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# There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu

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Director
Joined: 17 Oct 2005
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There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu  [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2006, 12:59
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77% (01:20) correct 23% (01:43) wrong based on 4321 sessions

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There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu  [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2013, 04:31
8
4
mstfkvs wrote:
Although I did this question correct, I have a doubt on the usage of COMMA. The question is as follow:

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid

My question is that in choice D, what is the role of the comma after "bricks". I can understand that the the red part is giving extra info about time, but I really did not understand the comma before "and". It seemed to me the sentence structure like this:

IC, Fanboys (But in this case) IC, AND to Verb

to verb // to verb seems OK, but what about the comma before and? The list is: to form X, and to lay Y

Hi Mustafa,

Let us see how the sentence looks when Option D is used.

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them in the wall in mud mortar.

Let us now look at the structure of this sentence.

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay,
• but the most extensively used method has been
o to form the
 mud or
 clay
o into bricks, and
o , after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them in the wall in mud mortar.

As you can see, the “and” in this sentence is connecting two entities in a list.

The entities are:
a. To form the mud or clay into bricks.
b. To lay them in the wall in mud mortar.

As you can see, the entities in the list are a bit longer than usual. Moreover, the first entity has another list embedded in it (mud or clay). So a comma is put before the “and” for a breathing pause.

So the comma before "and" is only to help us in identifying the main list.

Note that the presence of a “comma + and” in a sentence doesn’t necessarily indicate that two or more Independent Clauses are connected. (The above sentence, for instance)

However, if two or more Independent Clauses are present in a sentence, they are always connected by “comma + FANBOYS”.

Hope this helps

Regards,
Krishna
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu  [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2008, 17:55
8
1
2
A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or
sun drying, they are laid [they can point to ways or walls]
B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun
drying, to lay them [forming … and … to – not parallel]
C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or
sun drying, they were laid [ method has been having --- awkward]
D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun
drying, to lay them [ to form … and to lay – parallel - hold]
E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air
drying or sun drying, were laid [which incorrectly points clay]

##### General Discussion
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu  [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2012, 16:24
6
1
There's a lot of fluff in this original sentence.

BUT - if you "cut the fluff" - it's a lot easier to read. You should read the sentence as:

"There are several ways to build solid walls using [method1], but the most extensively used method has been [method2], and [method3].

(A) is wrong because method1 cannot be "the forming" - the extraneous "the" needs to be removed. "Forming" in (B) is ok - but "forming" is not consistent with "to lay them"

Only in (D) is "to form" consistent with "to lay" -see video explanation for more details:

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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu  [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2010, 07:55
2
-- Since the verb form used in the underlined sentence (first half) is 'has been' i.e. present participle, the another verb should be in consistent to that. Hence we can eliminate all the answer choices with 'laid' (simple past tense). We are left with B and D. B cannot be a correct answer choice because - 'forming mud and clay into bricks' is modifying mud and clay rather than bricks. That's why D is a correct answer choice which satisfies all the requirements.

The question can also be solved with help of parallel structure.

Thank You.

Thanks,
Akhil M.Parekh
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu  [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2010, 12:28
2
1
the forming - awkward (A) the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

forming will take laying as parallel(B) forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

They were laid is incorrect, since it starts with - There are(C) having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

parallelism and Tense(D) to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

They were laid is incorrect, since it starts with - There are(E) that bricks were formed from mud or clay,which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu  [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2016, 03:30
2
There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid - Incorrect Comparison

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them -Incorrect Comparison

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid - Incorrect Comparison

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid -Incorrect - 'that' is a relative clause/ 'were' changes the tense "extensively used method has been"
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu  [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2012, 08:45
1
mlsbbe wrote:
Hi, all. Please look at the following questions. I am having problems with the answer

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks our of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or
sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid.

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid

OA: D

Why is 'D' the answer? Doesn't the 'and' after the comma create a sentence fragment as it lacks a subject and a verb?

Strike 1 => Verb Tense => There are several ways => C & E out
Strike 2 => Parallelism => A ,B
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu  [#permalink]

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25 Jun 2015, 21:00
1
jaspreets wrote:
joemama142000 wrote:
There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid

Could someone please explain why D.
I want to know which was the triggered word for parallelism, i guess it was "BUT".
If i'm right then,

There are X ways to build A By B&C, BUT the most extensively used method has been to form the A&B into Y, and , after something getting done....,to lay them.

