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The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce

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The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce  [#permalink]

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The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.


(A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses

(B) that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn

(C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses

(D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious

(E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn


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Originally posted by flyinhair on 06 Sep 2009, 10:19.
Last edited by Bunuel on 04 Oct 2018, 04:22, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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New post Updated on: 14 Oct 2012, 18:24
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The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.

(A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses
(B) that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn
(C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses
(D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious
(E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn

The easiest place to start is probably with the create/creates split. What "create(s)...responses"? The emotional reaction. (Strictly speaking the subject of the verb "create" is the pronoun "that." More on this issue later.) Since "emotional reactions" is plural, we want a plural verb, "create." That eliminates B and E. "Creating" in C is a present participle, and "to create" in D is an infinitive, so neither of these is either singular or plural.

Next we might consider which form of the verb "create" is appropriate, the verb "create," the present participle "creating," or the infinitive "to create." A verb-form split usually signals either an idiom problem or a problem with parallelism, but not in this case. Rather, neither C nor D captures the original meaning. Answer C: A present participle (-ing word) immediately preceded by a noun (no comma separating them) attributes action to that noun. So C means that "an individual" creates responses. Answer D: Here, "to create" suggests that the goal of producing emotional reactions is to create physiological responses.

That leaves A, the correct answer.

Addendum 1. I began by asking "What creates responses?" This common-sense question is usually adequate to match a verb to its subject. Sometimes you'll have a couple of reasonable answers, and you'll have to look more closely at the grammar. The verbs in relative clauses--noun-modifying clauses that start with "that" or one of the "wh-" words, "which," "who/m," "when," "where"--actually modify the relative pronouns that precede them, but those relative pronouns are themselves singular or plural depending on the nouns to which they refer. The long and short of it is that you're probably better off with the common-sense question than with the subtle grammatical question here.

Addendum 2. With few exceptions, relative clauses modify the nouns or noun phrases they touch. In this question, "that...create...responses" touches the noun "individual," but it also touches the noun phrase "emotional reactions in an individual," that is, the noun "reactions" plus the adjective "emotional" plus the prepositional phrase "in an individual." That whole phrase, or if you prefer the noun at its heart, is modified by the relative clause. Frankly, I think that it's a little clumsy here, and I might have had a bit of trouble had I started with the modifier issue.
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Originally posted by MichaelS on 14 Oct 2012, 11:04.
Last edited by MichaelS on 14 Oct 2012, 18:24, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 08 Sep 2009, 20:06
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A it is. Emotional reactions in an individual that - here emotional reactions is followed by a prepositional phrase so that will not modify the noun in prepositional phrase but will modify whatever comes before prepositional phrase.
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New post 09 Oct 2012, 02:44
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souvik101990 wrote:
The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.

(A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses
(B) that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn
(C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses
(D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious
(E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn


Concept tested: Constructions, Parallelism, Meaning
Difficulty: Hard
Illustration:
E. Who, referring to individuals, is not responsible for psychological responses
D. this means lying produces the responses. Incorrect
C. this means that the individuals are creating psychological responses. Incorrect.
B. creates is singular while the subject (emotional reactions) is plural

A. Correct

Tip: verb+ING when follows a noun without a comma MUST modify that noun.
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New post 23 Oct 2014, 08:03
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sugand wrote:
isn't it true that "THAT" can have only singular antecedents and take only singular verbs...when u want to refer to plural antecedents "THOSE" replace "THAT"...

so how is "THAT" here referring to "emotional reactions "....

that is one of the most versatile words in English grammar. It has 3 most prominent avatars:

i) As a relative pronoun, that relates to another noun preceding it in the sentence. Example: The car that is parked in the basement is mine.

ii) As a demonstrative pronoun, that stands for a person, place or thing that must be pointed to. Example: Peter's brother is taller than that of Jack.

iii) As a conjunction, that connects two clauses. Example: He said that he would work hard.

