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# The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu

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The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu [#permalink]

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16 May 2008, 04:18
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Question Stats:

39% (01:18) correct 61% (01:25) wrong based on 846 sessions

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The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.

(A) The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.

(B) The United States petroleum industry’s cost by the end of the decade to meet environmental regulations is estimated at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.

(C) By the end of the decade, the United States petroleum industry’s cost of meeting environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.

(D) To meet environmental regulations, the cost to the United States petroleum industry is estimated at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.

(E) It is estimated that by the end of the decade the cost to the United States petroleum industry of meeting environmental regulations will be ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu [#permalink]

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22 Dec 2010, 17:52
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The SC problem below is a tough modifier problem. I was able to narrow down the choices to (c) or (e). The "cost to the United States...of" dissuaded me against option (e) for some unknown reason. Why is (e) a preferable answer choice to (b)? Also, I've noticed that in modifier problems where the entire passage is underlined, the GMAT likes to contrast possessive subjects or possessive collective nouns (such as in answer choices (a), (b), (c)), with placeholder "it" subjects (such as in question (e) ).

I would appreciate any analysis or advice anyone has on this problem and on my modifier problem observation. Thanks!

The United States petroleum industry's cost to meet environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.

a. The United States petroleum industry's cost to meet environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.

b. The United States petroleum industry's cost by the end of the decade to meet environmental regulations is estimated at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.

c. By the end of the decade, the United States petroleum industry's cost of meeting environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.

d. To meet environmental regulations, the cost to the United States petroleum industry is estimated at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.

3. It is estimated that by the end of the decade the cost to the United States petroleum industry of meeting environmental regulations will be ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu [#permalink]

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16 May 2008, 10:57
2
E for me.
Assuming there is an apostrophe (industry's)
A,B,C - The United States petroleum industry's cost
industry's cost incorrectly implies that it is the cost of the industry. But it is cost to the industry.
D has a misplaced modifier problem.
E is fine. ( Though I have mixed feelings about the Cost to ....industry of meeting) {industry of meeting??}
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu [#permalink]

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16 May 2008, 11:06
1
Quote:
The United States petroleum industrys cost to meet environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.

A. The United States petroleum industrys cost to meet environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.
B. The United States petroleum industrys cost by the end of the decade to meet environmental regulations is estimated at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.
C. By the end of the decade, the United States petroleum industrys cost of meeting environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.
D. To meet environmental regulations, the cost to the United States petroleum industry is estimated at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.
E. It is estimated that by the end of the decade the cost to the United States petroleum industry of meeting environmental regulations will be ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.

A - Wrong - By end of decade at the end makes the sentence clumsy
B - 'to meet' looks tempting. By end of decade is again used incorrectly. Wrong. The given sentence has projected. so I will stick with projected.
C - CORRECT. Though I still have doubt with 'of meeting'
D - Modifier error at the start
E - I stick to Projected. So estimated is wrong.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu [#permalink]

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16 May 2008, 19:02
saravalli wrote:
E for me.
Assuming there is an apostrophe (industry's)
A,B,C - The United States petroleum industry's cost
industry's cost incorrectly implies that it is the cost of the industry. But it is cost to the industry.
D has a misplaced modifier problem.
E is fine. ( Though I have mixed feelings about the Cost to ....industry of meeting) {industry of meeting??}

great explaination, I totally agree with you. Your reasoning help me find one more time mistake I often meet "misplaced modifier"- Recognize it and correct it still be my weakness!

At first I choose D. But "To meet...regulation" is misplaced modifier, right?
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu [#permalink]

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16 May 2008, 19:35
Really good one. Where is this from ? gmatprep?

C vs E.
I was initially swayed by C but I think E is better.
In C , "the United States Petroleum industry's cost" does not look to be the correct phrase.
A better option would be " cost to the United States Petroleum industry " which is present in E.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu [#permalink]

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17 May 2008, 11:02
I believe E is better than C. BSD ... would you please give us the OA on this one. It's a close call between C and E, except that I don't like the structure -- industrys cost...projected at 10 percent..
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu [#permalink]

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16 May 2010, 09:50
OA is E, but as per Manhattan SC, the construction "It is...that" must be avoided.
Can anybody explain?
Thanks.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu [#permalink]

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22 Dec 2010, 19:26
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tonebeeze wrote:
The SC problem below is a tough modifier problem. I was able to narrow down the choices to (c) or (e). The "cost to the United States...of" dissuaded me against option (e) for some unknown reason. Why is (e) a preferable answer choice to (b)? Also, I've noticed that in modifier problems where the entire passage is underlined, the GMAT likes to contrast possessive subjects or possessive collective nouns (such as in answer choices (a), (b), (c)), with placeholder "it" subjects (such as in question (e) ).

