as this was a general fact about subway tickets (even if prices are increased/decreased, how subway fares are pay does not change) --> This for sure might be referenced back to the action that chairperson wants to take, but with the assumption as is mentioned above.

Thank you

EMPOWERgmatAllenT wrote:
dheeraj24 wrote:
Hi, Could someone explain how option B weakens the conclusion.
I crossed off all the choices except B and D. But went with B
(or)
Can anyone explain whether my interpretation for eliminating choice B is correct.
On the most heavily traveled routes in New City's downtown, express bus fares range from 25 to 40 percent greater than current subway fares
Weakener : Even after increasing the bus fares from 25 to 40% in heavy traffic areas, there was a budget deficit .So increasing the fares upto 50% from original fare may/may not avert the crisis.

Hi Dheeraj24,

I'd be happy to answer your question, and also quickly break down why D is right, and the others are wrong.

The subway system in New City has recently been running a severe budget deficit. Analysts have concluded that, to avoid a crisis, subway revenues must increase by 50% from the current level, beginning with the coming quarter. Subway riders are currently charged a flat fare per ride; the chairperson of New City's transit authority has concluded that a 50% increase in this fare, effective at the beginning of the coming quarter, will be sufficient to avert any crisis.

Each of the following, if true, calls into question the chairperson's conclusion EXCEPT

CONCLUSION: Increasing fares 50% will solve the 50% budget shortfall.

GOAL: Find 4 answers that Weaken, and find 1 that either Strengthens or does Nothing.

A Subway fares are paid with single-ride tokens that are purchased in advance and do not expire.
Weakens. This answer strongly suggests that some tokens would have already been purchased when the fare increase takes effect. Thus, the 50% fare increase would not be sufficient. Weaken.

B On the most heavily traveled routes in New City's downtown, express bus fares range from 25 to 40 percent greater than current subway fares.
The key issue with B is that it refers to NOW. If the SUBWAY fares go up by 50%, then the bus actually becomes a less expensive alternative, so subway riders might shift to buses. Thus, the 50% fare increase would not be enough. Weaken.

C Under New City's tax code, subway fare increases of more than 25 percent trigger reductions in the amount of tax money allocated to the subway system.
Although the fares might generate more revenue, this answer points out that other revenue would be lost. Thus the 50% fare increase would not be enough. Weaken.

D New City's economy is adding many more jobs in suburban areas, which are inaccessible by subway, than in the urban areas that the subway system serves.
The key issue here is ADDING jobs in other areas, not TAKING then from subway accessible areas. It doesn't matter what happens in other areas if it doesn't have an affect on the subway accessible areas. Therefore, this answer has ZERO effect on the proposal. Doesn’t weaken. Our right answer.

E Mobile phones, upon which a significant percentage of New City's workers have come to depend for essential communication while commuting, will be banned on the subway from the coming quarter onward
The key word here is DEPEND. These people depend on something that will soon be banned from use on subways. The GMAT is a literal exam. On the GMAT the word “depend” means that these people HAVE TO use this technology. Which in turn means that they wouldn’t be able to use the subway. That strongly suggests that subway ridership is likely to drop pretty significantly. Thus, the 50% fare increase will not be enough. Weaken.
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Re: The subway system in New City has recently been running a [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2015, 23:12
Hi,

In "except" questions try to find an option that is generally "out of scope".

In A, it says that the fares are paid with tokens bought in advance and that the tokens dont expire. Hence people can buy enough number of tokens well in advance to dent the revenues that the rail network org. expects it will generate.

In option D, jobs created elsewhere is not going to affect the revenue stream planned here and hence it is out of scope.

Hope it clarifies.
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Re: The subway system in New City has recently been running a [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2016, 06:56
ronr34 wrote:
getgyan wrote:
+1 D

D New City's economy is adding many more jobs in suburban areas, which are inaccessible by subway, than in the urban areas that the subway system serves. (No effect)

Question here if I may....
If adding more jobs in areas which are inaccessible by subway, and not knowing that the population doesn't grow, can we speculate that some of the people now going to work will start going to different areas, ones that aren't accessible by subway, and thus the subway will loose some if it's commuters?
Where's the flaw in this logic?

You could be right; “some of the people now going to work will start going to different areas, ones that aren't accessible by subway, and thus the subway will lose some if it's commuters.” However, that does not mean that the old jobs in the accessible areas are no longer available; thus, other people will get these jobs and there will be no loss.

Hence choice D does not weaken.
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Re: The subway system in New City has recently been running a   [#permalink] 24 Oct 2016, 06:56

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