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# The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP

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The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 24 Mar 2019, 03:14
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The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP growth rate of 25 percent, higher than in the most developed countries of the world.

(A) higher than in

(B) higher than that of

(C) and higher than that of

(D) which is higher than in

(E) which is higher than it is in

Originally posted by amulya619 on 29 Sep 2016, 11:56.
Last edited by Bunuel on 24 Mar 2019, 03:14, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP  [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2018, 08:54
1
Mo2men wrote:
amulya619 wrote:
The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP growth rate of 25 percent, higher than in the most developed countries of the world.

A. higher than in

B. higher than that of

C. and higher than that of

D. which is higher than in

E. which is higher than it is in

A: South Sudan showed a real GDP growth rate of 25 percent, higher than in the most developed countries of the world.
Here, since the blue portion refers to the real GDP growth rate that South Sudan showed -- and the red portion does not supply an alternate referent for higher -- the implication is that higher also refers to THE REAL GDP GROWTH RATE THAT SOUTH SUDAN SHOWED.
As a result, the red portion conveys the following meaning:
The real GDP growth rate that South Sudan showed was higher in the most developed countries of the world.
This meaning is nonsensical.
For higher to refer to a DIFFERENT real GDP growth rate, the concluding modifier must provide an alternate referent for higher, as in the OA:
South Sudan showed a real GDP growth rate of 25 percent, higher than THAT of the most developed countries of the world.

C: South Sudan showed...and higher
Here, and cannot serve to connect a VERB (showed) to a MODIFIER (higher).
A conjunction such as and must serve to connect parallel forms.
Eliminate C.

D: South Sudan showed a real GDP growth rate of 25 percent, which is higher than in the most developed countries of the world.
Here, which seems to refer to 25 percent, implying that 25 percent is HIGHER THAN [25 percent is high] IN THE MOST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD.
The words in brackets are omitted but implied.
The resulting meaning is nonsensical.
Eliminate D.

E: South Sudan showed a real GDP growth rate of 25 percent, which is higher than it is in the most developed countries of the world.
Here, which seems to refer to 25 percent, while it seems to refer to which.
Thus, both pronouns -- which and it -- seem to be standing in for 25 percent, implying that 25 percent is HIGHER THAN 25 PERCENT IS [high] IN THE MOST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD.
This meaning is nonsensical.
Eliminate E.

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Re: The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP  [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2016, 12:01
2
My doubt is that doesn't B makes the sentence run on as the 2 clauses are separated by a comma?

The world's fastest growing economy,: Modifier to subject South Sudan
Rest of the sentence makes no sense: South Sudan showed a real GDP growth rate of 25 percent, higher than that of the most developed countries of the world.

Than that of makes total sense but the absence of a conjunction or which that made me choose E.
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Re: The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP  [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2016, 14:01
1
amulya619 wrote:
The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP growth rate of 25 percent, higher than in the most developed countries of the world.

A. higher than in

B. higher than that of

C. and higher than that of

D. which is higher than in

E. which is higher than it is in

Can anyone explain the correct answer?

In option B, 'higher than that of' looks like an absolute phrase, which is a noun modifier, not a run on sentence. 'that' correctly replaces 'GDP' in option B. I feel E is incorrect because 'it' can refer to complete clauses and not just 'GDP'

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Re: The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP  [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2016, 22:04
1
TheLordCommander is right. The part of the sentence starting in "higher" is a modifier, not a clause. It has no subject or verb! Therefore, we don't need to worry about a run-on sentence.

The problem with "it" in E is that it would have to refer to South Sudan's growth rate in particular. That rate can't be higher in South Sudan than in other countries!
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Re: The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2016, 22:42
D and E can be knocked out cause of incorrect usage of Which.

C you don't need the conjunction And (And is used to join two independent clause)

A is wrong.

Other than the reasons stated above to knock the other choice's out, B is also correct cause it correctly compares GDP of one country to the other.
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Re: The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP  [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2018, 19:32
Hey DmitryFarber,

Quote:
The problem with "it" in E is that it would have to refer to South Sudan's growth rate in particular. That rate can't be higher in South Sudan than in other countries!

"that" in option B is referring to which part of the sentence then ? I thought B would right because if I expand the sentence by repeating the noun there, it makes sense.

The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP growth rate of 25 percent, higher than GDP growth rate of the most developed countries of the world.

