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The word democracy may stand for a natural social equality

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Re: The word democracy may stand for a natural social equality  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2018, 23:57
Hi,

Could you kindly explain question 8 also. Why it is option D and not A?
Adi93 wrote:
Hi GMATNinja

Please explain 4th Question.

Thanks!


PrashantPonde wrote:
Quote:
Part of New RC Series- Please check this link for more questions

The word democracy may stand for a natural social equality in the body politic or for a constitutional form of government in which power lies more or less directly in the people’s hand. The former may be called social democracy and the later democratic government. The two differ widely, both in origin and in moral principle. Genetically considered, social democracy is something primitive, unintended, proper to communities where there is general competence and no marked personal eminence. There be no will aristocracy, no prestige, but instead an intelligent readiness to lend a hand and to do in unison whatever is done. In other words, there will be that most democratic of governments—no government at all. But when pressure of circumstances, danger, or inward strife makes recognized and prolonged guidance necessary to a social democracy, the form its government takes is that of a rudimentary monarchy established by election or general consent. A natural leader emerges and is instinctively obeyed. That leader may indeed be freely criticized and will not be screened by any pomp or traditional mystery; he or she will be easy to replace and every citizen will feel essentially his or her equal. Yet such a state is at the beginnings of monarchy and aristocracy.

Political democracy, on the other hand, is a late and artificial product. It arises by a gradual extension of aristocratic privileges, through rebellion against abuses, and in answer to restlessness on the people’s part. Its principle is not the absence of eminence, but the discovery that existing eminence is no longer genuine and representative. It may retain many vestiges of older and less democratic institutions. For under democratic governments the people have not created the state; they merely control it. Their suspicions and jealousies are quieted by assigning to them a voice, perhaps only a veto, in the administration. The people’s liberty consists not in their original responsibility for what exists, but merely in the faculty they have acquired of abolishing any detail that may distress or wound them, and of imposing any new measure, which, seen against the background of existing laws, may commend itself from time to time to their instinct and mind.

If we turn from origins to ideals, the contrast between social and political democracy is no less marked. Social democracy is a general ethical ideal, looking to human equality and brotherhood, and inconsistent, in its radical form, with such institutions as the family and hereditary property. Democratic government, on the contrary, is merely a means to an end, an expedient for the better and smoother government of certain states at certain junctures. It involves no special ideals of life; it is a question of policy, namely, whether the general interest will be better served by granting all people an equal voice in elections. For political democracy must necessarily be a government by deputy, and the questions actually submitted to the people can be only very large rough matters of general policy or of confidence in party leaders.
Questions:
1. The author suggests that the lack of “marked personal eminence” (line 11) is an important feature of a social democracy because
(A) such a society is also likely to contain the seeds of monarchy and aristocracy
(B) the absence of visible social leaders in such a society will probably impede the development of a political democracy
(C) social democracy represents a more sophisticated form of government than political democracy
(D) a society that lacks recognized leadership will be unable to accomplish its cultural objectives
(E) the absence of visible social leaders in such a community is likely to be accompanied by a spirit of cooperation

Answer: E


2. Which one of the following forms of government does the author say is most likely to evolve from a social democracy?
(A) monarchy
(B) government by deputy
(C) political democracy
(D) representative democracy
(E) constitutional democracy

Answer: A


3. The author of the passage suggests that a political democracy is likely to have been immediately preceded by which one of the following forms of social organization?
(A) a social democracy in which the spirit of participation has been diminished by the need to maintain internal security
(B) an aristocratic society in which government leaders have grown insensitive to people’s interests
(C) a primitive society that stresses the radical equality of all its members
(D) a state of utopian brotherhood in which no government exists
(E) a government based on general ethical ideals

Answer: B


4. According to the passage, “the people’s liberty” (line 42) in a political democracy is best defined as
(A) a willingness to accept responsibility for existing governmental forms
(B) a myth perpetrated by aristocratic leaders who refuse to grant political power to their subjects
(C) the ability to impose radically new measures when existing governmental forms are found to be inadequate
(D) the ability to secure concessions from a government that may retain many aristocratic characteristics
(E) the ability to elect leaders whom the people consider socially equal to themselves

