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# The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what

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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2015, 18:43
Can anyone explain why #3 is not A, and why it is C?

C seems wrong to me because it never mentions a "single" event. I'm guessing that even if it took the birds 20 "attempts" to learn that the crickets went bad, GMAC would somehow say this was one event, and not 20 because an "experiment" qualifies as a singular "event"....Or can we not make that assumption because no singular/plural indicator is used? Either way, in my opinion, they should have phrased the answer that left it as "bind together information about different aspects of one or more events" or something similar. I specifically eliminated C because of the singular indicator, since an experiment is a culmination of multiple events to accumulate data and a conclusion.

Anyway, A seems to be a spot-on answer to me, and I can't find any word/phrase in the answer that would throw it off.

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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2016, 18:04
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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2016, 18:04
This topic have been merged with: http://gmatclub.com/forum/topic-161682.html

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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2016, 06:44
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The term “episodic memory” was introduced by Tulving to refer to what he considered a uniquely human capacity—the ability to recollect specific past events, to travel back into the past in one’s own mind—as distinct from the capacity simply to use information acquired through past experiences.Subsequently, Clayton et al. developed criteria to test for episodic memory in animals. According to these criteria, episodic memories are not of individual bits of information; they involve multiple components of a single event “bound” together. Clayton sought to examine evidence of scrub jays’ accurate memory of “what,”“where,” and “when” information and their binding of this information. In the wild, these birds store food for retrieval later during periods of food scarcity. Clayton’s experiment required jays to remember the type, location, and freshness of stored food based on a unique learning event. Crickets were stored in one location and peanuts in another. Jays prefer crickets, but crickets degrade more quickly.Clayton’s birds switched their preference from crickets to peanuts once the food had been stored for a certain length of time, showing that they retain information about the what, the where, and the when. Such experiments cannot, however, reveal whether the birds were re-experiencing the past when retrieving the information. Clayton acknowledged this by using the term “episodic-like” memory.

1) The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. explain how the findings of a particular experiment have been interpreted and offer an alternative interpretation

B. describe a particular experiment and point out one of its limitations

C. present similarities between human memory and animal memory

D. point out a flaw in the argument that a certain capacity is uniquely human

E. account for the unexpected behavior of animal subjects in a particular experiment

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

2) According to the passage, Clayton’s experiment depended on the fact that scrub jays

A. recall “when” and “where” information more distinctly than “what” information

B. are not able to retain information about a single past event for an indefinitely long period of time

C. choose peanuts over crickets when the crickets have been stored for a long period of time

D. choose crickets over peanuts whenever both are available

E. prefer peanuts that have been stored for a short period to crickets that have been stored for a short period

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

3) The passage suggests that Clayton’s experiment demonstrated scrub jays’ ability to

A. choose different storage places for different kinds of food to minimize the rate at which a food will degrade

B. unlearn a behavior they use in the wild in order to adapt to laboratory conditions

C. bind together information about different aspects of a single past event

D. re-experience a past event in memory and act accordingly

E. distinguish one learning event from a subsequent learning event

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

4) It can be inferred from the passage that both Tulving and Clayton would agree with which of the following statements?

A. Animals’ abilities to use information about a specific past event are not conclusive evidence of episodic memory.

B. Animals do not share humans’ abilities to re-experience the past through memory.

C. The accuracy of animals’ memories is difficult to determine through direct experimentation.

D. Humans tend to recollect single bits of information more accurately than do animals.

E. The binding of different kinds of information is not a distinctive feature of episodic memory.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2016, 06:45

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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2016, 09:40
Time taken: 7 min 4 secs. Got 3/4 correct

2) According to the passage, Clayton’s experiment depended on the fact that scrub jays

Refer: "Jays prefer crickets, but crickets degrade more quickly. Clayton’s birds switched their preference from crickets to peanuts once the food had been stored for a certain length of time, showing that they retain information about the what, the where, and the when."

3) The passage suggests that Clayton’s experiment demonstrated scrub jays’ ability to

Refer: " Clayton’s experiment required jays to remember the type, location, and freshness of stored food based on a unique learning event."

4) It can be inferred from the passage that both Tulving and Clayton would agree with which of the following statements?

