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The United States government has a long-standing policy of

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New post 13 Dec 2016, 14:32
All correct in 6mins 21seconds. Good passage.... :D
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New post 11 Feb 2017, 10:48
reynaldreni wrote:
Took 9 Mins and 30 sec to complete :oops: . But got all 3 right.
2:25 mins for the Q1. How can I improve timing in RC passages such as this one.
Thanks in advance for your kind advises.


You got all right good :) but It seems you didnt give enough time to read the passage therefore you took little more time
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New post 11 Feb 2017, 10:52
For question number 2 I was confused between B and E and marked E. But after that I realised why B is wrong .Because the policies were of SBA not Federal governemnt. Experts please correct If I am wrong.
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New post 22 Feb 2017, 23:26
why is Q2 "a" (and not "b") and why is Q3 "b" (and not "c")?

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New post 22 Feb 2017, 23:34
ksung84 wrote:
The United States government has a long-standing policy of using federal funds to keep small business viable. The Small Business Act of 1953 authorized the Small Business Administration (SBA) to enter into contracts with government agencies having procurement powers and to arrange for fulfillment of these contracts by awarding subcontracts to small businesses. In the mid 1960's, during the war on poverty years, Congress hoped to encourage minority entrepreneurs by directing such funding to minority businesses. At first this funding was directed toward minority entrepreneurs with very low incomes. A 1967 amendment to the Economic Opportunity Act directed the SBA to pay special attention to minority-owned businesses located in urban or rural areas characterized by high proportions of unemployed or low-income individuals. Since then, the answer given to the fundamental question of who the recipients should be-the most economically disadvantaged or those with the best prospects for business success-has changed, and the social goals of the programs have shifted, resulting in policy changes.

The first shift occured during the early 1970's. While the goal of assisting the economically disadvantaged entrepreneur remained, a new goal emerged: to remedy the effects of past discrimination. In fact, in 1970 the SBA explicitly stated that their main goal was to increase the number of minority-owned buinesses. At the time, minorities constituted seventeen percent of the nation's population, but only four percent of the nation's self-employed. This ownership gap was held to be the result of past discrimination. Increasing the number of minority-owned firms was seen as a way to remedy this problem. In that context, providing funding to minority entrepreneurs in middle- and high-income brackets seemed justified.

In the late 1970's, the goals of minority-business funding programs shifted again. At the minority business Development Agency, for example, the goal of increasing numbers of minority-owned firms was supplanted by the goal of creating and assisting more minority-owned substantive firms with future growth potential. Assisting manufacturers or wholesalers became far more important than assisting small service businesses. Minority-business funding programs were now justified as instruments for economic development, particularly for creating jobs in minority communities of high unemployment.
It can be inferred that the "ownership gap" (see underlined text) would be narrowed if which of the following were to occur?

A: Minority entrepreneurs received a percentage of government contracts equal to that received by nonminority entrepreneurs.
B: Middle- and high-income minority entrepreneurs gave more assistance to their low-income counterparts in the business community.
C: Minority entrepreneurs hired a percentage of minority emlpoyees equal to the percentage of minority residents in their own communities.
D: The percentage of self-employed minority persons rose to more than ten percent of all self-employed persons.
E: Seventeen percent of all persons employed in small businesses were self-employed.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


Which of the following best describes the function of the second paragraph in the passage as a whole?

A: It narrows the scope of the topic introduced in the first paragraph.
B: It presents an example of the type of change discuseed in the first paragraph.
C: It cites the most striking instance of historical change in a particular government policy.
D: It explains the rationale for the creation of the government agency whose operations are discussed in the first paragraph.
E: It presents the results of policies adpoted by the federal government.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


According to the passage, in 1970 funding to minority entrepreneurs focused primarily on which of the following?

A: Alleviating chronic unemployment in urban areas
B: Narrowing the ownership gap
C: Assisting minority-owned businesses with growth potential
D: Awarding subcontracts to businesses that encouraged community development
E: Targeting the most economically disadvantaged minority-owned businesses

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B



tough passage.