Answer: D


5. According to the author of this passage, a social democracy would most likely adopt a formal system of government when
(A) recognized leadership becomes necessary to deal with social problems
(B) people lose the instinctive ability to cooperate in solving social problems
(C) a ruling monarch decides that it is necessary to grant political concessions to the people
(D) citizens no longer consider their social leaders essentially equal to themselves
(E) the human instinct to obey social leaders has been weakened by suspicion and jealousy

Answer: A


6. According to the passage, which one of the following is likely to occur as a result of the discovery that “existing eminence is no longer genuine and representative” (lines 35-36)?
(A) Aristocratic privileges will be strengthened, which will result in a further loss of the people’s liberty.
(B) The government will be forced to admit its responsibility for the inadequacy of existing political institutions.
(C) The remaining vestiges of less democratic institutions will be banished from government.
(D) People will gain political concessions from the government and a voice in the affairs of state.
(E) People will demand that political democracy conform to the ethical ideals of social democracy.

Answer: D


7. It can be inferred from the passage that the practice of “government by deputy” (line 64) in a political democracy probably has its origins in
(A) aristocratic ideals
(B) human instincts
(C) a commitment to human equality
(D) a general ethical ideal
(E) a policy decision

Answer: E


8. Which one of the following statements, if true, would contradict the author’s notion of the characteristics of social democracy?
(A) Organized governmental systems tend to arise spontaneously, rather than in response to specific problem situations.
(B) The presence of an organized system of government stifles the expression of human equality and brotherhood.
(C) Social democracy represents a more primitive form of communal organization than political democracy.
(D) Prolonged and formal leadership may become necessary in a social democracy when problems arise that cannot be resolved by recourse to the general competence of the people.
(E) Although political democracy and social democracy are radically different forms of communal organization, it is possible for both to contain elements of monarchy.

Answer: D

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Re: The word democracy may stand for a natural social equality  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2018, 06:28
1. The author suggests that the lack of “marked personal eminence” (line 11) is an important feature of a social democracy because relevant text: Genetically considered, social democracy is something primitive, unintended, proper to communities where there is general competence and no marked personal eminence. There be no will aristocracy, no prestige, but instead an intelligent readiness to lend a hand and to do in unison whatever is done.
(A) such a society is also likely to contain the seeds of monarchy and aristocracy but the lack of marked personal eminence is incompatible with monarchy and aristocy
(B) the absence of visible social leaders in such a society will probably impede the development of a political democracy may be, but that's a stretch
(C) social democracy represents a more sophisticated form of government than political democracy direct contradiction: Genetically considered, social democracy is something primitive <...>
(D) a society that lacks recognized leadership will be unable to accomplish its cultural objectives maybe
(E) the absence of visible social leaders in such a community is likely to be accompanied by a spirit of cooperation true - correct

2. Which one of the following forms of government does the author say is most likely to evolve from a social democracy? relevant text: But when pressure of circumstances, danger, or inward strife makes recognized and prolonged guidance necessary to a social democracy, the form its government takes is that of a rudimentary monarchy
(A) monarchy correct
(B) government by deputy that's aquality of pol. dem.
(C) political democracy Political democracy, on the other hand, is a late and artificial product. - later than soc. dem.
(D) representative democracy not given
(E) constitutional democracy not given

3. The author of the passage suggests that a political democracy is likely to have been immediately preceded by which one of the following forms of social organization? relevant text: It arises by a gradual extension of aristocratic privileges, through rebellion against abuses, and in answer to restlessness on the people’s part <...>
(A) a social democracy in which the spirit of participation has been diminished by the need to maintain internal security pol. dem. evolves from aristocracy
(B) an aristocratic society in which government leaders have grown insensitive to people’s interests correct
(C) a primitive society that stresses the radical equality of all its members refers to soc. dem.
(D) a state of utopian brotherhood in which no government exists refers to soc. dem. qualities
(E) a government based on general ethical ideals refers to soc. dem. qualities