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Re: The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP  [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2018, 11:04
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If 'that' in B refers to the growth rate in the most developed countries, does it imply that all the most developed countries have the same growth rate?
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Re: The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP  [#permalink]

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05 Aug 2018, 07:56
amulya619 wrote:
The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP growth rate of 25 percent, higher than in the most developed countries of the world.

A. higher than in

B. higher than that of

C. and higher than that of

D. which is higher than in

E. which is higher than it is in

Can anyone explain the correct answer?

gmat questions are hard and basic. even when I redo a question , I feel hard. we need to be skillful to solve sc and this skill is needed when we write english. gmat will tesll this skill

we we make an ellipsis pattern, we cut off some phrase. but we need to make a reader can infer the cut off part. to make a reader infer the cut off part, "THAT OF" or PARALLELISM ARE USED
look at choice A.

in choice A. there is not "that of" . so, we need a paralelism to infer the cut off phrase.
we do not have "in + a country" in the previous clause, so, "in the most developed " can not be parallel to any phrase in previous clause. so, we can not infer the cutt off phrase.

in choice B, "that of " exist, so we can infer the cuff off phrase. it is ideal that "that of" can be used in parallel pattern, but it is still good that "that of" is used in pattern like choice B.

so, b is good and choice A is gone.
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Re: The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP  [#permalink]

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05 Aug 2018, 11:12
amulya619 wrote:
The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP growth rate of 25 percent, higher than in the most developed countries of the world.

A. higher than in

B. higher than that of

C. and higher than that of

D. which is higher than in

E. which is higher than it is in

Dear GMATGuruNY

In choice A, can't be there ellipsis: higher than [growth rate] in.................

In choice D: Is which wrong? can't it refer to 'growth rate'? In that case, there will be ellipsis as follows: which is higher than [growth rate] in.....

In choice E, what does 'it' refer to?
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Re: The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP  [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2018, 04:08
GMATGuruNY wrote:
Mo2men wrote:
amulya619 wrote:
The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP growth rate of 25 percent, higher than in the most developed countries of the world.

A. higher than in

B. higher than that of

C. and higher than that of

D. which is higher than in

E. which is higher than it is in

A: South Sudan showed a real GDP growth rate of 25 percent, higher than in the most developed countries of the world.
Here, since the blue portion refers to the real GDP growth rate that South Sudan showed -- and the red portion does not supply an alternate referent for higher -- the implication is that higher also refers to THE REAL GDP GROWTH RATE THAT SOUTH SUDAN SHOWED.
As a result, the red portion conveys the following meaning:
The real GDP growth rate that South Sudan showed was higher in the most developed countries of the world.
This meaning is nonsensical.
For higher to refer to a DIFFERENT real GDP growth rate, the concluding modifier must provide an alternate referent for higher, as in the OA:
South Sudan showed a real GDP growth rate of 25 percent, higher than THAT of the most developed countries of the world.

C: South Sudan showed...and higher
Here, and cannot serve to connect a VERB (showed) to a MODIFIER (higher).
A conjunction such as and must serve to connect parallel forms.
Eliminate C.

D: South Sudan showed a real GDP growth rate of 25 percent, which is higher than in the most developed countries of the world.
Here, which seems to refer to 25 percent, implying that 25 percent is HIGHER THAN [25 percent is high] IN THE MOST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD.
The words in brackets are omitted but implied.
The resulting meaning is nonsensical.
Eliminate D.

E: South Sudan showed a real GDP growth rate of 25 percent, which is higher than it is in the most developed countries of the world.
Here, which seems to refer to 25 percent, while it seems to refer to which.
Thus, both pronouns -- which and it -- seem to be standing in for 25 percent, implying that 25 percent is HIGHER THAN 25 PERCENT IS [high] IN THE MOST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD.
This meaning is nonsensical.
Eliminate E.

Thanks GMATGuruNY for your explanation.

In choice A:

1- As I know from your earlier posts, 'higher than in..........' is an adjective modifier, does not it modify the the preceding noun? However, you suggest that higher modify the preceding clause. does it work here as adverbial modifier?

2- In my early question to you, I assumed there is an ellipses as follows: higher than [growth rate] in.................. In English or GMAT, can an ellipses appears in modifier sentence that related to preceding independent clause?

Thanks
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Re: The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP  [#permalink]

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14 Aug 2018, 04:04
1
1
Mo2men wrote:
In choice A:

1- As I know from your earlier posts, 'higher than in..........' is an adjective modifier, does not it modify the the preceding noun? However, you suggest that higher modify the preceding clause. does it work here as adverbial modifier?