I understood the above story, but what i couldn't understood how to spot the trigger word,
secondly, after have been could we use to form, it looks awakward, could some explain it.

Q) There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay -------- Main Clause with Subject and verb

but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar ------ Dependent Clause

the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid----- Underlined portion

The parallelism trigerring word ....... AND (the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid)

What to make parallel---- To X and to Y i.e. To form and to lay

Guess it helps
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu  [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2018, 17:03
1
There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

forming and laid are not parallel

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu  [#permalink]

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18 Oct 2018, 12:01
1
Hello Everyone!

This is a great example of a GMAT question that focuses on parallelism! Let's start off by looking at the original sentence, and highlight any major differences between the options in orange:

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid
B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them
C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid
D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them
E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid

Since we are dealing with parallelism, let's focus on that. To start, let's ask ourselves: what are the items being listed?

1. forming bricks from mud or clay
AND
2. laying them in the wall in mud mortar

Both items MUST be worded similarly, using parallel verb tenses, phrasing, or structure. Let's see which options use parallel structure, and rule out the ones that don't:

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid --> NOT PARALLEL
B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them --> NOT PARALLEL
C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid --> NOT PARALLEL
D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them --> PARALLEL
E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid --> NOT PARALLEL
(*For option E to be parallel, it would have to say "the bricks were laid" to keep things even!)

Well, there you have it - option D is the only one that uses parallel structure for both listed items!

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There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu  [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2019, 22:22
1
EMPOWERgmatVerbal wrote:
Hello Everyone!

This is a great example of a GMAT question that focuses on parallelism! Let's start off by looking at the original sentence, and highlight any major differences between the options in orange:

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid
B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them
C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid
D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them
E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid

Since we are dealing with parallelism, let's focus on that. To start, let's ask ourselves: what are the items being listed?

1. forming bricks from mud or clay
AND
2. laying them in the wall in mud mortar

Both items MUST be worded similarly, using parallel verb tenses, phrasing, or structure. Let's see which options use parallel structure, and rule out the ones that don't:

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid --> NOT PARALLEL
B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them --> NOT PARALLEL
C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid --> NOT PARALLEL
D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them --> PARALLEL
E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid --> NOT PARALLEL
(*For option E to be parallel, it would have to say "the bricks were laid" to keep things even!)

Well, there you have it - option D is the only one that uses parallel structure for both listed items!

Don't study for the GMAT. Train for it.

1. i think option E which usage itself is wrong , not as you mentioned, as the which conveys clay or mud were laid (correct me if i am wrong)
2. whether "has been the forming of bricks" in option A is correct usage,

wont " the most extensively used method has been forming of bricks " is more correct than,
simply is the usage of "the" is correct? ie usage of the before verb/present participle ( here forming is verb or present participle that i dont know,)
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu  [#permalink]

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20 May 2019, 05:08
1
Quote:
There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

Quote:
to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

I had a different approach to solve this and would like to validate the same.
I used - to build - in non-underlined portion to check parallelism with
-to form and -to lay them
Is this correct?

Hi..

The nonunderlined portion contains a different clause, so you cannot compare or look for parallelism between to build and other two terms. The parallelism has to be between to form and to lay.
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There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu  [#permalink]

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20 May 2019, 05:22
1
Quote:
There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

Quote:
to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

I had a different approach to solve this and would like to validate the same.
I used - to build - in non-underlined portion to check parallelism with
-to form and -to lay them
Is this correct?
I agree with chetan2u. In the way to build walls is X and Y, we should not look to make the X and Y parallel to to build (although, if I remember correctly, the official explanation tries to do just that).
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu  [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2019, 20:27
1
priyanshu14 wrote:
Dear team,

Even I have the same doubt. Has been is present perfect continuous and should be followed by Verb+ing, but here correct answer is "to form....to lay them. Kindly suggest.

The verb there is has been itself (nothing else), so we are looking at a present perfect (not present perfect continuous) verb. The to form and to lay are infinitives, which are verb forms. It may be better not to think of them as verbs at all. Instead, look at that part of the sentence like this:

The way has been A and B.