Q2 -- what makes A/C "B" better than "A"? It is true that in the 2nd paragraph, the scope is literally confined to "remedy the effects of past discrimination" -- as in, that's literally the only thing going on in that paragraph. I don't necessarily see how "A" is wrong (I was debating hard between "A" & "B")

Q3 -- what makes "B" correct? From paragraph 3, it is pretty clear that the "goal of increasing the # of minority-owned firms" was "supplanted by the goal of creating and assisting minority-owned firms WITH GROWTH POTENTIAL". Doesn't "C" literally spell this out?


^ need explanation b/c otherwise, this seems really controversial

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New post 25 Feb 2017, 01:17
LakerFan24,

Q2: The ideas in p2 have already been set up in p1. The first paragraph starts talking about shifts in program goals, and the second paragraph advances the narrative by showing one of those goals. That doesn't narrow the scope, since that's already the level the discussion was on. Narrowing the scope would be if the first paragraph were about the program as a whole, and we zoomed in to see how that played out in a particular community or within one specific industry. Although p2 provides an example, as B indicates, it maintains a high-level view of the overall program and its goals.

Q3: Watch carefully for the scope of the question. We're asked specifically about 1970, not the 1970's, so p3 is out of scope. Only p2 talks about 1970. This is a good example of why it's important to develop a strong feel for the author's overall point before diving into specific questions. If you've identified that overall, the author is showing how goals for supporting minority-owned businesses shifted over time, you're more likely to catch the difference between 1970 and 1970's in this question. Why? Because the goals shifted during the 1970's, so there's no way to answer a question about the primary focus during that entire period of time!
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New post 05 Sep 2017, 09:02
prasi55 wrote:
Q3 asks about "in 1970". The second paragraph mentions that "in 1970" the stated main goal was to increase the number of minority-owned businesses. The subsequent sentences identify this as the "ownership gap". Hence B is correct.

The focus on assisting minority-owned firms with growth potential occurred only in the late 1970s, not "in 1970". Note that the question does not ask "in the 1970s."


Oh my god! This's such a tricky one. Missing only one 's' (1970 vs 1970s) costs me a lot!

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New post 10 Oct 2017, 01:49
took 9 minutes. got 3/4.
Can anyone please explain question 4 ?
and what's the difficulty level of this RC ?? am thinking upper 650 ..

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New post 16 Oct 2017, 01:10
@gmatninja can you please explain how option d is correct in the last question. I think
determining succesful entrepreneurs was the goal . Please explain

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New post 16 Oct 2017, 01:11
ksung84 wrote:
The United States government has a long-standing policy of using federal funds to keep small business viable. The Small Business Act of 1953 authorized the Small Business Administration (SBA) to enter into contracts with government agencies having procurement powers and to arrange for fulfillment of these contracts by awarding subcontracts to small businesses. In the mid 1960's, during the war on poverty years, Congress hoped to encourage minority entrepreneurs by directing such funding to minority businesses. At first this funding was directed toward minority entrepreneurs with very low incomes. A 1967 amendment to the Economic Opportunity Act directed the SBA to pay special attention to minority-owned businesses located in urban or rural areas characterized by high proportions of unemployed or low-income individuals. Since then, the answer given to the fundamental question of who the recipients should be—the most economically disadvantaged or those with the best prospects for business success—has changed, and the social goals of the programs have shifted, resulting in policy changes.

The first shift occured during the early 1970's. While the goal of assisting the economically disadvantaged entrepreneur remained, a new goal emerged: to remedy the effects of past discrimination. In fact, in 1970 the SBA explicitly stated that their main goal was to increase the number of minority-owned buinesses. At the time, minorities constituted seventeen percent of the nation's population, but only four percent of the nation's self-employed. This ownership gap was held to be the result of past discrimination. Increasing the number of minority-owned firms was seen as a way to remedy this problem. In that context, providing funding to minority entrepreneurs in middle- and high-income brackets seemed justified.

