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There are far fewer kidneys available for transplants

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There are far fewer kidneys available for transplants [#permalink]

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There are far fewer kidneys available for transplants than there are patients who are waiting for a new kidney. As evidence of this, nearly 85,000 patients are currently on the waiting list for a kidney transplant, but last year only 16,000 kidney transplants took place.

Which of the following is an assumption required by the argument?

A) The number of patients on the kidney waiting list has increased substantially since last year.
B) The number of kidney transplants in the last year is greater than in any previous year.
C) The number of kidney transplants that take place each year is not significantly different from the number of kidneys available over that time period.
D) The process for preparing both donors and patients for a kidney transplant often requires several consultations with a doctor and a cumbersome amount of paperwork.
E) The number of available kidneys has not increased since last year.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: There are far fewer kidneys available for transplants [#permalink]

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New post 26 Nov 2013, 11:24
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I tried applying negation technique to C but failed to understand the logic behind the assumption. Can someone please explain?
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Re: There are far fewer kidneys available for transplants [#permalink]

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New post 26 Nov 2013, 22:39
If You negate (C): The number of kidney transplants that take place each year is significantly different from the number of kidneys available over that time period.
If this is the case then one cannot say that kidneys available for transplant are fewer(Conclusion falls apart), who knows that kidneys are available and still the transplants are less for one or more reasons.

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Re: There are far fewer kidneys available for transplants [#permalink]

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Thanks for your reply. I initially picked E, which I negated and concluded that if "The number of available kidneys has increased since last year" then the difference between the number of available kidneys and number of people waiting for transplantation will be reduced. Thereby the conclusion of the argument would be hurt.

Even though the number of available kidneys increase, there is a possibility that even more number of people are awaiting transplantation this year. In this case, the argument still holds true.

If an answer choice has to be true, there should be no room for any reason to attack the argument pertaining to the information given in that answer choice.

Hope that helped you guys.
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Re: There are far fewer kidneys available for transplants [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2014, 00:54
C. Note the gap in logic in the argument – the argument states that a lower number of transplants took place than the number of patients waiting for them, but this doesn’t connect those stats to the number of kidneys available, which is the lynchpin of the conclusion. Suppose, for example, that there were over 100,000 kidneys available, but it was difficult to match kidneys with recipients based on match factors like blood type. That would be consistent with the premises but not the conclusion. So the correct answer must link together the low number of transplants with the low number of available kidneys and answer choice C does that by saying that the number of transplants is about equal to the number of available kidneys. If that’s the case, then the limiting factor really is the number of available kidneys, guaranteeing the conclusion.
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There are far fewer kidneys available for transplants [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2014, 08:43
I didn't understand the OA.

Please find attached the JPEG for my analysis in which,

P=Person
KT=Kidney transplants
K=Kidneys

Even if (C) is true we don't know number of Kidney transplants this year then how we would know the number of kidneys available this year and thereby compare

K and P

C) The number of kidney transplants that take place each year is not significantly different from the number of kidneys available over that time period.

Even if I consider ???? to be 85000 then the conclusion will be negated.
If I consider ????? to be 16000 then the conclusion is affirmed.

How to go?

Please suggest
Attachments

Anal.jpg
Anal.jpg [ 26.33 KiB | Viewed 4819 times ]


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Re: There are far fewer kidneys available for transplants [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2014, 22:33
cssk wrote:
There are far fewer kidneys available for transplants than there are patients who are waiting for a new kidney. As evidence of this, nearly 85,000 patients are currently on the waiting list for a kidney transplant, but last year only 16,000 kidney transplants took place.

Which of the following is an assumption required by the argument?

A) The number of patients on the kidney waiting list has increased substantially since last year.
B) The number of kidney transplants in the last year is greater than in any previous year.
C) The number of kidney transplants that take place each year is not significantly different from the number of kidneys available over that time period.
D) The process for preparing both donors and patients for a kidney transplant often requires several consultations with a doctor and a cumbersome amount of paperwork.
E) The number of available kidneys has not increased since last year.