The way has been (to form) and (to lay).
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu  [#permalink]

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01 Nov 2009, 16:45
Hi, all. Please look at the following questions. I am having problems with the answer

There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks our of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or
sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid.

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid

OA: D

Why is 'D' the answer? Doesn't the 'and' after the comma create a sentence fragment as it lacks a subject and a verb?
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu  [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2010, 19:23
I've read the explaination of the below question, but I still don't understand it. If D is the correct answer, the sentence will look like this:

There are several ways to build solid walls using just
mud or clay, but the most extensively used method
has been to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them
in the wall in mud mortar.

Is the phrase "has been to form" correct? I think after "has been" should be a participle verb, shouldn't it?

Thanks,

Tuan.

=======================================================================
Question & explaination
11. There are several ways to build solid walls using just
mud or clay, but the most extensively used method
has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay,
and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

(A) the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and,
after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they are laid

(B) forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them

(C) having bricks formed from mud or clay, and,
after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they were laid

(D) to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after
some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
to lay them

(E) that bricks were formed from mud or clay,
which, after some preliminary air drying or sun
drying, were laid

Parallelism; Verb form
The purpose of the sentence is to describe the
historically most popular method of building
walls. Th e fi rst clause announces this topic and
the second clause describes the particular method.
The clearest, most effi cient way to accomplish
these two pieces of business is to use a parallel
structure. Th e ways to build in the fi rst clause is
narrowed to the single way to form and to lay in
the second clause. Th ere is no need to alternate
the verb phrases between active and passive voice
or to shift tenses.
A The active gerund phrase the forming of bricks
does not fi t with the passive verb phrase that
follows (they are laid).
B The verb phrases forming the mud … and to
lay them are not parallel.
C In addition to faulty parallelism between
having bricks formed and they were laid, the
tense in the second half of the sentence
unaccountably shifts from present to past.
D Correct. The phrases to form and to lay in
the second clause are parallel to to build in
the first clause.
E The relative clause beginning with which
apparently (but nonsensically) describes the
closest nouns, mud or clay, rather than bricks.
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2013, 07:20
daagh wrote:
The simple rule of coordinate conjunctions is that they join
1. two words ; e.g.: ‘Jack and Jill’ went up the hill
2. two phrases: e.g. : Jack wants ‘to eat the cake and(to) keep it too’, and
3. two ICs. E.g:Jack wants to play football with a hockey ball and Jill wants to play basketball with a hockey ball

The topic in context belongs to the second category of joining two phrases – ‘to form’ the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, ‘to lay’ them – to form and to lay – two infinitive phrases

Hi daagh,

One query pertains to the concepts you explained:

There are several ways to build solid walls using just
mud or clay
, but the most extensively used method
has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay
,
and,after some preliminary air drying or sun drying,
they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

Three Independent Clauses Marked above in GREEN. Here "AND" is connecting clauses(2,3).

Clause2: Subject - method Verb-has been
Clause3: Subject - They Verb - are laid

My query is how on earth we can see "AND" as a parallel marker in this question when it connects two independent clauses.

Rgds,
TGC!
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu  [#permalink]

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01 Mar 2015, 17:30
1
here are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid
Incorrect. They logically is referring to "bricks", but grammatically it should be parallel to "the forming".
B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them
Incorrect. forming is not parallel to "to lay".
C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid
Incorrect. No need of the past tense "were".
D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them
Correct.
E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid
Incorrect. which is referring to clay, but logically it should be referring to bricks.
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Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu  [#permalink]

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25 Jun 2015, 20:07
joemama142000 wrote:
There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, aftersome preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar.

A. the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid

B. forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

C. having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid

D. to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them

E. that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid

Could someone please explain why D.
I want to know which was the triggered word for parallelism, i guess it was "BUT".
If i'm right then,

There are X ways to build A By B&C, BUT the most extensively used method has been to form the A&B into Y, and , after something getting done....,to lay them.

I understood the above story, but what i couldn't understood how to spot the trigger word,
secondly, after have been could we use to form, it looks awakward, could some explain it.
Re: There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, bu   [#permalink] 25 Jun 2015, 20:07

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