On the GMAT, it is VERY common for an SC to end with COMMA + COMPARISON PHRASE.
The comparison phrase will generally include than or as.
The purpose of the comparison phrase will be to EXPLAIN or DEFINE a data point discussed in the preceding clause.

Official examples:
Soaring television costs accounted for more than half the spending in the presidential campaign of 1992, a greater proportion than in any previous election.
In 1979 lack of rain reduced India’s rice production to about 41 million tons, nearly 25 percent less than the 1978 harvest.
Lake Baikal holds 20 percent of the world's fresh water , more than all the North American Great Lakes combined.
Only seven people this century have been killed by the great white shark, fewer than have been killed by bee stings.
Companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, as many as are enrolled in the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.

In each of the OAs above, the comparison phrase in green serves to explain the preceding data point in blue.
Whether these comparison phrases are classified as appositives, absolute phrases, or summative modifiers is irrelevant.
What matters is how they all function:
Each serves to explain a data point in the preceding clause.
As long as the comparison phrase has a clear data-related referent, do not worry about trying to classify the grammatical nature of the comparison phrase.

Quote:
can an ellipses appears in modifier sentence that related to preceding independent clause?

Thanks

Yes.
For example:
Lake Baikal holds 20 percent of the world's fresh water, more [water] than all the North American Great Lakes combined [hold water].
Here, the words in brackets are omitted but implied.
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Re: The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP  [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2018, 11:47
Dear GMATGuruNY

Quote:
A: South Sudan showed a real GDP growth rate of 25 percent, higher than in the most developed countries of the world.
Here, since the blue portion refers to the real GDP growth rate that South Sudan showed -- and the red portion does not supply an alternate referent for higher -- the implication is that higher also refers to THE REAL GDP GROWTH RATE THAT SOUTH SUDAN SHOWED.
As a result, the red portion conveys the following meaning:
The real GDP growth rate that South Sudan showed was higher in the most developed countries of the world.
This meaning is nonsensical.
For higher to refer to a DIFFERENT real GDP growth rate, the concluding modifier must provide an alternate referent for higher, as in the OA:
South Sudan showed a real GDP growth rate of 25 percent, higher than THAT of the most developed countries of the world.

As per below, you disputed choice A based on ground that we need DIFFERENT GDP growth rate. So, we used 'THAT' to offer alternate referent. However, in each offcial example below we should use 'THAT' too.

Quote:
Official examples:
Soaring television costs accounted for more than half the spending in the presidential campaign of 1992, a greater proportion than in any previous election.

Soaring television costs accounted for more than half the spending in the presidential campaign of 1992, a greater proportion than THATin any previous election.
Here 'THAT' refers to 'Spending' to give the following meaning:
The spending in the presidential campaign of 1992 was greater than the [i]spending (THAT) in any previous election.

Quote:
Lake Baikal holds 20 percent of the world's fresh water , more than all the North American Great Lakes combined.

Lake Baikal holds 20 percent of the world's fresh water, more than THATall the North American Great Lakes combined.
Here, we must add 'THAT' to refer to the fresh water. otherwise, it could be understood as:
Lake Baikal holds 20 percent of the world's fresh water, more than world's fresh water of all the North American Great Lakes combined.

Quote:
Only seven people this century have been killed by the great white shark, fewer than have been killed by bee stings.
Companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, as many as are enrolled in the nation’s four-year colleges and universities. [/i]

In the example above, I think we deal with DIFFERENT GROUP of people being compared. So we must use 'those'

I hope you shed some light.

Thanks in advance for you help.
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Re: The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP  [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2018, 04:11
1
1
Mo2men wrote:
Dear GMATGuruNY

Quote:
A:
Here, since the blue portion refers to the real GDP growth rate that South Sudan showed -- and the red portion does not supply an alternate referent for higher -- the implication is that higher also refers to THE REAL GDP GROWTH RATE THAT SOUTH SUDAN SHOWED.
As a result, the red portion conveys the following meaning:
The real GDP growth rate that South Sudan showed was higher in the most developed countries of the world.
This meaning is nonsensical.
For higher to refer to a DIFFERENT real GDP growth rate, the concluding modifier must provide an alternate referent for higher, as in the OA:
South Sudan showed a real GDP growth rate of 25 percent, higher than THAT of the most developed countries of the world.

