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# The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a m

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The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a m  [#permalink]

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21 Jun 2016, 14:21
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Question Stats:

64% (00:58) correct 36% (01:34) wrong based on 2320 sessions

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The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a mirror comes within the domain of “theory of mind,” thus is best studied as part of the field of animal cognition.

(A) of “theory of mind,” thus is best
(B) “theory of mind,” and so is best to be
(C) of a “theory of mind,” thus it is best
(D) of “theory of mind” and thus is best
(E) of the “theory of mind,” and so it is best to be

OG Verbal 2017 New Question(Book Question: 296)

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Re: The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a m  [#permalink]

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21 Jun 2016, 15:50
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AbdurRakib wrote:
The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a mirror comes within the domain of “theory of mind,” thus is best studied as part of the field of animal cognition.
A. of “theory of mind,” thus is best
B. “theory of mind,” and so is best to be
C. of a “theory of mind,” thus it is best
D. of “theory of mind” and thus is best
E. of the “theory of mind,” and so it is best to be

OG Verbal 2017 New Question(Book Question: 296)

Dear AbdurRakib,
I'm happy to respond.

Split #1: we have two verbs in parallel, the verb "comes" and the verb "is." Two verbs with the same subject need to be linked with a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, yet, etc.)
The book explains X, covers Y.
That's run-on sentence.
The book explains X, and covers Y.
The book explains X, but covers Y.

Both of those are fine. The word "thus" creates logical connection, but this does NOT take the place of a coordinating conjunction. Only the choices with "and" are correct. We can eliminate (A) & (C).

Now compare what happens after quotes:
(B) and so is best to be studied as . . . a lily-livered wordy disaster.
(D) and thus is best studied as = elegant and succinct
(E) and so it is best to be studied as = an awkward monstrosity

Some of the answer choices also do funny things with the phrasing of "theory of mind."
(B) the domain "theory of mind" = OK, debatable perhaps a subtle change in meaning
(C) the domain of a "theory of mind" = quite wrong
(E) the domain of the "theory of mind" = also debatable: is there only one theory?? We don't know.

Choice (D) masterfully avoids all these problems:
... the domain of "theory of mind" and thus is best studied as . . .

Finally, notice that the comma between two parallel verb is not strictly wrong: this is not a 1005 B/W rule. Nevertheless, with relatively short clauses, omitting the comma is strongly preferred, and that's precisely what (D) does.

Official questions are always such masterpieces. As a question writer, I am always jealous!!

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a m  [#permalink]

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27 Oct 2016, 05:36
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Hi All,

I have been preparing for GMAT for a while now and below are my thoughts that i have gathered over some time. Experts, please let me know if i am mistaken somewhere. First, I will generally go over the concepts tested in this question.

While most of us don't want to know the technical grammar terms to solve the SC, at times it almost becomes imperative to understand.

" and" - conjunction : Joins two clauses or phrases.
"Thus"- Adverb of reasons derived from the pronoun "The" --> This CANNOT be used alone to join two sentences.
" So" - Now this is slightly controversial. Technically this is a "conjunctive adverb" but broadly considered a conjunction when joining two sentences.

Thus vs So :

He thus left school --> This is correct. ; He so left school --> This is incorrect
He: subject
left: verb
School: object

2. Two independent clauses with a common subject.

Now generally when two clauses have the same subject, we avoid using a "comma" while joining the two.

I study in the morning , and i play in the evening --> incorrect

Common subject: " I"
correct version: I study in the morning and play in the evening --> We dont even need to repeat the subject.

Now let us look at the question:

Common Subject: The type of behavior.

Options:

A. Lacks a conjunction.
B. " , and so" : even though there are redundant conjunctions "and " & "so", the makes are not testing this knowledge. They have made another mistake in the sentence : " best to be studied" is just wordy and awkward.
C. Lacks a conjunction.
D. Correctly places a conjunction, removes the comma and doesn't repeat the subject. --> Very concise construction.
E. "the" before "theory of mind" places extra emphasis which we are not sure is necessary or not. They have repeated the subject using the pronoun " it" in the second clause which can be avoided. "and" & "so" are redundant together. " To be" at the end is again awkward and wordy.

Let me know if this helped!
##### General Discussion
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Re: The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a m  [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2016, 09:33
5
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Nick90 wrote:
Why is the comma used inside "theory of mind,"
Is it a typo error or is as per OG?