In the late 1970's, the goals of minority-business funding programs shifted again. At the minority business Development Agency, for example, the goal of increasing numbers of minority-owned firms was supplanted by the goal of creating and assisting more minority-owned substantive firms with future growth potential. Assisting manufacturers or wholesalers became far more important than assisting small service businesses. Minority-business funding programs were now justified as instruments for economic development, particularly for creating jobs in minority communities of high unemployment.
1. It can be inferred that the "ownership gap" (see underlined text) would be narrowed if which of the following were to occur?

(A) Minority entrepreneurs received a percentage of government contracts equal to that received by nonminority entrepreneurs.
(B) Middle- and high-income minority entrepreneurs gave more assistance to their low-income counterparts in the business community.
(C) Minority entrepreneurs hired a percentage of minority emlpoyees equal to the percentage of minority residents in their own communities.
(D) The percentage of self-employed minority persons rose to more than ten percent of all self-employed persons.
(E) Seventeen percent of all persons employed in small businesses were self-employed.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


2. Which of the following best describes the function of the second paragraph in the passage as a whole?

(A) It narrows the scope of the topic introduced in the first paragraph.
(B) It presents an example of the type of change discuseed in the first paragraph.
(C) It cites the most striking instance of historical change in a particular government policy.
(D) It explains the rationale for the creation of the government agency whose operations are discussed in the first paragraph.
(E) It presents the results of policies adpoted by the federal government.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


3. According to the passage, in 1970 funding to minority entrepreneurs focused primarily on which of the following?

(A) Alleviating chronic unemployment in urban areas
(B) Narrowing the ownership gap
(C) Assisting minority-owned businesses with growth potential
(D) Awarding subcontracts to businesses that encouraged community development
(E) Targeting the most economically disadvantaged minority-owned businesses


[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


4. The passage mentions which of the following as a basic consideration in administering minority-business funding programs?

(A) Coming up with the funding for the programs
(B) Encouraging government agencies to assist middle- and high-income minority entrepreneurs
(C) Recognizing the profit potential of small service businesses in urban communities
(D) Determining who should be the recipients of the funding
(E) Determining which entrepreneurs are likely to succeed


[Reveal] Spoiler:
D



GMATNinja can you please explain how option d is correct in the last question. I think
determining succesful entrepreneurs was the goal . Please explain this

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New post 19 Oct 2017, 21:11
Ravindra.here wrote:
GMATNinja can you please explain how option d is correct in the last question. I think
determining succesful entrepreneurs was the goal . Please explain this

Quote:
4. The passage mentions which of the following as a basic consideration in administering minority-business funding programs?

(A) Coming up with the funding for the programs
(B) Encouraging government agencies to assist middle- and high-income minority entrepreneurs
(C) Recognizing the profit potential of small service businesses in urban communities
(D) Determining who should be the recipients of the funding
(E) Determining which entrepreneurs are likely to succeed

Refer to the last sentence of the first paragraph: "Since [the 1967 amendment], the answer given to the fundamental question of who the recipients should be—the most economically disadvantaged or those with the best prospects for business success—has changed, and the social goals of the programs have shifted, resulting in policy changes."

The fact that the recipients have changed tell us that those administering the programs are considering WHO should receive the funding. If choice (D) were not a basic consideration, then those administering the programs would NOT ask the fundamental question of who the recipients should be. We are told that the question of who the recipients should be (i.e. which groups should be given funding) is fundamental, impacting the basic goals and directions of such programs.

The passage mentions a couple shifts in policy that impacted who received funding. For example, "in 1970 the SBA explicitly stated that their main goal was to increase the number of minority-owned businesses." In the late 1970s, one agency adopted "the goal of creating and assisting more minority-owned substantive firms with future growth potential."

However, the passage makes no mention of analyzing/predicting which entrepreneurs are likely to succeed. Choosing the individual people and businesses within those groups might be a secondary question that involves considering which entrepreneurs are likely to succeed, but the passage does not talk about such considerations.

Thus, (D) is a better answer than (E).
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