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# There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud

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There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2006, 13:59
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There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid
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24 Mar 2010, 20:23
I've read the explaination of the below question, but I still don't understand it. If D is the correct answer, the sentence will look like this:

There are several ways to build solid walls using just
mud or clay, but the most extensively used method
has been to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them
in the wall in mud mortar.

Is the phrase "has been to form" correct? I think after "has been" should be a participle verb, shouldn't it?

Thanks,

Tuan.

=======================================================================
Question & explaination
11. There are several ways to build solid walls using just
mud or clay, but the most extensively used method
has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay,
and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

(A) the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and,
after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they are laid

(B) forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them

(C) having bricks formed from mud or clay, and,
after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they were laid

(D) to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them

(E) that bricks were formed from mud or clay,
which, after some preliminary air drying or sun
drying, were laid

Parallelism; Verb form
The purpose of the sentence is to describe the
historically most popular method of building
walls. Th e fi rst clause announces this topic and
the second clause describes the particular method.
The clearest, most effi cient way to accomplish
these two pieces of business is to use a parallel
structure. Th e ways to build in the fi rst clause is
narrowed to the single way to form and to lay in
the second clause. Th ere is no need to alternate
the verb phrases between active and passive voice
or to shift tenses.
A The active gerund phrase the forming of bricks
does not fi t with the passive verb phrase that
follows (they are laid).
B The verb phrases forming the mud … and to
lay them are not parallel.
C In addition to faulty parallelism between
having bricks formed and they were laid, the
tense in the second half of the sentence
unaccountably shifts from present to past.
D Correct. The phrases to form and to lay in
the second clause are parallel to to build in
the first clause.
E The relative clause beginning with which
apparently (but nonsensically) describes the
closest nouns, mud or clay, rather than bricks.
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Re: OG12 - SC#11- Help [#permalink]

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25 Mar 2010, 07:42
I do not know the answer to the question you are asking but I also selected (D) based on the following reasons

11. There are several ways to build solid walls using just
mud or clay, but the most extensively used method
has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay,
and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

(A) the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and,
after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they are laid - forming does not fit here and they has no referent - wrong

(B) forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them - forming does not fit here.-wrong - it should be "to form" and "to lay" - infinitive form

(C) having bricks formed from mud or clay, and,
after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they were laid - passive voice and awkward - wrong

(D) to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them - correct - "to form" and "to lay"

(E) that bricks were formed from mud or clay,
which, after some preliminary air drying or sun
drying, were laid - passive voice. wordy. - wrong
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29 Jul 2010, 05:35
A, C and E out because of laid.
B out because of ||.
Clear D.
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29 Jul 2010, 08:36
I got D as well.

to form........... and to lay.......... is parallel.
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29 Jul 2010, 08:41
maintains parallelism ..

to form ... to lay - both infinitive forms
(to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them)

FYI, this is an OG question..OG12.. Q11
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29 Jul 2010, 08:55
-- Since the verb form used in the underlined sentence (first half) is 'has been' i.e. present participle, the another verb should be in consistent to that. Hence we can eliminate all the answer choices with 'laid' (simple past tense). We are left with B and D. B cannot be a correct answer choice because - 'forming mud and clay into bricks' is modifying mud and clay rather than bricks. That's why D is a correct answer choice which satisfies all the requirements.

The question can also be solved with help of parallel structure.

Thank You.

Thanks,
Akhil M.Parekh
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31 Aug 2010, 09:51
noboru wrote:
A, C and E out because of laid.
B out because of ||.
Clear D.

