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# There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud

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There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2006, 13:59
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There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2014, 13:56
joemama142000 wrote:
There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid

We need to focus on parallelism here. And quite clearly none of the options except for D uphold correct parallelism between "to form... to lay" .
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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03 Apr 2014, 04:26
Can anyone explain the commas?
The first and last ones are to set off the modifier, if I'm not wrong. What is the middle one for?
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2015, 23:15
parallelism issue is resolved with D.

joemama142000 wrote:
There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2015, 00:31
Parallelism wins in D. In addition, I think when we read the other answers we can feel how awkward they are.
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There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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01 Mar 2015, 18:30
here are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid
Incorrect. They logically is referring to "bricks", but grammatically it should be parallel to "the forming".
B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them
Incorrect. forming is not parallel to "to lay".
C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid
Incorrect. No need of the past tense "were".
D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them
Correct.
E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid
Incorrect. which is referring to clay, but logically it should be referring to bricks.
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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13 May 2015, 15:34
Would it be correct if we eliminate the comma before the "and"?

Also,
If we eliminate "after... drying", we will have

"...method has been [to form into bricks], and [to lay them in the wall].

Then what would be the function of the comma before "and"? For a list of 2 entities, can we have [, and]?

Thanks!
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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25 Jun 2015, 21:07
joemama142000 wrote:
There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid

Could someone please explain why D.
I want to know which was the triggered word for parallelism, i guess it was "BUT".
If i'm right then,

There are X ways to build A By B&C, BUT the most extensively used method has been to form the A&B into Y, and , after something getting done....,to lay them.

I understood the above story, but what i couldn't understood how to spot the trigger word,
secondly, after have been could we use to form, it looks awakward, could some explain it.
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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25 Jun 2015, 22:00
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jaspreets wrote:
joemama142000 wrote:
There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid

Could someone please explain why D.
I want to know which was the triggered word for parallelism, i guess it was "BUT".
If i'm right then,

There are X ways to build A By B&C, BUT the most extensively used method has been to form the A&B into Y, and , after something getting done....,to lay them.

I understood the above story, but what i couldn't understood how to spot the trigger word,
secondly, after have been could we use to form, it looks awakward, could some explain it.

Q) There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay -------- Main Clause with Subject and verb

but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar ------ Dependent Clause

the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid----- Underlined portion

The parallelism trigerring word ....... AND (the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid)

What to make parallel---- To X and to Y i.e. To form and to lay

Guess it helps
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2015, 14:30
Yep, it did,thanks for taking time for explanation, btw liked your profile status.
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There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2015, 15:37
dlee156 wrote:
I think the answer could be D or E.

bricks were formed ..... bricks were laid (parallel?)

Please correct me if i'm wrong. Can someone tell me why E is incorrect? i thought the OA is E

As has been previously mentioned, choice E is not the credited response. However, others have just said things such as "it feels awkward." Accordingly, I wanted to take a few moments to really criticize choice E.

Choice E would be:

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid in the wall in mud mortar.

One important criticism I wish to make of E is the ", which." Comma which (hereinafter "cw") forms a modifier. Look at the following sentence:

"Last year I visited India in the autumn, which is a great country."

This sentence seems to indicate that the autumn is a great country. What you mean to indicate is that India is a great country. It would be far better to say:

"Last autumn I visited India, which is a great country."
---------------

In sentence E, the cw seems to modify the word "clay" and that the clay "were laid in the wall in mud mortar."

Clearly what we mean to say is that the bricks were laid in the wall, not the clay.

I urge you, and all prospective GMAT test takers, to be very suspicious of the cw. Statistically it is used wrongly in the GMAT far more often than it is used correctly.
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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28 Jun 2015, 06:41
I wish to say about what I called "enhanced parallelism"

in a long sentence, the ending part of the sentence is easily wrong because the writer normally makes it parallel grammatically to a previous part which is not logically to partnership with the ending part. gmat test this error many many many times becauase this error is practical in our writing and difficult to realize. I see gmat test this error hundreds of times in og books.

mastering the skill to match the ending part with the previous part is key to many many gmat questions. this skill can be made into a lecture
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2016, 22:49
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2016, 01:54
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Y is option B wrong?
forming and drying are parallel here
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There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2016, 01:42
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shonakshi wrote:
Y is option B wrong?
forming and drying are parallel here

The parrallel elements here are "form" AND "lay". ... The most extensively used methods has been TO FORM and TO LAY.... FORMING and TO LAY are not parallel. Therefore B is wrong.

The phrase "after some preliminary air drying or sun drying" is nested within the parallel structure but does not form a part of the main structure X AND Y.
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2016, 04:30
There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid - Incorrect Comparison

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them -Incorrect Comparison

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid - Incorrect Comparison

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid -Incorrect - 'that' is a relative clause/ 'were' changes the tense "extensively used method has been"

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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2017, 22:26
As per my understanding in D ....parallelism is maintained..to form and to lay...
In all other options, this rule is violated..
Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud   [#permalink] 10 Jan 2017, 22:26

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