I would appreciate any analysis or advice anyone has on this problem and on my modifier problem observation. Thanks!

The United States petroleum industry's cost to meet environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.

a. The United States petroleum industry's cost to meet environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.

b. The United States petroleum industry's cost by the end of the decade to meet environmental regulations is estimated at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.

c. By the end of the decade, the United States petroleum industry's cost of meeting environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.

d. To meet environmental regulations, the cost to the United States petroleum industry is estimated at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.

e. It is estimated that by the end of the decade the cost to the United States petroleum industry of meeting environmental regulations will be ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.

Hi!

I quickly arrived at (E) because of the improperly used idioms "projected at" and "estimated at" - in both cases, "to be" should be used instead of "at".

Since A, B, C and D all have "at", and E has "is estimated that... [it] will be", which is also fine, that's the choice that immediately jumped out at me.

"The cost to X of Y is Z" is an acceptable phrase.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu [#permalink]

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22 Dec 2010, 21:10
Why is "estimated at" unidiomatic? Its used all the time!? I mean surely the GMAT can't have a problem with "estimated at" or "projected at"? Is "estimated/projected at" grammatically wrong?

The direct economic value the Internet provides to the rest of the U.S. economy is estimated at \$175 billion. http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6268.html

Thanks.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu [#permalink]

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22 Dec 2010, 21:57
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gmat1011 wrote:
Why is "estimated at" unidiomatic? Its used all the time!? I mean surely the GMAT can't have a problem with "estimated at" or "projected at"? Is "estimated/projected at" grammatically wrong?

The direct economic value the Internet provides to the rest of the U.S. economy is estimated at \$175 billion. http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6268.html

Thanks.

Hi,

when you're talking about the present, "estimated at" is fine; when you're projecting to the future, "estimated to be" (or, even better, changing the sentence to use the future "will be") is correct.

For idioms, it's all about what the GMAT considers correct - that's the "fun" thing about idioms, there are no rules, it's just what "is" correct.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2010, 08:38
its quiet straight forward question. as petroleum industry has to meet the regulation but not the industry's cost. hence the answer E is correct. pls correct me if i am wrong.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2010, 10:54
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tirupatibalaji wrote:
its quiet straight forward question. as petroleum industry has to meet the regulation but not the industry's cost. hence the answer E is correct. pls correct me if i am wrong.

After further review, you can certainly arrive at the answer in under 60 seconds:
(1) If you identify the improper idioms "estimated at" & "projected at"

(2) You have a firm grasp of the concept of possessives. Possessive cases (- ‘s) is used only with the names of living things.

We don't say:
Table's legs...
Industry's cost...

We say:
Legs of the table...
Cost to the industry...
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2010, 18:19
tonebeeze wrote:
tirupatibalaji wrote:
We don't say:
Table's legs...
Industry's cost...

We say:
Legs of the table...
Cost to the industry...

Actually, it's perfectly OK to use possessives with inanimate objects (or even intangibles).

"The table's legs are uneven", "the industry's costs are high this year" and "the plan's advantages are clear" are all well constructed sentences.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2010, 19:44
B is also incorrect because the cost is separated from the figures. You should try to have the cost be modified by the actual cost rather than other parts of the sentence.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu [#permalink]

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16 May 2011, 00:34
projected at and estimated that | to be are correct usage of idioms.

Also, petroleum industrys cost of meeting environmental ... in C is not a correct usage.

Cost to is preferred usage as in E. Hence E.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu [#permalink]

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16 May 2011, 13:01
+1 E

It is correct, and it is the more clear, although I don't find huge errors in C.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2011, 06:29
C vs. E

C is wrong because, the sentence is about projections.
What tense should we use if we are presented with future estimates and projections?
in C: "By the end of the decade,....... the cost ..... is projected"
E is correct, as it uses future tense for projections.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu [#permalink]

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15 Sep 2011, 09:03
amit2k9 wrote:
projected at and estimated that | to be are correct usage of idioms.

Also, petroleum industrys cost of meeting environmental ... in C is not a correct usage.

Cost to is preferred usage as in E. Hence E.

Can you plz tell y option E is worng? is it because the modifer To meet environmental regulations, should be follwed by a noun or.......?
And every time a modifer should be follwed by what?
Iam really confused of this,thanks a lot to explain
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2011, 06:18
When GMAC’s psychometrician remarked about removing the idioms from the database, he must have certainly meant including this one. However, I got interested in this because the title said it is a tough modifier problem. Which modifier?
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu   [#permalink] 26 Oct 2011, 06:18

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