As per below, you disputed choice A based on ground that we need DIFFERENT GDP growth rate. So, we used 'THAT' to offer alternate referent. However, in each offcial example below we should use 'THAT' too.

Quote:
Official examples:
Soaring television costs accounted for more than half the spending in the presidential campaign of 1992, a greater proportion than in any previous election.

Soaring television costs accounted for more than half the spending in the presidential campaign of 1992, a greater proportion than THATin any previous election.
Here 'THAT' refers to 'Spending' to give the following meaning:
The spending in the presidential campaign of 1992 was greater than the [i]spending (THAT) in any previous election.

Quote:
Lake Baikal holds 20 percent of the world's fresh water , more than all the North American Great Lakes combined.

Lake Baikal holds 20 percent of the world's fresh water, more than THATall the North American Great Lakes combined.
Here, we must add 'THAT' to refer to the fresh water. otherwise, it could be understood as:
Lake Baikal holds 20 percent of the world's fresh water, more than world's fresh water of all the North American Great Lakes combined.

Quote:
Only seven people this century have been killed by the great white shark, fewer than have been killed by bee stings.
Companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, as many as are enrolled in the nation’s four-year colleges and universities. [/i]

In the example above, I think we deal with DIFFERENT GROUP of people being compared. So we must use 'those'

I hope you shed some light.

Thanks in advance for you help.

Copy pronouns are that and those.
These pronouns stand in for an ALTERNATE COPY of a preceding noun.

If a VERB follows as or than in a concluding comparative modifier, then no copy pronoun is required.
Only seven people this century have been killed by the great white shark, fewer than have been killed by bee stings.
Companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, as many as are enrolled in the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.

In each of these OAs, no copy pronoun is required because of the verbs in blue.

If a SUBJECT follows as or than in a concluding comparative modifier, then no copy pronoun is required.
Lake Baikal holds 20 percent of the world's fresh water, more than all the North American Great Lakes combined [hold].
Here, the noun phrase in blue is the subject of the implied verb in brackets.
Thus, no copy pronoun is required.

If a MODIFIER follows as or than in a concluding comparative modifier -- and this modifier serves to refer to the action in the preceding clause -- then no copy pronoun is required.
Soaring television costs accounted for more than half the spending in the presidential campaign of 1992, a greater proportion than in any previous election.
Here, no copy pronoun is required because the modifier in blue refers to the preceding action in green.
Conveyed comparison:
Television costs accounted for a greater proportion of spending in the campaign of 1992 than [they accounted for spending] in any previous election.
The words in brackets are omitted but implied.

If the modifier after as or than does NOT refer to the preceding action, then a copy pronoun is required.
South Sudan showed a real GDP growth rate of 25 percent, higher than in the most developed countries of the world.
Here, the modifier in red does NOT refer to the preceding action in blue, since South Sudan did not show a growth rate IN THE MOST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD.
For this reason, a copy pronoun is required, as in the OA:'
South Sudan showed a real GDP growth rate of 25 percent, higher than THAT of the most developed countries of the world.
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Re: The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP  [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2018, 12:22
Dear GMATGuruNY

Thanks a lot for taking time for this detailed explanation.
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Re: The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP  [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2019, 01:51
I study only comparison problems in these days. it is effective doing so. i realize the trick gmat can do for us.

in this problem, the noun compared is in the subject phrase of the first clause. this case is easy

if the noun compared is in object phrase of the first clause, we can meet ambiguity because the element after "than/as" can be subject or object of the second clause.
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Re: The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP  [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2019, 04:36
1
amulya619 wrote:
The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP growth rate of 25 percent, higher than in the most developed countries of the world.

(A) higher than in

(B) higher than that of

(C) and higher than that of

(D) which is higher than in

(E) which is higher than it is in

Main Issue

Comparison: Need to compare GDP of South Sudan with the GDP of other countries.
X higher than Y. Both X and Y should be parallel.
X is a noun here, so Y should a noun too.

(A) higher than in - Wrong: Comparison. Y isn't a noun.

(B) higher than that of - Correct

(C) and higher than that of - Wrong: Structure and meaning

(D) which is higher than in - Wrong: Comparison. Y isn't a noun.

(E) which is higher than it is in - Wrong: Comparison. Can't use "it" for comparison since it implies the same copy.
Re: The world's fastest growing economy, South Sudan showed a real GDP   [#permalink] 07 Sep 2019, 04:36
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