Why not E and which is directly aiding the argument ?
As per C - number of kidney transplant is not different from number of available kidneys. So if last year there were 16,000 transplants , the number of available kidneys would have been comparable to this, say 17000~18000 ( extra 1000-2000 could not be transplanted due to any reason). But one flaw is how this list of available kidneys translate to demand. It could be possible that only 16000 kidneys be transplanted because only these many cases appeared. In other words , the extra 1000-2000 kidneys ( in red above) though available for donation were not required as there were no medical cases.

As per E - Number of available kidneys has not increased. We can see that the number of patients has increase ( from 16k ~ 85k) so far fewer kidneys are available.

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Re: There are far fewer kidneys available for transplants [#permalink]

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cssk wrote:
There are far fewer kidneys available for transplants than there are patients who are waiting for a new kidney. As evidence of this, nearly 85,000 patients are currently on the waiting list for a kidney transplant, but last year only 16,000 kidney transplants took place.

Which of the following is an assumption required by the argument?

A) The number of patients on the kidney waiting list has increased substantially since last year.
B) The number of kidney transplants in the last year is greater than in any previous year.
C) The number of kidney transplants that take place each year is not significantly different from the number of kidneys available over that time period.
D) The process for preparing both donors and patients for a kidney transplant often requires several consultations with a doctor and a cumbersome amount of paperwork.
E) The number of available kidneys has not increased since last year.


Premises:

1. Last year, only 16,000 kidney transplants took place.
2. This year, nearly 85000 patients are on the list.

Conclusion:
There are far fewer kidneys available than there are patients.

All we know is that there are many patients but last year, very few transplants took place. We are concluding that kidneys available are few and that is the reason that transplants are few (because we know that number of patients is definitely high). What is the assumption? The assumption is that had more kidneys been available, more transplants would have taken place. Note that from the "number of transplants" figure, we are concluding something about "number of kidneys available". What if the number of kidneys available is far more but transplants are fewer because of reasons such as a match doesn't happen, most kidneys available are not suitable for transplant etc. Hence (C) is our assumption.

Option (E) is not correct.
E) The number of available kidneys has not increased since last year.
Even if the number of available kidneys has increased this year, it is still possible that number of kidneys available is far less than the number of patients. We don't know how many kidneys were available last year and how many patients were there last year. We don't know how many kidneys are available this year. The point is that number of available kidneys and number of transplants may not be proportional.
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Re: There are far fewer kidneys available for transplants [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2014, 05:43
I am still confused because

2013 , patients = 16,000

The number of transplants took place =16,000 !


But this year 2014, number of patients = 85,000


number of available kidneys = no information is given in the question

or the number of transplants will take place we do not know .


within one year period if the number of patients is increased significantly , then Can C be assumption of the argument ?

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Re: There are far fewer kidneys available for transplants [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2014, 21:58
shiblee wrote:
I am still confused because

2013 , patients = 16,000

The number of transplants took place =16,000 !


But this year 2014, number of patients = 85,000


number of available kidneys = no information is given in the question

or the number of transplants will take place we do not know .


within one year period if the number of patients is increased significantly , then Can C be assumption of the argument ?

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The question does not intend to compare last year and this year figures. We know how many patients are waiting this year (85,000). But right now, we don't know how many transplants will happen so we take a clue from last year (16,000). So we conclude that number of kidneys available is far lower than patients. But 'number of kidneys' data is nowhere to be found in the argument. We are assuming that number of kidneys available is the only limiting factor for transplants. So (C) is our assumption.
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New post 19 Jan 2015, 22:44
Hi All,
I'm really confused with answer choice C,
if the number of kidney transplants that take place each year is not significantly different from the number of kidneys available over that time period; which means the number of kidney transplant that take place each year is almost close to the number of kidneys available over that time period, then where does the lag in kidneys come from ?
argument does not talk anything about kidneys not matching or blood group not matching, so are we supposed to assume that ? how can choice C is an assumption required by argument ?