Nobody is going to comment the transitive/intransitive issue here?
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31 Aug 2010, 15:21
I got D as well becoz of parallelism.
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There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2010, 10:12
There are several ways to build solid walls using just
mud or clay, but the most extensively used method
has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay,
and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.
(A) the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and,
after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they are laid
(B) forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them
(C) having bricks formed from mud or clay, and,
after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they were laid
(D) to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them
(E) that bricks were formed from mud or clay,
which, after some preliminary air drying or sun
drying, were laid

I have encountered various questions in OGs on both topics.
I have been totally confused with application of present participles and infinitives. where I can freely use present participles? please tell me whether an inanimate subject in the following question can take infinitive?
also which acts as an nonerestrictive clause but I saw many questions undermining this rule. I look forward to reading your answers to my questions.
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Re: Present participle and gerunds / which vs that [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2010, 10:16
D for me.

to form...to lay are parallel
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Re: Present participle and gerunds / which vs that [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2010, 10:35
clearly for parallelism
D....to form.. to lay
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Re: Present participle and gerunds / which vs that [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2010, 13:28
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the forming - awkward (A) the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

forming will take laying as parallel(B) forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

They were laid is incorrect, since it starts with - There are(C) having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

parallelism and Tense(D) to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

They were laid is incorrect, since it starts with - There are(E) that bricks were formed from mud or clay,which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid
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Re: Present participle and gerunds / which vs that [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2011, 10:55
Quote:
There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

(A) the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid
(B) forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them
(C) having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid
(D) to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them
(E) that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid

when describing what a method entails, it has to be in present tense.
'has been to' is correct.
Option is perfectly parallel.

Options A, B, and C are not parallel.
Option E is parallel but in past tense.
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01 Mar 2012, 13:31
11. There are several ways to build solid walls using just
mud or clay, but the most extensively used method
has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay,
and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.
(A) the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and,
after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they are laid
(B) forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to
lay them
(C) having bricks formed from mud or clay, and,
after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they were laid
(D) to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to
lay them
(E) that bricks were formed from mud or clay,
which, after some preliminary air drying or sun
drying, were laid.

Can anybody tell what is the antecedent for " them" . If " them" refers to bricks which is in prepositonal phrase"into bricks". Is it correct. please guide me.
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01 Mar 2012, 13:59
(D)

to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, [strike]after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying[/strike], to
lay them

(E) has some parallel action going on as well because "method has been that" is just bizarre.
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Jerome: *$&#(*%&(*#%& Senior Manager Joined: 18 Sep 2009 Posts: 361 Followers: 3 Kudos [?]: 463 [0], given: 2 Re: 12 edition [#permalink] ### Show Tags 02 Mar 2012, 16:24 I ruled out option E because "which" refers to "mud or clay" but intended meaning is "which" refers to bricks. my question is in D "into bricks" is the antecedent for "them". please explain Manager Joined: 21 Sep 2008 Posts: 200 Concentration: Strategy, Economics GMAT Date: 07-17-2015 GPA: 3.57 Followers: 5 Kudos [?]: 7 [0], given: 18 Re: 12 edition [#permalink] ### Show Tags 03 Mar 2012, 00:04 them are the bricks (they're being laid!) _________________ Life with the GMAT: Jerome: Ben, c'est 20 secondes de plus qu'hier sur le meme parcours! C'etait bien le meme parcours la, non?! Gigi: Mais t'enerve pas, Jerome, je crois que t'as accroche une porte. Jerome: *$&#(*%&(*#%&

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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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07 Mar 2012, 20:35
My answer for this would be D:

A. The use of "the forming" after the verb has been is wordy. Also, "the forming" is not parallel to "they are laid."

B. There is a parallelism issue here - forming and to lay are different types of verbs. One is a gerund and the other is an infinitive.

C. Parallelism issue here as well - having bricks is not parallel to they were laid.

D. This answer choice is parallel since "to form" and "to lay" are both infinitives used to describe the method of building solid walls. There is no tense issue because everything is being modified in the present perfect tense by "has been."

E. The biggest issue I noticed with this answer choice was that "which" seems to modify clay. Considering the intent of the sentence, this answer choice cannot be correct.
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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08 Mar 2012, 00:36
Hi honeyhani ,

This is basically a parallelism question. The phrase "There are several ways to build" follows "to +verb" format so the subsequent verbs should also follow the same format. i.e "to form" and "to lay". Hope it helps.
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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21 May 2012, 12:55
Only D makes the sentence in parallel.
So IMO D it is!
all other options either use wrong tense or don't make use of parallel structure.
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud   [#permalink] 21 May 2012, 12:55

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