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# Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s

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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s  [#permalink]

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20 Nov 2015, 01:05
Hi Mechmeera,

Q4 is an inference question hence we will have to infer on data mentioned in the passage..(not explicitly mentioned).

However, "Today, few scientists challenge not only the link between birds and reptiles in general" in first para rewrites the same thing as option C in other words.

Per option D, Thomas believed in convergent evolution. Kindly note that nothing has been mentioned about Thomas's perception of evolution. In the last para, the author says that " This would certainly not be the first case of what is known as convergent evolution".

Hence D can be eliminated.

Regards,
Dom.
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s  [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2017, 03:52
CrackVerbalGMAT wrote:
4. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

(A) All adult coelurosaurs possessed feathers.
ALL possessed feathers? Can't say for sure: Eliminate
(B) Coelurosaurs who did not need feathers for warmth or mating rituals
shed those feathers for scales.
May Be
(C) Scientists have reached a consensus that certain birds and dinosaurs
Proof: Today, few scientists challenge not only the link between birds and reptiles in general, but between birds and theropods, a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs.
YES! The proof lies here : Today, [b]few scientists challenge
not only the link between birds and reptiles in general, but between birds and theropods, a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs.
[/b]
(D) Thomas Henry Huxley believed in the idea of convergent evolution.
Maybe

The key to doing well on an inference question to is to ensure that the answer statement is 100% true ALL THE TIME!
Avoid answer options that are MAYBEs!

Hope that helps!

Ajeeth Peo
Verbal Trainer - CrackVeral

the passage says few scientists challenge and then goes on to explain different theories possible for the similarities and ends with a note calling for more insights.
How can we then say scientists have reached a consensus. Had the option said few scientists it would have been correct
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s  [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2017, 04:03
Nevernevergiveup wrote:

According to the passage, convergent evolution____________
(A) had not been thought to apply to a common trait found in birds and other animals prior to the discovery of the Juravenator fossil
(B) has not been shown to apply to humans
(C) was not always thought to apply to birds and coelurosaurs
(D) was first noticed by Thomas Henry Huxley
(E) explains why some dinosaurs developed feathers for warmth

Whats the OA for this? IMO A.
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s  [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2017, 03:38
goforgmat wrote:
Nevernevergiveup wrote:

According to the passage, convergent evolution____________
(A) had not been thought to apply to a common trait found in birds and other animals prior to the discovery of the Juravenator fossil
(B) has not been shown to apply to humans
(C) was not always thought to apply to birds and coelurosaurs
(D) was first noticed by Thomas Henry Huxley
(E) explains why some dinosaurs developed feathers for warmth

Whats the OA for this? IMO A.

IMO answer to the new question should be C

Option A seems incorrect as it says " common trait between birds and other animals " it does NOT say " Between birds and dinosaurs or between birds and coelurosaurs"

Had option A been "had not been thought to apply to a common trait found in birds and dinosaurs prior to the discovery of the Juravenator fossil" it could have been correct IMO.
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s  [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2017, 13:15
I do not agree with the Question 3: in the passage, it is clearly stated that "feathers were replaced by scales because the feathers were not needed for". This clearly implies that: 1. There were feathers 2. They were no longer useful 3. They evolved to scales in other words: Scales evolved from feathers.

However, in the answer choice, it states that it is feathers that "might have evolved from the scales". X->Y is not same as X<-Y

Although I don't like this answer choice, B should be the answer
Because if there is at least 1 dinosaur with no feathers, this statement is true.
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s  [#permalink]

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24 Jun 2017, 09:53
Question 3 and Question 4 have very doutbful answers. Could some expert please shed light on this?
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s  [#permalink]

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24 Jun 2017, 11:13
B
D
B
C

Quote:
According to the passage, convergent evolution____________
(A) had not been thought to apply to a common trait found in birds and other animals prior to the discovery of the Juravenator fossil
(B) has not been shown to apply to humans
(C) was not always thought to apply to birds and coelurosaurs
(D) was first noticed by Thomas Henry Huxley
(E) explains why some dinosaurs developed feathers for warmth

IMO C
Quote:
A more fundamentally profound alternative is that, contrary to conventional scientific thought , birds and feathered dinosaurs developed feathers independently of each other rather than from a common ancestor.