thanks

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Re: There are far fewer kidneys available for transplants [#permalink]

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Praveen_Seelam wrote:
Hi All,
I'm really confused with answer choice C,
if the number of kidney transplants that take place each year is not significantly different from the number of kidneys available over that time period; which means the number of kidney transplant that take place each year is almost close to the number of kidneys available over that time period, then where does the lag in kidneys come from ?
argument does not talk anything about kidneys not matching or blood group not matching, so are we supposed to assume that ? how can choice C is an assumption required by argument ?

thanks


You have to be very careful in CR - notice what they are talking about in each sentence. Let's assume variables for clarity.

A - Kidneys available for transplant
B - People waiting on the list for transplant
C - Actual number of transplants that take place.

The argument says this:

A is much less than B.
As evidence, B is 85000 while C is only 16000.

Note that the evidence gives you the numbers of B and C. But we conclude that A is much less than B. How can we do that? The only conclusion from this evidence can be that C is much less than B. How do we conclude that A is much mess than B?

For that we need to assume that A is almost same as C. This is exactly what option (C) tells you. Hence, option (C) is the assumption.
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New post 26 Feb 2015, 02:19
I didn't go deep, but surface analysis explains that C should be the answer, as it fills the gap between 'Availability' and 'transplants'
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Re: There are far fewer kidneys available for transplants [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2015, 10:20
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
Praveen_Seelam wrote:
Hi All,
I'm really confused with answer choice C,
if the number of kidney transplants that take place each year is not significantly different from the number of kidneys available over that time period; which means the number of kidney transplant that take place each year is almost close to the number of kidneys available over that time period, then where does the lag in kidneys come from ?
argument does not talk anything about kidneys not matching or blood group not matching, so are we supposed to assume that ? how can choice C is an assumption required by argument ?

thanks


You have to be very careful in CR - notice what they are talking about in each sentence. Let's assume variables for clarity.

A - Kidneys available for transplant
B - People waiting on the list for transplant
C - Actual number of transplants that take place.

The argument says this:

A is much less than B.
As evidence, B is 85000 while C is only 16000.

Note that the evidence gives you the numbers of B and C. But we conclude that A is much less than B. How can we do that? The only conclusion from this evidence can be that C is much less than B. How do we conclude that A is much mess than B?

For that we need to assume that A is almost same as C. This is exactly what option (C) tells you. Hence, option (C) is the assumption.


when when negate the assumption the conclusion should fall apart. Is this applicable in every case?
If yes let me try to negate C and see if in any case the conclusion holds:-


assumption:

The number of kidney transplants that take place each year is not significantly different from the number of kidneys available over that time period.

Negate the assumption:
The number of kidney transplants that take place each year is significantly different from the number of kidneys available over that time period.

when we say the number of kidney transplants that take place each year is significantly different from the kidneys available, can we not say transplant done --1000
kidney available- 3 .... the two numbers are significantly different ,, but in this case the the conclusion still remains intact

conclusion :
There are far fewer kidneys available than there are patients.

Please correct me if i am going wrong with my approach.

Thanks:
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Re: There are far fewer kidneys available for transplants [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2015, 22:07
tyagigar wrote:
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
Praveen_Seelam wrote:
Hi All,
I'm really confused with answer choice C,
if the number of kidney transplants that take place each year is not significantly different from the number of kidneys available over that time period; which means the number of kidney transplant that take place each year is almost close to the number of kidneys available over that time period, then where does the lag in kidneys come from ?
argument does not talk anything about kidneys not matching or blood group not matching, so are we supposed to assume that ? how can choice C is an assumption required by argument ?

thanks


You have to be very careful in CR - notice what they are talking about in each sentence. Let's assume variables for clarity.

A - Kidneys available for transplant
B - People waiting on the list for transplant
C - Actual number of transplants that take place.

The argument says this:

A is much less than B.
As evidence, B is 85000 while C is only 16000.

Note that the evidence gives you the numbers of B and C. But we conclude that A is much less than B. How can we do that? The only conclusion from this evidence can be that C is much less than B. How do we conclude that A is much mess than B?