4. According to the passage, “the people’s liberty” (line 42) in a political democracy is best defined as relevant text: For under democratic governments the people have not created the state; they merely control it. Their suspicions and jealousies are quieted by assigning to them a voice, perhaps only a veto, in the administration. The people’s liberty consists not in their original responsibility for what exists, but merely in the faculty they have acquired of abolishing any detail that may distress or wound them, and of imposing any new measure, which, seen against the background of existing laws, may commend itself from time to time to their instinct and mind.
(A) a willingness to accept responsibility for existing governmental forms direct contradiction
(B) a myth perpetrated by aristocratic leaders who refuse to grant political power to their subjects it's actually a thing: people are given some form of rights to express their unsatisfaction
(C) the ability to impose radically new measures when existing governmental forms are found to be inadequate the passage says laws, so this is too broad
(D) the ability to secure concessions from a government that may retain many aristocratic characteristics correct
(E) the ability to elect leaders whom the people consider socially equal to themselves that's relevant to soc. dem.

5. According to the author of this passage, a social democracy would most likely adopt a formal system of government when relevant text: But when pressure of circumstances, danger, or inward strife makes recognized and prolonged guidance necessary to a social democracy, the form its government takes is <...>
(A) recognized leadership becomes necessary to deal with social problems
(B) people lose the instinctive ability to cooperate in solving social problems negates: "<...>an intelligent readiness to lend a hand and to do in unison whatever is done.", but that is not sufficient and might be even a stretch
(C) a ruling monarch decides that it is necessary to grant political concessions to the people soc. dem. may evolve into monarchy, but it doesn't typically have a monarch as suh
(D) citizens no longer consider their social leaders essentially equal to themselves leaders aren't present when soc. dem. finds itself in the need for leadership
(E) the human instinct to obey social leaders has been weakened by suspicion and jealousy prays on words that match some parts of the paragraph two that talks about pol. dem.

6. According to the passage, which one of the following is likely to occur as a result of the discovery that “existing eminence is no longer genuine and representative” (lines 35-36)? relevant text: Political democracy, <...> Its principle is not the absence of eminence, but the discovery that existing eminence is no longer genuine and representative. <...> For under democratic governments the people have not created the state; <..> Their suspicions and jealousies are quieted by assigning to them a voice, perhaps only a veto, in the administration.
(A) Aristocratic privileges will be strengthened, which will result in a further loss of the people’s liberty. Political democracy, <...> arises by a gradual extension of aristocratic privileges - so the eminence occurs as a result of a gradual extension of aristocratic privileges
(B) The government will be forced to admit its responsibility for the inadequacy of existing political institutions. if anything, the aristocracy would unlikely do that
(C) The remaining vestiges of less democratic institutions will be banished from government. It may retain many vestiges of older and less democratic institutions.
(D) People will gain political concessions from the government and a voice in the affairs of state. correct
(E) People will demand that political democracy conform to the ethical ideals of social democracy. a mix-up

7. It can be inferred from the passage that the practice of “government by deputy” (line 64) in a political democracy probably has its origins in It involves no special ideals of life; it is a question of policy, namely, whether the general interest will be better served by granting all people an equal voice in elections.
(A) aristocratic ideals It involves no special ideals of life; <...>
(B) human instincts The people’s liberty consists not in their original responsibility for what exists, but merely in the faculty they have acquired of abolishing any detail that may distress or wound them, and of imposing any new measure, which, seen against the background of existing laws, may commend itself from time to time to their instinct and mind. - if anything, talks about the people and not about polit. demo.
(C) a commitment to human equality that refers to soc. dem.
(D) a general ethical ideal the same as in C
(E) a policy decision correct
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New post 25 Sep 2018, 11:00
Genetically considered, social democracy is something primitive, unintended, proper to communities where there is general competence and no marked personal eminence. There be no will aristocracy, no prestige, but instead an intelligent readiness to lend a hand and to do in unison whatever is done.