Refer: "The term “episodic memory” was introduced by Tulving to refer to what he considered a uniquely human capacity".
"Such experiments cannot, however, reveal whether the birds were re-experiencing the past when retrieving the information. Clayton acknowledged this by using the term “episodic-like” memory."

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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2016, 02:13
1) The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. explain how the findings of a particular experiment have been interpreted and offer an alternative interpretation
B. describe a particular experiment and point out one of its limitations

why not b?

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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2016, 17:44
Why is 1:A and not B?

Also, Why is 2:C and not D?

C is the observed outcome of the experiment not a fact that the experiment depended upon. D is a fact the scrub jay prefers cricket over peanut butter. If the bird did not have a strong preference for cricket over peanut butter, then the experiment's observation would be ambiguous. The bird could have gone for the peanut butter remembering the past or it simply prefers peanut butter. So, the experiment depended solely on the fact that scrub jay prefers cricket over peanut butter.

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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2016, 07:52
There is a contradiction between answer to the first question here and in another thread (I cannot post it here, but search in google will lead you to that thread). Here answer is A, there B. Also, B seems more logical to me.

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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2016, 07:00
Time taken 5 mins.

Marked last one wrong but realized later that The last of line of the passage clearly states that it is not the episodic memory rather the episodic like memory. Hence, both would agree that analysis of animal behavior may not be conclusive.
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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what [#permalink]

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03 Nov 2016, 09:01
archi604 wrote:
There is a contradiction between answer to the first question here and in another thread (I cannot post it here, but search in google will lead you to that thread). Here answer is A, there B. Also, B seems more logical to me.

Yes ans to 1st question most definitely cannot be A, should be B. Can the OP correct this?

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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what [#permalink]

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29 Nov 2016, 05:30
-The author introduces the concept of episodic memory
- He then describes experiment conducted to check for episodic memory in animals
- The author then points out how the experiment cannot reveal whether the birds were re experiencing or retrieving information

7 mins 5 seconds in total, including 2 mins 15 seconds to read . Got the first question incorrect .

2. "Clayton’s birds switched their preference from crickets to peanuts once the food had been stored for a certain length of time, showing that they retain information about the what, the where, and the when"

3. "Clayton sought to examine evidence of scrub jays’ accurate memory of “what” ,“where” , and “when” information and their binding of this information"

4. "Such experiments cannot, however, reveal whether the birds were re-experiencing the past when retrieving the information. Clayton acknowledged this by using the term ―episodic-like memory"

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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what [#permalink]

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25 Feb 2017, 10:05
The question no.2 asks about 'Clayton's experiment depended on the fact'. It does not asks us about what actually happened in the experiment. The basis for Jay's experiment was whenever Jays have an option for Crickets and Peanuts , Jays's will go for Crickets. Not because of the episodic memory Jays knew that Crickets would have been degraded, hence they went for peanuts.So i suppose the ans should be D.

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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what [#permalink]

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03 Mar 2017, 16:35
why for the qn1 answer is A not B ?

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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what [#permalink]

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26 Mar 2017, 04:36
Would like to get OE for question 1. Can anyone please explain why Option A was chosen over Option B ?

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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2017, 18:48
8 minutes
B C C A .
. Taking a bit more time but worth it.

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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what [#permalink]

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11 May 2017, 21:07
Hi expert,
Can anyone please elaborate more on #1?
IMHO,the Clayton's experiment doesn't offer any alternative explanation for"episodic memory."His experiment with jays reveal that they possess the "episodic-like" memory.

Also,#4 I'm torn between (A) and (E).
Why not (E)? Tulving doesn't say anything about animal.

Thanks

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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what [#permalink]

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13 May 2017, 22:35
Hi guys,

I have edited the Q1 OA from A to B. Thanks GMATNinjaTwo
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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what [#permalink]

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30 May 2017, 21:07
Can someone explain why other option are wrong for Question 4?

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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what [#permalink]

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21 Sep 2017, 01:00
Got 3 out of 4 questions right but took 11 mins
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Re: The term "episodic memory" was introduced by Tulving to refer to what   [#permalink] 21 Sep 2017, 01:00

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