Based on which of the avatars the word that is used as, there are some key differences. One of the differences is: When used as a relative pronoun, that can refer to both singular and plural nouns. So, both the following are correct:

The car that is parked in the basement is mine.
– Relative pronoun that refers to singular noun car.

The cars that are parked in the basement are mine.
– Relative pronoun that refers to plural noun cars.

However, when used as a demonstrative pronoun, that can only refer to singular nouns. So, while the following are correct:

Peter's brother is taller than that of Jack.

Following is not correct (assuming Jack has multiple businesses):

Peter's businesses are doing better than that of Jack.
- Demonsrative pronoun that cannot refer to plural noun businesses

The correct sentence would be:

Peter's businesses are doing better than those of Jack.
- Demonsrative pronoun those will refer to plural noun businesses


p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana details the various avatars of that, their application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email-id, I can send you the corresponding section.
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New post 06 May 2018, 08:51
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Although I have retired from posting explanations on the verbal forums, but WTH!

pikolo2510 wrote:
souvik101990 GMATNinja

In option A, "that" is referring to "reaction". If thats the case, then "creating" will also refer to "reaction" and not "individual"

Can you let me know where I am going wrong?


Nah. Good point though. Think about these two sentence.

I bought the new iPhone from a retailer that has no headphone jack.

- it is pretty clear that in this sentence that the verb "has" is used for the noun iPhone and not the noun retailer. Most of the times GMAT will have sentences where modifiers set off by words such as which and that modify the closest proceeding noun, but in a few cases the noun has been separated by a small phrase as in this case from a retailer

However, if there are no modifiers at all the verb will invariable be acted by the noun proceeding it. For example,

I went to see her in the hospital feeling sorry. - WRONG

This might be okay in a conversational sense, but in formal writing, this does not work at all. The hospital is not really feeling anything (unless you are playing Resident Evil where hospitals are a living being that produce nurse-zombies, but we are not!)

I want to sit next to the girl wearing the dragon tattoo - The girl is the one wearing the fabled tattoo and not you.

General rule to remember - if there is an ING construction right after a noun (without a comma), the ING must refer to the noun, and for most of the cases on the GMAT it will be a wrong answer choice.
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2013, 01:24
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Hi Skag55

Let me try this question.

First, meaning is KEY. what creates unconscious physiological response? an individual OR emotional reactions? Clearly, the latter - emotional reactions - does because it follows the structure: lying --> emotional reactions that make a person express --> unconscious physiological response.

Note:"that" does not follow "touch" rule here. It's quite rare in GMAT, because normally "that" modifies the closest noun. The question, however, addresses the meaning rather than grammar rule.

[i]The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological response.

A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.
Correct.

B) that create unconscious physiological responses in turn.
Wrong. "in turn" should be placed after "that" to make the sentence logically.

C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses.
Wrong. "creating" modifies "an individual" --> wrong meaning.

D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious.
Wrong. Meaning is awkward: lying produces emotional reactions to create unconscious responses <-- wrong.

E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn.
Wrong. "who" modifies "an individual" --> changes meaning --> wrong.

Hope it helps.

Can someone clarify this please? (hopefully once and for all! :-D )[/quote]
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New post 16 May 2015, 07:48
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Maxirosario2012 wrote:
However, I can´t understand yet why C. is worng.
Is it wrong only because of the missed comma?

hi
C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses
it changes the meaning..
the original sentence says
The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological response. here it is emotional rections that is producing physiological responses

The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses here the act of emotional reactions produced by lying is producing physiological responses
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New post 07 Sep 2016, 16:02
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sayantanc2k wrote:
NitJ wrote:
Why not C? 'Creating' is an verb+ing modifier that modifies the preceding clause 'lying produces emotional reactions in an individual'. Please explain.


Your statement would be true if there were a comma before "creating" - without a comma, the verb-ing modifier cannot work as a clause modifier.

Dear sayantanc2k and NitJ,

I have a few observations to share about this conversation.