Quote:
1. The author suggests that the lack of “marked personal eminence” (line 11) is an important feature of a social democracy because

(A) such a society is also likely to contain the seeds of monarchy and aristocracy
Read the above lines. No Aristocracy and no Monarchy.Hence Incorrect.
(B) the absence of visible social leaders in such a society will probably impede the development of a political democracy
Social democracy works on unison. Incorrect.
(C) social democracy represents a more sophisticated form of government than political democracy
Not mentioned anywhere in the passage.INcorrect
(D) a society that lacks recognized leadership will be unable to accomplish its cultural objectives
Social democracy works on unison. Incorrect.
(E) the absence of visible social leaders in such a community is likely to be accompanied by a spirit of cooperation
Correct. Cooperation is the striking feature of social democracy.

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New post 25 Sep 2018, 11:29
But when pressure of circumstances, danger, or inward strife makes recognized and prolonged guidance necessary to a social democracy, the form its government takes is that of a rudimentary monarchy established by election or general consent.

Quote:
2. Which one of the following forms of government does the author say is most likely to evolve from a social democracy?

(A) monarchy
Correct as per lines mentioned above.
(B) government by deputy
Not mentioned anywhere. Incorrect
(C) political democracy
Incorrect. Look at the first few lines of the second paragraph for political democracy.
(D) representative democracy
Above lines do not say this.
(E) constitutional democracy
Not as per above lines.

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New post 25 Sep 2018, 11:41
Political democracy, on the other hand, is a late and artificial product. It arises by a gradual extension of aristocratic privileges, through rebellion against abuses, and in answer to restlessness on the people’s part.Its principle is not the absence of eminence, but the discovery that existing eminence is no longer genuine and representative.

Quote:
3. The author of the passage suggests that a political democracy is likely to have been immediately preceded by which one of the following forms of social organization?

(A) a social democracy in which the spirit of participation has been diminished by the need to maintain internal security
Nothing about internal security mentioned in the passage.
(B) an aristocratic society in which government leaders have grown insensitive to people’s interests
Sounds good !! This is as per above mentioned lines
(C) a primitive society that stresses the radical equality of all its members
This one is extreme answer choice.Nowhere mentioned in the passage.
(D) a state of utopian brotherhood in which no government exists
Not mentioned in the passage anything as such.
(E) a government based on general ethical ideals
Ethics are not talked about anywhere.

IMO B.

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New post 25 Sep 2018, 11:55
Quote:
4. According to the passage, “the people’s liberty” (line 42) in a political democracy is best defined as
(A) a willingness to accept responsibility for existing governmental forms
(B) a myth perpetrated by aristocratic leaders who refuse to grant political power to their subjects
(C) the ability to impose radically new measures when existing governmental forms are found to be inadequate
(D) the ability to secure concessions from a government that may retain many aristocratic characteristics
(E) the ability to elect leaders whom the people consider socially equal to themselves


I marked C but the OA is D.

GMATNinja nightblade354 gmatexam439 VeritasKarishma aragonn carcass

If you can shed some light!! I still feel C should be correct.
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Re: The word democracy may stand for a natural social equality  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2018, 12:02
But when pressure of circumstances, danger, or inward strife makes recognized and prolonged guidance necessary to a social democracy, the form its government takes is that of a rudimentary monarchy established by election or general consent. A natural leader emerges and is instinctively obeyed.

Quote:
5. According to the author of this passage, a social democracy would most likely adopt a formal system of government when

(A) recognized leadership becomes necessary to deal with social problems
Correct as per above lines.
(B) people lose the instinctive ability to cooperate in solving social problems
Not about people losing the ability. Read above lines.
(C) a ruling monarch decides that it is necessary to grant political concessions to the people
Social democracy is not led by a monarch.
(D) citizens no longer consider their social leaders essentially equal to themselves
Nothing about equality in above mentioned lines.
(E) the human instinct to obey social leaders has been weakened by suspicion and jealousy
Nothing about this in above mentioned lines.