Experts, helps us out here. Can't understand the answer to Q3. Thanks!
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s  [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2017, 00:06
CrackVerbalGMAT wrote:
3. According to the passage, feathers on dinosaurs .
(A) were not used for flight - NO! We don't know this for sure
(B) were not always present at birth NO! We don't know this for sure
(C) were first noted by Huxley NO! the passage never says that it was FIRST noted by Huxley
(D) might have evolved from scales Perhaps: scope is her - "One possibility is that, in some creatures, feathers were replaced by scales because the feathers were not needed for warmth, recognition of family members, or mating rituals—uses that feathers were thought to have had for dinosaurs that did not fly." - [color=#ff00ff]Isnt the passage saying the opposite, if at all scales could have evolved from feathers not the other way round. Please let me know if i am missing something. Thanks!
(E) were a characteristic of all coelurosaurs [b] ALL coelurosaurs? we don't know for sure

Option D therefore is the most reasonable response
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s  [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2017, 08:19
Can anyone please explain question 4 ?

Why is the answer not B and Why is it C?
From which line we can infer 'that scientists have reached ....'
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s  [#permalink]

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18 May 2018, 06:44
3. According to the passage, feathers on dinosaurs .
(A) were not used for flight (too extreme)
(B) were not always present at birth (may be - it's just a possibility, whereas the statement here is a concrete one: "were not...")
(C) were first noted by Huxley (uncertain, he's not mentioned in that context)
(D) might have evolved from scales ("might" is soft, and this fits some ideas in the passage)
(E) were a characteristic of all coelurosaurs (what about the one that did not)

Relevant piece of the passage: "A more fundamentally profound alternative is that, contrary to conventional scientific thought, birds and feathered dinosaurs developed feathers independently of each other rather than from a common ancestor."

This means that there is a possibility that the dinosaurs developed scales before some of them later developed feathers for some reasons. This may explain why this small creature had scales, unlike the majority of coelurosaurs that possessed feathers. "Convergent evolution", if I'm right, indicates that some animals may evolve features similar to those of other species, despite the fact that the species that evolved a certain feature and the species that was the first to develop that feature do not have a common ancestor.

I agree that D isn't a perfect answer, but it seems the best.

I hope this makes sense.
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s  [#permalink]

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18 May 2018, 06:51
4. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
(A) All adult coelurosaurs possessed feathers. (uhh, too extreme: "all")
(B) Coelurosaurs who did not need feathers for warmth or mating rituals shed those feathers for scales. (may be, but such an idea is presented only as a possibility)
(C) Scientists have reached a consensus that certain birds and dinosaurs are evolutionarily linked. ("certain" - OK, not too extreme)
(D) Thomas Henry Huxley believed in the idea of convergent evolution. (uncertain, he is not even mentioned in that context)
(E) Coeulurosaurs that did not have feathers instead had scales. (again, the passage gives some possible scenarios, not facts)

Relevant piece: "Today, few scientists challenge not only the link between birds and reptiles in general, but between birds and theropods, a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs."

This piece says that scientists tend not to argue about the evolutionary link between birds and reptiles in general, and even more specifically (further confirming agreement) between birds and theropods.

I hope this helps.
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s  [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2018, 01:54
souvik101990 wrote:
Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and most staunch defenders, as well as an influential naturalist in his own right, first observed the many similarities between reptiles and birds. Huxley noted, for example, that the wings of a bird hid reptilian fingers. Today, few scientists challenge not only the link between birds and reptiles in general, but between birds and theropods, a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs. Hundreds of structural similarities exist, including elongated arms, large eye openings, swiveling wrists, three forward-facing toes, and hollow bones.

The most diverse theropod group is the coelurosaurs, a carnivorous bipedal group that includes the Tyrannosaurus rex and the Velociraptor, the latter of which is quite similar to the oldest known bird, the Archaeopteryx. Coelurosauria, in fact, is the clade that contains all theropods more closely related to birds than to carnosaurs, and all coelurosaurs have been thought to possess feathers.