First of all, with all due respect to sayantanc2k's intelligence & experience on this site, I would caution both of you on the use of the term "verb-ing." This is a sloppy, imprecise term, and I believe sloppy terminology leads to sloppy thinking. In fact, the -ing form of a verb can have three mutually exclusive roles in a sentence:
1) part of a present progressive verb,
e.g. He was creating a new model for the sale department even as the folks working under the old model were floundering.
2) a gerund
Creating a diverse stock portfolio is the best way to avoid tremendous losses in a crisis.
3) a present participle
The man creating the disturbance was arrested.
The president died unexpectedly, creating a power vacuum.

I think making the distinctions in terminology forces us to notice and understand more deeply these grammatical distinctions. Also, I think the imprecise terminology can be very confusing to non-native speakers who are still trying to make sense of all these complex forms.

I agree with what sayantanc2k about this question, but I would add: the participial modifier poses some profound challenges. It is the only modifier that can be either a noun or a verb modifier, depending on context & usage. Thus, if the rest of the sentence is not perfectly clear, the participle modifier is ripe for logical ambiguity, only because it has so many potential uses.

Here's (C) as it, without the comma.
The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses.
Here, without a comma between "individual" and "creating," the Modifier Touch Rule creates the strong expectation that the participle is acting as a noun modifier, modifying the noun it touches, "individual." The "in turn" after this is jarring, and makes this reading of the modification more ambiguous. The first reading is logically incorrect, and the the second interpretation is ambiguous. Either wrong or ambiguous---not a good choice either way. That's why (C) is wrong.

Here's (C1) as it, with the comma added.
The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual, creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses.
Here, it's clear that the participle does not apply to the noun "individual." That much is clear. Here, we could interpret the participle as a verb-modifier modifying the action of the preceding clause, or we could view it as a noun-modifier modifying the subject of the clause, "lying." In fact, there's not a sharp distinction in meaning between these two, so this distinction is not helpful. Overall, this could be a plausible correct answer, but the question doesn't give us this.

Remember that if we have
[subject][verb][comma][participle]
then it may be that the participle is a verb-modifier modifying the action of the clause, or it may be that the participle as a noun-modifier modifies the subject. In this sentence, there is essentially no difference meaning, but that's not always the case.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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New post 14 Oct 2012, 05:13
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souvik101990 wrote:
The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.

(A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses
(B) that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn
(C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses
(D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious
(E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn


Concept tested: Constructions, Parallelism, Meaning
Difficulty: Hard
Illustration:
E. Who, referring to individuals, is not responsible for psychological responses
D. this means lying produces the responses. Incorrect
C. this means that the individuals are creating psychological responses. Incorrect.
B. creates is singular while the subject (emotional reactions) is plural

A. Correct

Tip: verb+ING when follows a noun without a comma MUST modify that noun.
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New post 04 Sep 2014, 04:13
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ankitaprsd wrote:
Please can some one explain why is that referring to reactions and not individual ?
Doesn't that refer to the imediate preceding noun ?

Three reasons:
i) that cannot refer to people (for the most part, that can only refer to non-living things)
ii) If that refers to individual, then the verb would be creates (and not create), though one could argue that there is a Subject-verb disagreement in the original sentence
iii) Logically, it is the emotional reactions (and not individual) that creates unconscious physiological response.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana lays down a simple framework to determine what that modifies, it application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email-id, I can send you the corresponding section.
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New post 06 Oct 2014, 21:01
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Thoughtosphere wrote:
scheol79 wrote:
The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.

(A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses

(B) that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn

(C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses

(D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious

(E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn


I am unable to understand, what is "that" referring to, is it referring to lying produces emotional reactions in an individual or to emotional reactions. And the reasoning behind that.


THAT and WHICH are noun modifiers. They modifies preceding noun ,but in few cases they can modify slightly far away noun.
For eg.,

The new motor act that allows drivers not to carry DL all the time was enforced yesterday. : In this sentence THAT modifies preceding noun The new motor act and explains that.