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Re: The word democracy may stand for a natural social equality  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2018, 12:11
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Hi,

I have already replied at the time to this passage. Here can see my answer

https://gmatclub.com/forum/the-word-dem ... l#p1179472

Honestly, reading the passage after so long time, I do not think is a good passage. It is just a conglomerate of difficult sentences one after one other but it has no consistency and neither the beauty of a GMAT difficult passage.

In fact, the source is unknown.

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New post 25 Sep 2018, 12:16
carcass wrote:
Hi,

I have already replied at the time to this passage. Here can see my answer

https://gmatclub.com/forum/the-word-dem ... l#p1179472

Honestly, reading the passage after so long time, I do not think is a good passage. It is just a conglomerate of difficult sentences one after one other but it has no consistency and neither the beauty of a GMAT difficult passage.

In fact, the source is unknown.

Regards



I saw your post and posted my query because your post did not detail as to why C is incorrect. Also I am assuming that this is a LSAT passage,considering it is in LSAT directory.
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The word democracy may stand for a natural social equality  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 01 Oct 2018, 03:20
1
warrior1991 wrote:
Quote:
4. According to the passage, “the people’s liberty” (line 42) in a political democracy is best defined as
(A) a willingness to accept responsibility for existing governmental forms
(B) a myth perpetrated by aristocratic leaders who refuse to grant political power to their subjects
(C) the ability to impose radically new measures when existing governmental forms are found to be inadequate
(D) the ability to secure concessions from a government that may retain many aristocratic characteristics
(E) the ability to elect leaders whom the people consider socially equal to themselves


I marked C but the OA is D.

GMATNinja nightblade354 gmatexam439 VeritasKarishma aragonn carcass

If you can shed some light!! I still feel C should be correct.


Look at the underlined parts of paragraph 2:

"Political democracy, on the other hand, is a late and artificial product. It arises by a gradual extension of aristocratic privileges, through rebellion against abuses, and in answer to restlessness on the people’s part. Its principle is not the absence of eminence, but the discovery that existing eminence is no longer genuine and representative. It may retain many vestiges of older and less democratic institutions. For under democratic governments the people have not created the state; they merely control it. Their suspicions and jealousies are quieted by assigning to them a voice, perhaps only a veto, in the administration. The people’s liberty consists not in their original responsibility for what exists, but merely in the faculty they have acquired of abolishing any detail that may distress or wound them, and of imposing any new measure, which, seen against the background of existing laws, may commend itself from time to time to their instinct and mind."

4. According to the passage, “the people’s liberty” (line 42) in a political democracy is best defined as
(A) a willingness to accept responsibility for existing governmental forms
(B) a myth perpetrated by aristocratic leaders who refuse to grant political power to their subjects
(C) the ability to impose radically new measures when existing governmental forms are found to be inadequate
(D) the ability to secure concessions from a government that may retain many aristocratic characteristics
(E) the ability to elect leaders whom the people consider socially equal to themselves

Notice what the passage says about "People's liberty" - it consists of merely abolishing any detail that may distress people - read the tone "merely ... detail"

The ability to impose "radically new measures when existing govt forms are inadequate" is certainly not a part of the deal.

Also the paragraph mentions that the Government may retain aristocratic privileges. Hence (D) is correct and (C) is not.

*Edited*
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Originally posted by VeritasKarishma on 27 Sep 2018, 03:29.
Last edited by VeritasKarishma on 01 Oct 2018, 03:20, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 29 Sep 2018, 09:09
VeritasKarishma wrote:
warrior1991 wrote:
Quote:
4. According to the passage, “the people’s liberty” (line 42) in a political democracy is best defined as
(A) a willingness to accept responsibility for existing governmental forms
(B) a myth perpetrated by aristocratic leaders who refuse to grant political power to their subjects
(C) the ability to impose radically new measures when existing governmental forms are found to be inadequate
(D) the ability to secure concessions from a government that may retain many aristocratic characteristics
(E) the ability to elect leaders whom the people consider socially equal to themselves


I marked C but the OA is D.