Dear Nick90,

Are you asking about why the comma is inside the quote marks? This is a subtle difference between British and American punctuation standards. As a general rule, if a word or phrase with quotes appears before a comma or period, Brits will close the quotes and then have a period, whereas we Yanks will include the comma or period inside the quotes;
... "theory of mind", thus ... = British convention
... "theory of mind," thus ... = American convention

Neither is "wrong" --- it's just two different conventions. Remember, of course, that GMAC, the folks that write the GMAT and all the official guides, is centered here in Reston, Virginia. They never test punctuation, in part because native English speakers from different countries have different conventions. Nevertheless, sometimes, in a non-tested part of a question, you will see the American conventions followed. Thus, it is not a typo. It is not someone trying to follow the British convention and failing: it is actually an entirely separate convention.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a m  [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2016, 21:49
AbdurRakib wrote:
The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a mirror comes within the domain of “theory of mind,” thus is best studied as part of the field of animal cognition.
A. of “theory of mind,” thus is best
B. “theory of mind,” and so is best to be
C. of a “theory of mind,” thus it is best
D. of “theory of mind” and thus is best
E. of the “theory of mind,” and so it is best to be

OG Verbal 2017 New Question(Book Question: 296)

i understand how the answer is d
but what i am not able to understand is that two independent clauses are to be separated by a semi colon or a common with a conjunction which is not the case in (d).

where am i wrong ?
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Re: The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a m  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2016, 09:19
vishakhagoel33@gmail.com wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a mirror comes within the domain of “theory of mind,” thus is best studied as part of the field of animal cognition.
A. of “theory of mind,” thus is best
B. “theory of mind,” and so is best to be
C. of a “theory of mind,” thus it is best
D. of “theory of mind” and thus is best
E. of the “theory of mind,” and so it is best to be

OG Verbal 2017 New Question(Book Question: 296)

i understand how the answer is d
but what i am not able to understand is that two independent clauses are to be separated by a semi colon or a common with a conjunction which is not the case in (d).

where am i wrong ?

Dear vishakhagoel33@gmail.com,

I'm happy to respond. Unfortunately, I don't know that I fully understand your question. In this question, in no choice are there two independent clauses. The sentence is attempting, with greater or lesser success, to put to verbs in parallel for the same subject. The subject is "type of behavior" and the parallel verbs are "comes" and "is [best] studied." Also, a semicolon is not used in any answer here. Are you asking about this question or another question?

Mike
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Re: The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a m  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2017, 12:48
vishakhagoel33@gmail.com wrote:

i understand how the answer is d
but what i am not able to understand is that two independent clauses are to be separated by a semi colon or a common with a conjunction which is not the case in (d).

where am i wrong ?

Hello vishakhagoel33@gmail.com,

My guess is that since you saw the word thus in the sentence, you expected to see an independent clause after this word. Hence, the confusion why and is not preceded by a comma to make the "thus" part of the sentence independent clause.

However, that is not the case with this official sentence. So the takeaway point for you here is that it not necessary that thus will be followed by an independent clause.

It can be used with a verb to present the result of another verb/action.

If I misunderstood your question, please feel free to correct me and explain a bit more as to what is your confusion with the correct answer choice.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a m  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2017, 15:40
hi mikemcgarry egmat

Can you please explain B/E in terms of wordiness and pronoun ambiguity, if any.
Why is phrase to be studied considered awkward in (B)

WR,
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Re: The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a m  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2017, 21:26
The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a mirror comes within the domain of “theory of mind,” thus is best studied as part of the field of animal cognition.
A. of “theory of mind,” thus is best - run-on sentence - we need a coordinating conjunction
B. “theory of mind,” and so is best to be - usage of to be in unnecessary
C. of a “theory of mind,” thus it is best - run-on sentence - we need a coordinating conjunction
D. of “theory of mind” and thus is best - Correct
E. of the “theory of mind,” and so it is best to be- usage of to be in unnecessary

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Re: The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a m  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2017, 23:58
AbdurRakib wrote:
The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a mirror comes within the domain of “theory of mind,” thus is best studied as part of the field of animal cognition.
A. of “theory of mind,” thus is best
B. “theory of mind,” and so is best to be
C. of a “theory of mind,” thus it is best
D. of “theory of mind” and thus is best
E. of the “theory of mind,” and so it is best to be

OG Verbal 2017 New Question(Book Question: 296)

look at choice E.
"it" is not needed. if we insert it/pronoun as subject of the previous clause, not only the pronoun makes redundency, it also makes meaning error. the meaning error is that "it" can refer to a noun different from subject of the main clause.