Now see this example:

John is student at school in Delhi,which provides special education for disabled students.

Now in this sentence Which modifies school not Delhi because Delhi describes school and can not be placed anywhere else in the sentence.


Same is the case with this problem.
first that is modifying assumption and second that is modifying emotional reactions
Notice that second THAT can not modify "an individual" because this phrase is modifying "emotional reactions" and can not be placed anywhere else in the sentence.

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New post 22 Oct 2014, 08:50
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Thoughtosphere wrote:
I am unable to understand, what is "that" referring to, is it referring to lying produces emotional reactions in an individual or to emotional reactions. And the reasoning behind that.

that is used as a relative pronoun here. Since it is a pronoun, it can only refer to nouns. So, that cannot refer to lying produces emotional reactions in an individual, because lying produces emotional reactions in an individual is a clause since it has a verb produces; as I mentioned, that can only refer to nouns/noun-phrases, not to verbs/clauses.

Also, notice that that cannot refer to individual, because when used as a relative pronoun, that cannot refer to people (in this case individual). So basically, that refers to emotional reactions.

p.s. which and that behave very distinctly in this regard. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses these differences between which and that, their application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email-id, I can send you the corresponding section.
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New post 23 Oct 2014, 05:32
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EducationAisle wrote:
Thoughtosphere wrote:
I am unable to understand, what is "that" referring to, is it referring to lying produces emotional reactions in an individual or to emotional reactions. And the reasoning behind that.

that is used as a relative pronoun here. Since it is a pronoun, it can only refer to nouns. So, that cannot refer to lying produces emotional reactions in an individual, because lying produces emotional reactions in an individual is a clause since it has a verb produces; as I mentioned, that can only refer to nouns/noun-phrases, not to verbs/clauses.

Also, notice that that cannot refer to individual, because when used as a relative pronoun, that cannot refer to people (in this case individual). So basically, that refers to emotional reactions.

p.s. which and that behave very distinctly in this regard. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses these differences between which and that, their application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email-id, I can send you the corresponding section.




isn't it true that "THAT" can have only singular antecedents and take only singular verbs...when u want to refer to plural antecedents "THOSE" replace "THAT"...

so how is "THAT" here referring to "emotional reactions "....
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New post 28 Sep 2016, 07:27
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Responding to a PM:
The concept that "that" / "which" cannot refer to a noun within a prepositional phrase is wrong.

I am sitting on a chair, which is broken.
I have searched inside the bookshelf that I bought last week.

In both sentences "which" / "that" refers to a noun within prepositional phrase.

Option A above is an example of an exception to modifier touch rule. A list of such exceptions are listed in the Manhattan SC guide.

Your second query:
"Which" is used for a non-essential modifier and "that" for an essential modifier.

Essential modifier: mandatory- required to define the noun it refers to - no comma - removal of the modifier changes the meaning of the sentence.
example: I hate dogs that bark.
meaning: Say there are 100 dogs and 30 of them bark. I hate only those 30 barking ("selectively").
Removal of the modifier would imply that I hate all 100 dogs rather than just those 30 barking dogs - meaning changes.

Non-essential modifier:
not mandatory - says something extra about the noun it refers to - comma required - removal of the modifier does not change the meaning of the sentence.
example: I hate dogs, which bark.
meaning: Say there are 100 dogs. I hate all 100 of them. Extra information- those 100 dogs bark.
Removal of the modifier would still imply that I hate all 100 dogs - the meaning does not change.
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New post 17 Oct 2016, 14:18
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zoezhuyan wrote:
awesome ~~~

thanks so much Mike,
I think that is why meaning is so important than grammar on GMAT SC, right?

Mike, I have a further question,
I have no example on hand ATM except following Office Problem

what if in a complex sentence, say:
Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving as a kind of snorkel.

this is an incorrect sentence, what I read it :
I guess that participle evolving refers to embryologists, although author intended to refer to elephant.