GMATNinja nightblade354 gmatexam439 VeritasKarishma aragonn carcass

If you can shed some light!! I still feel C should be correct.


Look at the underlined parts of paragraph 2:

"Political democracy, on the other hand, is a late and artificial product. It arises by a gradual extension of aristocratic privileges, through rebellion against abuses, and in answer to restlessness on the people’s part. Its principle is not the absence of eminence, but the discovery that existing eminence is no longer genuine and representative. It may retain many vestiges of older and less democratic institutions. For under democratic governments the people have not created the state; they merely control it. Their suspicions and jealousies are quieted by assigning to them a voice, perhaps only a veto, in the administration. The people’s liberty consists not in their original responsibility for what exists, but merely in the faculty they have acquired of abolishing any detail that may distress or wound them, and of imposing any new measure, which, seen against the background of existing laws, may commend itself from time to time to their instinct and mind."

4. According to the passage, “the people’s liberty” (line 42) in a political democracy is best defined as
(A) a willingness to accept responsibility for existing governmental forms
(B) a myth perpetrated by aristocratic leaders who refuse to grant political power to their subjects
(C) the ability to impose radically new measures when existing governmental forms are found to be inadequate
(D) the ability to secure concessions from a government that may retain many aristocratic characteristics
(E) the ability to elect leaders whom the people consider socially equal to themselves

Notice what the passage says about "People's liberty" - it consists of merely abolishing any detail that may distress people - read the tone "merely ... detail"

The ability to impose "radically new measures when existing govt forms are inadequate" is certainly not a part of the deal.

Also the paragraph mentions that the Government may retain aristocratic privileges. Hence (C) is correct and (D) is not.



VeritasKarishma Thank you for helping out!!
I have one question.

You said :-
Quote:
"the paragraph mentions that the Government may retain aristocratic privileges". I can see this as mentioned.


So only on this basis can we reject option D, since this is part of the deal??
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The word democracy may stand for a natural social equality  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Oct 2018, 03:24
warrior1991 wrote:

You said :-
Quote:
"the paragraph mentions that the Government may retain aristocratic privileges". I can see this as mentioned.


So only on this basis can we reject option D, since this is part of the deal??


No, that was a typo. I switched (C) and (D) at the end.
(D) is correct. The use of "merely ... detail" suggests that only small concessions could be obtained. It is also given that the Govt may retain aristocratic privileges. Hence (D) works.
The ability to impose radically new measure is not present. Hence (C) is incorrect.
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New post 01 Oct 2018, 20:40
VeritasKarishma wrote:
warrior1991 wrote:

You said :-
Quote:
"the paragraph mentions that the Government may retain aristocratic privileges". I can see this as mentioned.


So only on this basis can we reject option D, since this is part of the deal??


No, that was a typo. I switched (C) and (D) at the end.
(D) is correct. The use of "merely ... detail" suggests that only small concessions could be obtained. It is also given that the Govt may retain aristocratic privileges. Hence (D) works.
The ability to impose radically new measure is not present. Hence (C) is incorrect.


Thank you !!
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New post 16 Oct 2018, 13:23
Can anyone explain 8? A is the only one that contradicts with the author?
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New post 16 Oct 2018, 13:25
VeritasKarishma wrote:
warrior1991 wrote:

You said :-
Quote:
"the paragraph mentions that the Government may retain aristocratic privileges". I can see this as mentioned.


So only on this basis can we reject option D, since this is part of the deal??


No, that was a typo. I switched (C) and (D) at the end.
(D) is correct. The use of "merely ... detail" suggests that only small concessions could be obtained. It is also given that the Govt may retain aristocratic privileges. Hence (D) works.
The ability to impose radically new measure is not present. Hence (C) is incorrect.


Can you also explain #8? From my understanding, D is not a contradiction to what is said in the passage but A is.
GMAT Club Bot
Re: The word democracy may stand for a natural social equality &nbs [#permalink] 16 Oct 2018, 13:25

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