However, a recent find of what seems to be an entirely new—and apparently featherless—coelurosaur has complicated the subject. Several suggestions have been made as to why this particular chicken-sized dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period lacked feathers.

One possibility is that, in some creatures, feathers were replaced by scales because the feathers were not needed for warmth, recognition of family members, or mating rituals—uses that feathers were thought to have had for dinosaurs that did not fly. It is also possible that some coelurosaurs had feathers in only certain geographic areas. Another idea is that this particular coelurosaur was so young that it had not yet grown feathers.

A more fundamentally profound alternative is that, contrary to conventional scientific thought, birds and feathered dinosaurs developed feathers independently of each other rather than from a common ancestor. This would certainly not be the first case of what is known as convergent evolution. Fish and certain mammals can swim,but have evolved this attribute separately. Likewise, insects have wings, but developed them independently from birds. Luckily, the new fossil of what has been named a Juravenator is well-preserved almost in its entirety. More insights into why it did not have feathers will likely lead to new insights into how other animals did develop this trait.
1. In the passage, the author is primarily interested in:

(A) presenting possible solutions to a problem that has troubled scientists for years
(B) providing background information and possible explanations for a curious discovery
(C) answering critics of a controversial theory that is supported by a new finding
(D) showing how an established idea can become too entrenched in conventional scientific thought
(E) presenting historical background to a current phenomenon
OA - B

2. According to the passage, the Archaeopteryx _______________________ .

(A) had feathers but did not fly
(B) is the oldest known coelurosaur
(C) was approximately the size of a chicken
(D) shares some similarities with carnivorous dinosaurs
(E) and the Juravenator developed feathers from a common ancestor
OA - D

3. According to the passage, feathers on dinosaurs .

(A) were not used for flight
(B) were not always present at birth
(C) were first noted by Huxley
(D) might have evolved from scales
(E) were a characteristic of all coelurosaurs
OA - D

4. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

(A) All adult coelurosaurs possessed feathers.
(B) Coelurosaurs who did not need feathers for warmth or mating rituals shed those feathers for scales.
(C) Scientists have reached a consensus that certain birds and dinosaurs are evolutionarily linked.
(D) Thomas Henry Huxley believed in the idea of convergent evolution.
OA - C

workout , gmatexam439

OA for the questions 3 and 4 seem wrong. Here's my reasoning:

OA for Q3: (D) might have evolved from scales

The passage states that "feathers were replaced by scales because the feathers were not needed for warmth". One may infer that scales evolved from feathers not the other way round. Option C seems best of the lot

OA for Q4:

(C) Scientists have reached a consensus that certain birds and dinosaurs are evolutionarily linked.

In the first para we have " Today, few scientists challenge not only the link between birds and reptiles in general" which clearly means that there is no consensus. Option B seems better

Please correct me if i am wrong

Thanks
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s  [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2018, 03:44
CrackVerbalGMAT wrote:
3. According to the passage, feathers on dinosaurs .
(A) were not used for flight - NO! We don't know this for sure
(B) were not always present at birth NO! We don't know this for sure
(C) were first noted by Huxley NO! the passage never says that it was FIRST noted by Huxley
(D) might have evolved from scales Perhaps: scope is her - "One possibility is that, in some creatures, feathers were replaced by scales because the feathers were not needed for warmth, recognition of family members, or mating rituals—uses that feathers were thought to have had for dinosaurs that did not fly."
(E) were a characteristic of all coelurosaurs ALL coelurosaurs? we don't know for sure

Option D therefore is the most reasonable response

Kindly explain my doubt - I get D is correct , however I am not able to reject B -
As per the passage: "Another idea is that this particular coelurosaur was so young that it had not yet grown feathers." . This clearly implies that there were a few coelurosaur without feathers in very young age. If in a very young age " a few coelurosaurs" were not having feature , we can clearly infer that those coelurosaurs were not having features @ birth as well (unless and until we are assuming that feather appeared @ birth and then vanished. I believe , this will too much of an assumption).
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Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2018, 06:55
Prateek176 wrote:
souvik101990 wrote:
Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s earliest and most staunch defenders, as well as an influential naturalist in his own right, first observed the many similarities between reptiles and birds. Huxley noted, for example, that the wings of a bird hid reptilian fingers. Today, few scientists challenge not only the link between birds and reptiles in general, but between birds and theropods, a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs. Hundreds of structural similarities exist, including elongated arms, large eye openings, swiveling wrists, three forward-facing toes, and hollow bones.