Jone is good and he is also smart.

it is possible that he is different from Jone.

am i correct?
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Re: The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a m  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2017, 10:52
hi mikemcgarry egmat

Can you please explain B/E in terms of wordiness and pronoun ambiguity, if any.
Why is phrase to be studied considered awkward in (B)

WR,
Arpit

How are you, my friend? I'm happy to respond.

Here's the original sentence with (B) & (E) as well as the OA, (D):
The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a mirror comes within the domain of “theory of mind,” thus is best studied as part of the field of animal cognition.
B. “theory of mind,” and so is best to be
D. of “theory of mind” and thus is best
E. of the “theory of mind,” and so it is best to be

First of all, there is zero pronoun ambiguity. Pronouns are 100% fine in this problem.

Think about if we split this into two sentences---something that is not an option on the GMAT SC, but often a choice that a real world writer would make.
The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a mirror comes within the domain of “theory of mind.”
Thus, this type of behavior is best studied as part of the field of animal cognition.

That second sentence is elegant and well-spoken.

Consider this change.
Thus, this type of behavior is best to be studied as part of the field of animal cognition
That's awkward. The structure is to be [past participle] is a relatively infrequent formal structure indicating a kind of philosophical necessity.
Harmonious relationships with all are to be cultivated in human life.
The structure, which fits in that sentence, has a ring of dogmatic authority, as if both Plato and Aristotle are assuring us that this is true. This might be fine for some grand sweeping philosophical statements, but for what amounts to a practice recommendation about a particular scientific field, this grammatical structure sounds 100% out of place.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a m  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2017, 13:06
thangvietnam wrote:

look at choice E.
"it" is not needed. if we insert it/pronoun as subject of the previous clause, not only the pronoun makes redundency, it also makes meaning error. the meaning error is that "it" can refer to a noun different from subject of the main clause.

Jone is good and he is also smart.

it is possible that he is different from Jone.

am i correct?

Hello thangvietnam,

IMHO, the meaning error that you are talking about with the usage of it in Choice E does not stand. It is so because the the later part of the sentence uses the word so that establishes the relationship of the this part with the rest of the sentence.

Jone is good and he is also smart.

In the above-mentioned sentence too, there is no meaning issue because there is only one person mentioned in the sentence - Jone. Hence, the pronoun he will refer to Jone only.

But yes, we do have a structural problem in Choice E. The two independent clauses are not connected properly.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a m  [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2017, 04:45
The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a mirror comes
within the domain of “theory of mind,” thus is best studied as part of the field of
animal cognition.
A. of “theory of mind,” thus is best
B. “theory of mind,” and so is best to be
C. of a “theory of mind,” thus it is best
D. of “theory of mind” and thus is best
E. of the “theory of mind,” and so it is best to be

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Re: The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a m  [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2017, 09:09
sandysilva wrote:
My reasoning.
A- the two verbs comes and is for subject type of behavior are not corrected properly connected. Two verbs for same subject must be connected using proper parallel connectors.
B- "comma" and is used to connect two independent clause. Here and is not followed by independent clause.
C- "thus it is" and type of behavior comes, the two independent clauses are not connected properly. The correct way to connect two independent clauses is either by using "comma" + FANBOYS or by using semi colon.
E- and so are used together to conenct two independent clause. Also we are talking about the same subject that is type of behavior so there is no need to introduce another independent clause. We can simply take the subject common and connect the two verbs using a parallel connector.
D- fixes all the issues. The two verbs comes and is are connected properly.

I am no expert so let me know in case i missed something or got something incorrect. (:

Sent from my SM-N9007 using GMAT Club Forum mobile app

Hello sandysilva,

I must say you have done a great analysis if this official sentence. Very neat and precise. Keep up the good work.

I would just like to add a few points about the incorrect Choices B and E.

Choice B misses the preposition of after domain. This is incorrect because A is studied in the domain of XYZ. So missing preposition is an additional error in this choice.