For that we need to assume that A is almost same as C. This is exactly what option (C) tells you. Hence, option (C) is the assumption.


when when negate the assumption the conclusion should fall apart. Is this applicable in every case?
If yes let me try to negate C and see if in any case the conclusion holds:-


assumption:

The number of kidney transplants that take place each year is not significantly different from the number of kidneys available over that time period.

Negate the assumption:
The number of kidney transplants that take place each year is significantly different from the number of kidneys available over that time period.

when we say the number of kidney transplants that take place each year is significantly different from the kidneys available, can we not say transplant done --1000
kidney available- 3 .... the two numbers are significantly different ,, but in this case the the conclusion still remains intact

conclusion :
There are far fewer kidneys available than there are patients.

Please correct me if i am going wrong with my approach.

Thanks:
Gaurav


If there are only 3 kidneys available, how can 1000 transplants be done? The number of transplants will obviously be less than or equal to the number of kidneys available.
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Re: There are far fewer kidneys available for transplants [#permalink]

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New post 01 Apr 2016, 21:27
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
Praveen_Seelam wrote:
Hi All,
I'm really confused with answer choice C,
if the number of kidney transplants that take place each year is not significantly different from the number of kidneys available over that time period; which means the number of kidney transplant that take place each year is almost close to the number of kidneys available over that time period, then where does the lag in kidneys come from ?
argument does not talk anything about kidneys not matching or blood group not matching, so are we supposed to assume that ? how can choice C is an assumption required by argument ?

thanks


You have to be very careful in CR - notice what they are talking about in each sentence. Let's assume variables for clarity.

A - Kidneys available for transplant
B - People waiting on the list for transplant
C - Actual number of transplants that take place.

The argument says this:

A is much less than B.
As evidence, B is 85000 while C is only 16000.

Note that the evidence gives you the numbers of B and C. But we conclude that A is much less than B. How can we do that? The only conclusion from this evidence can be that C is much less than B. How do we conclude that A is much mess than B?

For that we need to assume that A is almost same as C. This is exactly what option (C) tells you. Hence, option (C) is the assumption.


Hi,
By saying that the number of operations is roughly equal to the number of kidneys available, would mean that in the previous year we had around 16k kidneys available. But by comparing it to 85k people this year, aren't we also assuming that the supply (number of kidneys) has remained the same? How can we assume last year's number to be the same as this year's?

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New post 01 Apr 2016, 22:40
Option c is as good as saying in the previous year, supply was 16k. But we are also assuming that this supply doesn't change for this year.

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Re: There are far fewer kidneys available for transplants [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2017, 09:19
C is the clear winner.

here we need to assume something that is happening for quite a some time. and C is a suitable answer.

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Re: There are far fewer kidneys available for transplants [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2017, 12:32
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
Praveen_Seelam wrote:
Hi All,
I'm really confused with answer choice C,
if the number of kidney transplants that take place each year is not significantly different from the number of kidneys available over that time period; which means the number of kidney transplant that take place each year is almost close to the number of kidneys available over that time period, then where does the lag in kidneys come from ?
argument does not talk anything about kidneys not matching or blood group not matching, so are we supposed to assume that ? how can choice C is an assumption required by argument ?

thanks


You have to be very careful in CR - notice what they are talking about in each sentence. Let's assume variables for clarity.

A - Kidneys available for transplant
B - People waiting on the list for transplant
C - Actual number of transplants that take place.

The argument says this:

A is much less than B.
As evidence, B is 85000 while C is only 16000.

Note that the evidence gives you the numbers of B and C. But we conclude that A is much less than B. How can we do that? The only conclusion from this evidence can be that C is much less than B. How do we conclude that A is much mess than B?

For that we need to assume that A is almost same as C. This is exactly what option (C) tells you. Hence, option (C) is the assumption.


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Re: There are far fewer kidneys available for transplants   [#permalink] 22 Oct 2017, 12:32
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