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# To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is consid

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To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is consid  [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2015, 08:49
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To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is considering requiring household appliances to be broken down for salvage when discarded. To cover the cost of salvage, the government is planning to charge a fee, which would be imposed when the appliance is first sold. Imposing the fee at the time of salvage would reduce waste more effectively, however, because consumers tend to keep old appliances longer if they are faced with a fee for discarding them.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

(A) Increasing the cost of disposing of an appliance properly increases the incentive to dispose it improperly.
(B) The fee provides manufacturers with no incentive to produce appliances that are more durable.
(C) For people who have bought new appliances recently, the salvage fee would not need to be paid for a number of years.
(D) People who sell their used, working appliances to others would not need to pay the salvage fee.
(E) Many nonfunctioning appliances that are currently discarded could be repaired at relatively little expense.
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Re: To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is consid  [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2015, 04:58
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thanhmaitran wrote:
To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is considering requiring household appliances to be broken down for salvage when discarded. To cover the cost of salvage, the government is planning to charge a fee, which would be imposed when the appliance is first sold. Imposing the fee at the time of salvage would reduce waste more effectively, however, because consumers tend to keep old appliances longer if they are faced with a fee for discarding them.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

A. Increasing the cost of disposing of an appliance properly increases the incentive to dispose it improperly.
B. The fee provides manufacturers with no incentive to produce appliances that are more durable.
C. For people who have bought new appliances recently, the salvage fee would not need to be paid for a number of years.
D. People who sell their used, working appliances to others would not need to pay the salvage fee.
E. Many nonfunctioning appliances that are currently discarded could be repaired at relatively little expense.

Hi experts

Please check whether my reasoning is correct?
Govt plans to add salvage cost at time of selling product.
So eg. if an item costs \$40 normally, will cost now \$50 ( \$10 salvage cost added) --> This way, govt can cover salvage cost and handle discarding of items properly --> reduce waste
Author says that Imposing the fee at the time of salvage would reduce waste --> Means rather selling item at \$50, sell it at \$40 only.
And when actually item reaches end of its life, fees should be recovered from owner at that time.
Say, owner will have to pay salvage fee \$10 to discard the item, he doesnt want any more.
Author concludes that people wont like to pay just to discard the item so they will tend to keep it, rather than discard it.
This way reduce waste more effectively.

We need to weaken colored part right? we need to show author's thinking is flawed.
A. Increasing the cost of disposing of an appliance properly increases the incentive to dispose it improperly.
If people have to pay \$10 just to dispose item properly, they will find other way to avoid fees , which will result in improperly disposed items. So purpose will not be served.

Hope I am correct.
##### General Discussion
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Re: To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is consid  [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2015, 08:25
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What's the matter with with A?
Why is B incorrect?
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Re: To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is consid  [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2015, 05:35
1
Hey!
IMO it should be A.
As we are comparing the effects of costs.
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Re: To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is consid  [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2015, 00:43
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Great question.

Govt. plans reuse raw materials from broken down home appliances.
Salvage fee could be collected from consumers either
a. at the time the item is first sold. or
b. at the time of disposal.
Argument favors a. over b. which cud lead to longer use of items.

We need to weaken this, i.e. we got to find something that states problems in a.
Choice A does this. If people need to pay more in the name of its proper disposal, they are like to dispose it carelessly.
No others choices actually hit main spot.

Binit.
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Re: To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is consid  [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2015, 08:47
MaxOb12 wrote:
What's the matter with with A?
Why is B incorrect?

B is actually out of scope
as u can see in the question, the topic is about the relationship between "the fee" and "the waste"
talking about the incentive to produce "new" product is irrelevant to the "waste" and has no guarantee that people will dispose the old product or not.
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Re: To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is consid  [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2015, 20:40
straight A. If person not getting any incentives rather he/she bears loss on that then only he will keep it.
B and C are out of scope
D is talking about sell to other and argument is abt waste
E is out of scope
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Re: To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is consid  [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2015, 02:07
Option A is the correct answer .Charging a fee at the time of disposal will make people look out for alternative option for disposal .
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Re: To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is consid  [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2015, 06:07
In order to reduce waste , Government plans to recycle discarded household appliances .
To recover the cost incurred in recycling , it plans to impose a salvage fee , which could collected from consumers either -
1. At the time when item is first sold
2. Or at the time when item is disposed .

To weaken this consider the case that people will find alternative means to dispose the appliance illegally to avoid the salvage fee.

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Re: To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is consid  [#permalink]

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16 Feb 2016, 07:41
Albeit it's a difficult question, but the simple way we can workout is to eliminate options.
Argument talks about Govt charging an salvage fees.

B) Manufacturers incentives and all is out of scope.
C) salvage fee would not be paid for number of years is out of scope.
D) People selling the used to other people; then the later has to dispose anyhow right ? so it touches the argument without making any valid point.
E) Argument is about salvage fees, non-functional appliances can be repaired at relative cost or not is irrelevant.

