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# The twentieth-century physicist Paul Dirac made a significant

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22 Jan 2020, 11:29
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63% (01:29) correct 37% (01:25) wrong based on 118 sessions

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The twentieth-century physicist Paul Dirac made a significant contribution to his field with the Dirac equation, a unification of all physics since Einstein as well as a glimpse of a series of discoveries that would come to revolutionize science.

A. a unification of all physics since Einstein as well as a glimpse of a

B. a unification of all physics subsequent to Einstein and also his glimpsing of a

C. a unification of all physics after Einstein and glimpsing as well

D. unifying all physics from Einstein forward and also a glimpse of

E. unifying all the physics done since Einstein as well as his own glimpsing of

Parallelism Series

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27 Jan 2020, 09:28
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OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

One of the GMAT's favorite tricks is to use "as well as" when we actually need "and." But how do we know which we need? "As well as" lets us emphasize what follows it in a way that "and" does not_ When we look at the sentence, that sort of emphasis makes sense here because the sentence's author would likely want to highlight the way that Dirac paved the way for future scientific discovery rather than his consolidation of past scientific discoveries.
In (B) and (C), the use of gerunds (using a verb like "glimpsing" or "unifying" as a noun with another noun like "unification" and "glimpse") should make us particularly wary because the GMAT hates gerunds. Those gerunds and the misuse of "as well" or "as well as" mean that (B), (C), (D), and (E) are incorrect "Unification" and "glimpse" are far better than the various combinations of "glimpsing" and "unifying."

The correct answer is Choice (A).

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24 Jan 2020, 04:04
The twentieth-century physicist Paul Dirac made a significant contribution to his field with the Dirac equation, a unification of all physics since Einstein as well as a glimpse of a series of discoveries that would come to revolutionize science.

Error tested- PARALLELISM.

A. a unification of all physics since Einstein as well as a glimpse of a
Correct option. A unification of . . . as well as a glimpse of.

B. a unification of all physics subsequent to Einstein and also his glimpsing of a
Structure is not parallel. A unification . . . his glimpsing of.

C. a unification of all physics after Einstein and glimpsing as well
Structure is not parallel. A unification . . . glimpsing as well.

D. unifying all physics from Einstein forward and also a glimpse of
The usage of all physics from Einstein forward is wrong.
Also structure is not parallel.

E. unifying all the physics done since Einstein as well as his own glimpsing of
The usage of unifying all the physics done since Einstein is wrong.
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26 Jan 2020, 22:54
Dear Friends,

Here is a detailed explanation to this question-

Abhi077 wrote:
The twentieth-century physicist Paul Dirac made a significant contribution to his field with the Dirac equation, a unification of all physics since Einstein as well as a glimpse of a series of discoveries that would come to revolutionize science.

A. a unification of all physics since Einstein as well as a glimpse of a

B. a unification of all physics subsequent to Einstein and also his glimpsing of a

C. a unification of all physics after Einstein and glimpsing as well

D. unifying all physics from Einstein forward and also a glimpse of

E. unifying all the physics done since Einstein as well as his own glimpsing of

Choice A: This answer choice is quite concise; moreover, it maintains proper parallelism and pronoun use and conveys the intended meaning of the sentence. Thus, this answer choice is correct.

Choice B: This answer choice has several clear flaws. The use of the possessive pronoun "his" is incorrect here, as it could refer to either "Paul Dirac" or "Einstein" and changes the meaning of the sentence; the intended meaning of the sentence only refers to "a glimpse", it does not ascribe ownership of the glimpse to anyone. Additionally, the phrase "and also" is redundant as both "and" and "also" provide the needed sense of conjunction. Thus, this answer choice is incorrect.

Choice C: This answer choice breaks parallelism between the noun "all physics" and the verb "glimpsing". Thus, this answer choice is incorrect.

Choice D: This answer choice breaks parallelism between the verb phrase "unifying all physics" and the noun phrase "a glimpse of. This answer choice also repeats the redundancy error seen in Option B. Thus, this answer choice is incorrect.

Choice E: This answer choice breaks parallelism between the verb phrase "unifying all physics" and the noun phrase "his own glimpsing of". This answer choice is also needlessly wordy due to the use of the phrase "all the physics done since Einstein"; the phrase "all physics since Einstein" conveys the exact same information in a much more concise manner. Thus, this answer choice is incorrect.

Hence, A is the best answer choice.

Please remember that the phrase "his own glimpsing of" is a noun phrase, as in this context "glimpsing" is a gerund. This phrase does not refer to "his" action of glimpsing; it refers to the information and insights gleaned through his "glimpsing".

To understand the concept of "Avoiding Pronoun Ambiguity on GMAT", you may want to watch the following video (~1 minute):

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27 Jan 2020, 10:40
UNDERSTANDING THE INTENDED MEANING

By breaking the sentence in the following manner, we can best derive the intended meaning:

The twentieth-century physicist Paul Dirac
made a significant contribution to his field with the Dirac equation,
a unification of all physics since Einstein
as well as
a glimpse of a
series of discoveries that would come to revolutionize science.

• The author wants to tell us about the significance of Paul Dirac’s contribution to the field of physics, a contribution made by his Dirac equation.
• This Dirac equation was a unification of all physics since (the time of) Einstein
• (As well as)
• The Dirac equation was a glimpse of (a kind of precursor to) a series of discoveries that would come to revolutionize science.

Choice A is grammatically correct and conveys a logical meaning.

Choice B
The twentieth-century physicist Paul Dirac made a significant contribution to his field with the Dirac equation, a unification of all physics subsequent to Einstein and also his glimpsing of a series of discoveries that would come to revolutionize science.

• The construction implies that the Dirac equation is “his glimpsing of….” – illogical.
• “also” with an “and” here is redundant

Incorrect Choice

Choice C

The twentieth-century physicist Paul Dirac made a significant contribution to his field with the Dirac equation, a unification of all physics after Einstein and glimpsing as well series of discoveries that would come to revolutionize science.

• The above construction is meaningless – “glimpsing as well series of discoveries” is nonsensical.
• The construction implies that the Dirac equation is “glimpsing as well….” – illogical.

Incorrect Choice.

Choice D

The twentieth-century physicist Paul Dirac made a significant contribution to his field with the Dirac equation, unifying all physics from Einstein forward and also a glimpse of series of discoveries that would come to revolutionize science.

• In this choice “unifying” is a modifier preceded by a comma. In GMAT this construction means the “ing” modifier is modifying the verb in the preceding clause.
• So here “unifying” is modifying the action “made”. So, the meaning here is “Dirac, by making a contribution, unified all physics…” – this meaning is different from the intended one.
• “from Einstein forward” is a very awkward construction
• “also” with an “and” here is redundant.

Incorrect Choice.

Choice E

The twentieth-century physicist Paul Dirac made a significant contribution to his field with the Dirac equation, unifying all the physics done since Einstein as well as his own glimpsing of series of discoveries that would come to revolutionize science.

• The “unifying..” modifier error is the same as that in choice D.
• “his own glimpsing of” is awkward and meaningless.

Incorrect Choice
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Re: The twentieth-century physicist Paul Dirac made a significant   [#permalink] 27 Jan 2020, 10:40
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