I am not sure if the structure works in a that - clause, if works, participle refers to the subject of the entire sentence or the subject of the that - clause,

have a lovely day
>_~

Dear zoezhuyan,

I'm happy to respond, my friend. :-)

Yes, the GMAT SC is about meaning because language and communication is about meaning. When you ask a question and I write a response, I am trying to address the meaning of your question with the meaning of my answer. When you read my response, you are concerned with understanding my meaning: you may also look at the grammar I use, but that's clearly of secondary important. Meaning is always the most important. It's important in life, so it's important on the GMAT.

The sentence you quoted has two verbs "that suggests that has suggested." I am not sure why this is the case, but obviously, we only need on verb here: the simple present is better than the present perfect, so I will give the version of the sentence with the simple present. I will also add the word "that" after the verb "suggests."
Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving as a kind of snorkel.
Now, I will tell you something truly mind-boggling: this sentence is 100% correct. The structure that appears after the comma is what is known as an "absolute phrase." See this blog:
Absolute Phrases on the GMAT
My friend, this doesn't fit into any of the previous patterns we have been discussing, because this is a completely different kind of pattern. The absolute phrase is a 100% valid grammar structure that often puzzles both non-native speakers and even some native English speakers, precisely because it's so rare and only appears in very formal writing. It does appears regularly on the GMAT SC, so it's a structure you have to know. That blog article will tell you a great deal about it.

I hope this helps you, my friend, and I hope you have an absolutely delightful day. :-)

Mike :-)
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New post 07 Nov 2016, 16:35
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lalania1 wrote:
If someone can clarify for me why is "creating" referring back to "lying", that would be great!

Split1) Cause and Effect. The ideal structure agreement is as follows: "x did y, that, in turn, did Z". Following this logic B and E are out because "in turn" come at the end of the sentence defying the ideal structure agreement.

Split2) Emotional reactions = Plural should go with a plural verb = create. So if you attempt to block out the prepositional phrases and other noise, you will end up with "lying produces...emotional reactions....create". Going down the options, in E you see "emotional reactions...who" this does not make sense because emotional reactions is not a person. In option D, "emotional reactions....to create" is not gramatically correct to use the infinitive. In option C, "creating" also does not go well per this logic. Also, in C, you will need a comma before "creating". If someone can clarify for me why is "creating" referring back to "lying", that would be great!

Dear lalania1,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

In the OA, the word "create/creating" does NOT refer to "lying." Instead, it refers to "emotional reactions," a plural noun.

This reflects the logic of the construction "in turn." That phrase is used when the object of one action becomes the subject of another action.
A did X to B, and B, in turn, did Y to C.
In that example, B is the recipient of A's action and the cause of the second action toward C. Notice that this structure, "in turn," can come at the end of the sentence: that placement is not automatically wrong.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2018, 17:50
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How come "that" modify a plural noun reactions? Isn't the use of "those" appropriate here?
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2018, 13:58
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Blackishmamba wrote:
How come "that" modify a plural noun reactions? Isn't the use of "those" appropriate here?

Sorry, I'm late to the party here!

As others have mentioned, when "that" is used as a modifier, it can refer to either singular or plural nouns. This same discussion came up on this thread.

I think the confusion comes from the fact that the word "that" can also behave as a (non-modifying) pronoun. If "that" simply operates as a pronoun, it is always singular; "those" would be the plural version. More on the GMAT's many uses of "that" in this article.

I hope this helps!
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2019, 19:04
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Tactic101 wrote:
Can someone please explain why E is incorrect when debating the meaning of the sentence rather than the who/which debate? If it's the individual, not the emotions, then we would use "who" rather than "that" to refer to the individual -- and clearly only E works. I don't understand why the individual is not the one producing the response. After all, it's the individual's actual physical body that is making the physiological response. Am I just interpreting this too literally?
It's the "in turn" that is important here:

X → Y, which in turn leads to Z

lying (produces) → emotional reactions in an individual → (that, in turn, create) unconscious physiological responses
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce   [#permalink] 27 Jul 2019, 19:04

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