Thus, A is the left out; is the answer.
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Re: To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is consid  [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2016, 16:35
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To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is considering requiring household appliances to be broken down for salvage when discarded. To cover the cost of salvage, the government is planning to charge a fee, which would be imposed when the appliance is first sold. Imposing the fee at the time of salvage would reduce waste more effectively, however, because consumers tend to keep old appliances longer if they are faced with a fee for discarding them.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

A. Increasing the cost of disposing of an appliance properly increases the incentive to dispose it improperly.
B. The fee provides manufacturers with no incentive to produce appliances that are more durable.
C. For people who have bought new appliances recently, the salvage fee would not need to be paid for a number of years.
D. People who sell their used, working appliances to others would not need to pay the salvage fee.
E. Many nonfunctioning appliances that are currently discarded could be repaired at relatively little expense.

*********************************************

We need to note that in this argument two proposals are presented - First, by the government, and second the author suggestions. For such argument - ensure that the question imposed will be for the author's suggestion. Thus, we need to weaken the authors reasoning that fee at the time of salvage is a good idea. 'A' satisfies it, hands down.
A. cost of disposing at the time of salvage would result in people disposing off items illegally.
B. The fee is imposed at time of salvage or at the time of sale - thus this case is applicable irrespective of the when the fee is imposed.
C. That does not affect the argument or weaken it - in any way as far as disposing is concerned.
D. that is a true statement and does not affect the argument or weaken it - in any way as far as disposing is concerned.
E. If appliances could be repaired, it is strengthening the argument, because people would like to repair their appliances then pay a disposal fee (thus reduce waste and strengthen the argument).

Thanks
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Re: To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is consid  [#permalink]

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14 Mar 2016, 20:21
thanhmaitran wrote:
To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is considering requiring household appliances to be broken down for salvage when discarded. To cover the cost of salvage, the government is planning to charge a fee, which would be imposed when the appliance is first sold. Imposing the fee at the time of salvage would reduce waste more effectively, however, because consumers tend to keep old appliances longer if they are faced with a fee for discarding them.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

A. Increasing the cost of disposing of an appliance properly increases the incentive to dispose it .
B. The fee provides manufacturers with no incentive to produce appliances that are more durable.
C. For people who have bought new appliances recently, the salvage fee would not need to be paid for a number of years.
D. People who sell their used, working appliances to others would not need to pay the salvage fee.
E. Many nonfunctioning appliances that are currently discarded could be repaired at relatively little expense.

The right choice should say something negative about imposing fee at the time of disposing or say negative about keeping the appliances longer because these represent the conclusion and premise resp.

Choice A does say negative about increasing the cost of disposing as it says that it provides an incentive to dispose improperly. B says something about durability i.e., consumers keeping the appliances longer but it is neither negative nor positive. Choices D and E say only something positive about keeping appliances longer and can be ruled out. Choice C talks negative about the government plan because people may not have the incentive to keep the appliances longer.
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Re: To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is consid  [#permalink]

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09 Mar 2017, 02:20
Great Question, but pretty simple if we have our consciousness on the Question. Thanks for those who provided explanations.
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Re: To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is consid  [#permalink]

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09 Mar 2017, 09:36
To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is considering requiring household appliances to be broken down for salvage when discarded. To cover the cost of salvage, the government is planning to charge a fee, which would be imposed when the appliance is first sold. Imposing the fee at the time of salvage would reduce waste more effectively, however, because consumers tend to keep old appliances longer if they are faced with a fee for discarding them.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

A. Increasing the cost of disposing of an appliance properly increases the incentive to dispose it improperly.
B. The fee provides manufacturers with no incentive to produce appliances that are more durable.
C. For people who have bought new appliances recently, the salvage fee would not need to be paid for a number of years.
D. People who sell their used, working appliances to others would not need to pay the salvage fee.
E. Many nonfunctioning appliances that are currently discarded could be repaired at relatively little expense.

Easy Question,

PreThnking:in weakener questions one needs to weaken the link between the premise and the conclusion,which is that people will keep old appliances longer because of the fee.but will all the people keep the appliance even when appliance get old or they dont need it or is consuming more resources thus becoming expensive to use...they may sell it or they may get rid of it without informing the concerned body, they may dump it,which will defeat the purpose of the planning altogether or they may sell it second hand,which is actually supporting the argument therefoer we go with the illeagal dumping or disposing to weaken.