Choice E uses the expression it is best to be studied, suggesting that this type of behavior must be studied as part of the field of animal cognition as if it is not studied already in the present.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a m  [#permalink]

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07 Nov 2017, 19:01
This is how i solved this question. So the option B is out because of the missing preposition. The use of pronoun IT in options C and E are incorrect because it can refer to either the behavior or the animal. In between A and D we need AND since the there are two independent clauses. Please correct me if am wrong.
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Re: The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a m  [#permalink]

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08 Nov 2017, 09:54
2
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longhaul123 wrote:
This is how i solved this question. So the option B is out because of the missing preposition. The use of pronoun IT in options C and E are incorrect because it can refer to either the behavior or the animal. In between A and D we need AND since the there are two independent clauses. Please correct me if am wrong.

Dear longhaul123,

I'm happy to respond.

My friend, you are taking an extremely rule-based approach to GMAT SC. While you found the correct answer here, more or less by POE, I think you may be missing the forest for the trees.

I agree that we need "and," so (A) & (C) are out. I disagree that the pronoun "it" is ambiguous in any answer choice. Many elements at many levels inform the pronoun-antecedent relationship, and students often underestimate how much parallelism plays a role in determining this relationship. In particular, when two clauses are in parallel, and the subject of the second clause is a pronoun, this setup strongly suggests that the antecedent is the subject of the first clause. Another factor that influences the pronoun-antecedent relationship rhetoric, in particular, the focus of the sentence. The focus of the first clause is the subject "type of behavior," so it's crystal clear that this is the antecedent of "it."

I would say that (B) & (D) & (E) are all grammatically correct. The GMAT loves to create incorrect answer choices that are grammatically correct, because these befuddle the folks who look only at grammar.

The problem with (B) & (E) is that they are awkward. They both have the awkward structure "so is best to be studied as . . ." That's not grammatically wrong, but it's awkward. It feels off. It is a wordy, weak, sloppy way to convey this information. By contrast, (D) is sleek and elegant.

If you look only at the level of grammar rules, you will miss what the GMAT SC is about. On a correct answer on the GMAT SC, grammar and logic and rhetoric all coherently come together to produce meaning. You have to be thinking at all levels to understand the GMAT SC.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a m  [#permalink]

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11 Jan 2018, 01:51
assuming that one is able to narrow the choices down to A and D, how do we decide between these two?

please comment on my reasoning below:

we have 2 clauses/phrases:

1. The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a mirror comes
within the domain of “theory of mind,”

2. thus is best studied as part of the field of
animal cognition.

these are 2 parallel facts and therefore we need to connect them through the use "and"

Also, what is the correct definition...are these clauses? phrases or a clause and a subordinate something.....?
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Re: The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a m  [#permalink]

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11 Jan 2018, 14:29
Mansoor50 wrote:
assuming that one is able to narrow the choices down to A and D, how do we decide between these two?

please comment on my reasoning below:

we have 2 clauses/phrases:

1. The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a mirror comes
within the domain of “theory of mind,”

2. thus is best studied as part of the field of
animal cognition.

these are 2 parallel facts and therefore we need to connect them through the use "and"

Also, what is the correct definition...are these clauses? phrases or a clause and a subordinate something.....?

Dear Mansoor50,

I'm happy to respond.

In version (D), the OA, the larger structure of this sentence is
[subject][verb #1]"and"[verb #2]
Technically, the entire sentence is one clause, and within this single clause, two verbs are in parallel. Here's an outline of version (D):

The type of behavior = SUBJECT
exhibited = participle, noun-modifier modifying the subject
when an animal recognizes itself in a mirror = verb-modifying phrase, modifies the participle "exhibited"
All of that first part is the subject and its long modifier. Then we get to the verbs:
comes = VERB #1
within the domain of “theory of mind” = predicate of verb #1
and = conjunction linking the two verbs
is best studied = VERB #2
as part of the field of animal cognition. predicate of verb #2

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a m  [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2018, 04:33
AbdurRakib wrote:
The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a mirror comes within the domain of “theory of mind,” thus is best studied as part of the field of animal cognition.

A. of “theory of mind,” thus is best (conjunction missing)

B. “theory of mind,” and so is best to be Awkward

C. of a “theory of mind,” thus it is best (conjunction missing)

D. of “theory of mind” and thus is best

E. of the “theory of mind,” and so it is best to be Awkward
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Re: The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a m  [#permalink]

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29 May 2018, 22:36
Dear egmat mikemcgarry

I have a doubt.
Here exhibited is in the past tense and comes is in the present tense. Does it make sense to have past and present in the same sentence, I am unable to understand it
Re: The type of behavior exhibited when an animal recognizes itself in a m &nbs [#permalink] 29 May 2018, 22:36

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