The most diverse theropod group is the coelurosaurs, a carnivorous bipedal group that includes the Tyrannosaurus rex and the Velociraptor, the latter of which is quite similar to the oldest known bird, the Archaeopteryx. Coelurosauria, in fact, is the clade that contains all theropods more closely related to birds than to carnosaurs, and all coelurosaurs have been thought to possess feathers.

However, a recent find of what seems to be an entirely new—and apparently featherless—coelurosaur has complicated the subject. Several suggestions have been made as to why this particular chicken-sized dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period lacked feathers.

One possibility is that, in some creatures, feathers were replaced by scales because the feathers were not needed for warmth, recognition of family members, or mating rituals—uses that feathers were thought to have had for dinosaurs that did not fly. It is also possible that some coelurosaurs had feathers in only certain geographic areas. Another idea is that this particular coelurosaur was so young that it had not yet grown feathers.

A more fundamentally profound alternative is that, contrary to conventional scientific thought, birds and feathered dinosaurs developed feathers independently of each other rather than from a common ancestor. This would certainly not be the first case of what is known as convergent evolution. Fish and certain mammals can swim,but have evolved this attribute separately. Likewise, insects have wings, but developed them independently from birds. Luckily, the new fossil of what has been named a Juravenator is well-preserved almost in its entirety. More insights into why it did not have feathers will likely lead to new insights into how other animals did develop this trait.
1. In the passage, the author is primarily interested in:

(A) presenting possible solutions to a problem that has troubled scientists for years
(B) providing background information and possible explanations for a curious discovery
(C) answering critics of a controversial theory that is supported by a new finding
(D) showing how an established idea can become too entrenched in conventional scientific thought
(E) presenting historical background to a current phenomenon
OA - B

2. According to the passage, the Archaeopteryx _______________________ .

(A) had feathers but did not fly
(B) is the oldest known coelurosaur
(C) was approximately the size of a chicken
(D) shares some similarities with carnivorous dinosaurs
(E) and the Juravenator developed feathers from a common ancestor
OA - D

3. According to the passage, feathers on dinosaurs .

(A) were not used for flight
(B) were not always present at birth
(C) were first noted by Huxley
(D) might have evolved from scales
(E) were a characteristic of all coelurosaurs
OA - D

4. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

(A) All adult coelurosaurs possessed feathers.
(B) Coelurosaurs who did not need feathers for warmth or mating rituals shed those feathers for scales.
(C) Scientists have reached a consensus that certain birds and dinosaurs are evolutionarily linked.
(D) Thomas Henry Huxley believed in the idea of convergent evolution.
OA - C

workout , gmatexam439

OA for the questions 3 and 4 seem wrong. Here's my reasoning:

OA for Q3: (D) might have evolved from scales

The passage states that "feathers were replaced by scales because the feathers were not needed for warmth". One may infer that scales evolved from feathers not the other way round. Option C seems best of the lot

OA for Q4:

(C) Scientists have reached a consensus that certain birds and dinosaurs are evolutionarily linked.

In the first para we have " Today, few scientists challenge not only the link between birds and reptiles in general" which clearly means that there is no consensus. Option B seems better

Please correct me if i am wrong

Thanks

gmatexam439 , workout , Skywalker18 , @matymurray

Can anybody please help me out with the last 2 questions. I have provided my reasoning for Q3 and Q4 in the trailing post
Re: Thomas Henry Huxley (1825−1895), one of Charles Darwin’s &nbs [#permalink] 24 Aug 2018, 06:55

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