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The term "glass ceiling" as a discriminatory barrier limiting females

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The term "glass ceiling" as a discriminatory barrier limiting females  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2019, 06:55
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 309, Date : 04-Sep-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


The term "glass ceiling" as a discriminatory barrier limiting females from reaching senior management positions was used in the early 1990s, around the time that females first surpassed males in annual university degrees obtained in the United States. Studies of employment in various, such as the 2003 study of employment data in Sweden conducted by Albrecht, Bjӧrklund, and Vroman, have found a consistent gap between men's and women's wages after these are controlled for gender differences in age, education level, education field, sector, industry, and occupation. However, empirical studies as early that of Powell and Butterfield in 1994 have suggested that gender, as a job-irrelevant variable in consideration of promotions to top management positions, may actually work to women's advantage. Whereas the gender gap in pay is strongly supported by data, the glass-ceiling notion itself as a discriminatory force has been harder to account for in empirically proven terms.

Studies that have been considered by some a partial repudiation of the glass-ceiling theory have indicated that men and women differ in their preferences for competition and that such differences impact economic outcomes. If women are less likely to compete, they are less likely to enter competitive situations and hence likely to win. For example, in a laboratory experiment featuring a non-competitive option and a competitive incentive scheme, men selected the tournament twice as much as did women of equal ability. One explanation is that men are inherently more competitive; another is that the social influences limiting women's presence in executive leadership generally make their impact long before women are near the ceiling.


1. The passage suggests which of the following about gender as a job-irrelevant variable?

A. Gender should have qualified women more than men for promotions, but it favored men.
B. Gender should have qualified men more than women for promotions, but it favored women.
C. Gender should not have qualified either men or women better for promotions, but it favored men.
D. Gender should not have qualified either men or women better for promotions, but it favored women.
E. Gender should not have qualified either men or women better for promotions, and it favored neither men nor women.



2. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the partial repudiation of the glass-ceiling theory mentioned in the highlighted text?

A. Industries in which competition for management positions is higher tend to award higher compensation, on average.
B. The average pay gap between men and women is larger in industries in which competition for management positions is lower.
C. Women who are compensated less than men working in similar positions are less likely to compete for management positions.
D. Women tend to achieve results equal to those of men when working according to non-competitive incentive schemes.
E. The pay gap between women who opt for competition and men is smaller than the pay gap between men and women in general.



3. The author of the passage would be most likely to describe the explanation provided by the glass-ceiling theory for women's relative scarcity in senior management positions as

A. well founded though incomplete
B. difficult to articulate
C. plausible but poorly substantiated
D. seriously flawed
E. contrary to recent research



Source: GMAT Free (11)
Difficulty Level: 700

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Re: The term "glass ceiling" as a discriminatory barrier limiting females  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2019, 18:46
Can someone explain Question 2 pls
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New post 06 Sep 2019, 04:08
Official Explanation


2. Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the partial repudiation of the glass-ceiling theory mentioned in the highlighted text?

Explanation

This question asks about the "partial repudiation." The gist of that argument is that women prefer to be non-competitive, and that therefore, the lack of women in management positions is not due to discrimination, but preference. We can summarize the partial repudiation as

lower preference for competition -> less presence in senior management

The correct answer will weaken this argument by weakening its link.

Choice (A) strengthens the argument, because it suggests that the partial repudiation could explain the gap in wages. (A) is out.

Choice (B) weakens the argument: the partial repudiation would expect the pay gap to be higher where competition is higher, so (B) would suggest there is a problem with that theory. (B) might be the answer.

Choice (C) is more subtle, so we can come back to it.

Choice (D) is out, because it focuses on non-competitive schemes, which are supposedly immaterial to the actual situation we are trying to explain.

Choice (E) would strengthen the argument, because it would strengthen the link between opting for competition and getting paid more.

Back to (C), which probably has an objective defect. Imagining this situation, we see women and men competing for management positions. The women get paid less, but compete less. They could compete less because they are already getting paid less, or they could be getting paid less because the argument is correct. The impact on the argument is unclear. Therefore, (C) is out.

The correct answer is (B).


Hope it helps

PallabiKundu wrote:
Can someone explain Question 2 pls

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Re: The term "glass ceiling" as a discriminatory barrier limiting females  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2019, 03:29
Hi team - is it possible to get the explanation for Q1, please? Thank you so much.
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New post 07 Sep 2019, 03:42
Official Explanation


1. The passage suggests which of the following about gender as a job-irrelevant variable?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

This question mentions a phrase that appears only once in the passage: gender is a "job-irrelevant variable" in line 11. The point of both studies described in the first paragraph is that they are trying to show a gender effect in cases where there should be none. That's why gender is "job-irrelevant": men and women should be equally well qualified. With an eye on the answer choices, we can see that we have ruled out (A) and (B) and narrowed down to (C) through (E). Moreover, the passage is clear that in the study, women were favored. This is presented in the passage not as a completely unassailable truth, but nevertheless as a piece of evidence, and there's no other evidence on the matter.

Therefore, the correct answer is (D).


Hope it helps

ankushahuja wrote:
Hi team - is it possible to get the explanation for Q1, please? Thank you so much.

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New post 16 Sep 2019, 10:38
SajjadAhmad Pls Provide solution For Q3 ?
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New post 16 Sep 2019, 22:02
Official Explanation


3. The author of the passage would be most likely to describe the explanation provided by the glass-ceiling theory for women's relative scarcity in senior management positions as

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

This question asks for the author's opinion on the glass-ceiling theory, and we haven't gotten a lot of opinion from the author in the passage. The author ends the passage with two possible explanations, not a decisive conclusion. The strongest statement we get from the author is that "the glass-ceiling notion... has been harder to account for in empirically proven terms." Let's look for an answer choice along those lines.

Choice (C) hits on that point: we have a problem with a lack of proof or substance. And, if that's the main problem, then presumably the theory is at least somewhat plausible.

The correct answer is (C).


Hope it helps

Alpha14 wrote:
SajjadAhmad Pls Provide solution For Q3 ?

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New post 15 Apr 2020, 11:53
SajjadAhmad : Are the questions from source "Gmat Free" official Gmat question, provided by Gmac?
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New post 15 Apr 2020, 19:25
arora1 wrote:
SajjadAhmad : Are the questions from source "Gmat Free" official Gmat question, provided by Gmac?


No, this is a private prep company.
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Re: The term "glass ceiling" as a discriminatory barrier limiting females   [#permalink] 15 Apr 2020, 19:25

The term "glass ceiling" as a discriminatory barrier limiting females

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