Option A is the correct match for perthinking and is the correct answer.
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Re: To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is consid  [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2017, 06:08
1
thanhmaitran wrote:
To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is considering requiring household appliances to be broken down for salvage when discarded. To cover the cost of salvage, the government is planning to charge a fee, which would be imposed when the appliance is first sold. Imposing the fee at the time of salvage would reduce waste more effectively, however, because consumers tend to keep old appliances longer if they are faced with a fee for discarding them.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

(A) Increasing the cost of disposing of an appliance properly increases the incentive to dispose it improperly.
(B) The fee provides manufacturers with no incentive to produce appliances that are more durable.
(C) For people who have bought new appliances recently, the salvage fee would not need to be paid for a number of years.
(D) People who sell their used, working appliances to others would not need to pay the salvage fee.
(E) Many nonfunctioning appliances that are currently discarded could be repaired at relatively little expense.

Conclusion : Imposing the fee at the time of salvage would reduce waste more effectively
To weaken : Imposing the fee at the time of salvage would NOT reduce waste more effectively

(A) Increasing the cost of disposing of an appliance properly increases the incentive to dispose it improperly.

(A) is exactly what we looking for.
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Re: To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is consid  [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2017, 22:55
1
thanhmaitran wrote:
To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is considering requiring household appliances to be broken down for salvage when discarded. To cover the cost of salvage, the government is planning to charge a fee, which would be imposed when the appliance is first sold. Imposing the fee at the time of salvage would reduce waste more effectively, however, because consumers tend to keep old appliances longer if they are faced with a fee for discarding them.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

(A) Increasing the cost of disposing of an appliance properly increases the incentive to dispose it improperly.
(B) The fee provides manufacturers with no incentive to produce appliances that are more durable.
(C) For people who have bought new appliances recently, the salvage fee would not need to be paid for a number of years.
(D) People who sell their used, working appliances to others would not need to pay the salvage fee.
(E) Many nonfunctioning appliances that are currently discarded could be repaired at relatively little expense.

The reasoning behind this that if fee is imposed for discarding household appliance then people will become furious and will not discard the appliances properly.
Why would anyone want to pay for the discarded product , hence A is just the reasoning to weaken the argument .

B is out of scope , even if the appliances are more durable they would be discarded after some time .
C is irrelevant
D But they the appliances are not discarded if they are sold .
E It is irrelevant
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Re: To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is consid  [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2017, 08:17
This is a great question.

Argument - If an extra fees is imposed on the people they would tend to keep the old appliances longer and hence the waste generated would be less.

What would weaken - an option which says that If people have to face the extra fees to discard the waste they would resort to wrong/improper means of discarding the waste (but they would anyhow discard it). Consequently the waste generated would be the same or even more.

Only option A satisfies this.
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Re: To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is consid  [#permalink]

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29 Oct 2017, 21:28
thanhmaitran wrote:
To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is considering requiring household appliances to be broken down for salvage when discarded. To cover the cost of salvage, the government is planning to charge a fee, which would be imposed when the appliance is first sold. Imposing the fee at the time of salvage would reduce waste more effectively, however, because consumers tend to keep old appliances longer if they are faced with a fee for discarding them.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

(A) Increasing the cost of disposing of an appliance properly increases the incentive to dispose it improperly.
(B) The fee provides manufacturers with no incentive to produce appliances that are more durable.
(C) For people who have bought new appliances recently, the salvage fee would not need to be paid for a number of years.
(D) People who sell their used, working appliances to others would not need to pay the salvage fee.
(E) Many nonfunctioning appliances that are currently discarded could be repaired at relatively little expense.

Can some please explain why option C is wrong ?? egmat
For people who bought new appliances recently, the fee need not be paid for number of years. There is possibility for those people who bought new appliances recently will dispose them without any fee.

I understand that we are only concerned about reducing the waste but not trying to eliminate the waste of raw materials.
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To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is consid  [#permalink]

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29 Oct 2017, 21:54
sumanainampudi wrote:
thanhmaitran wrote:
To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is considering requiring household appliances to be broken down for salvage when discarded. To cover the cost of salvage, the government is planning to charge a fee, which would be imposed when the appliance is first sold. Imposing the fee at the time of salvage would reduce waste more effectively, however, because consumers tend to keep old appliances longer if they are faced with a fee for discarding them.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

(A) Increasing the cost of disposing of an appliance properly increases the incentive to dispose it improperly.
(B) The fee provides manufacturers with no incentive to produce appliances that are more durable.
(C) For people who have bought new appliances recently, the salvage fee would not need to be paid for a number of years.
(D) People who sell their used, working appliances to others would not need to pay the salvage fee.
(E) Many nonfunctioning appliances that are currently discarded could be repaired at relatively little expense.

Can some please explain why option C is wrong ?? egmat
For people who bought new appliances recently, the fee need not be paid for number of years. There is possibility for those people who bought new appliances recently will dispose them without any fee.

I understand that we are only concerned about reducing the waste but not trying to eliminate the waste of raw materials.

Hi,
Though I am not an expert, but let me share my thoughts. There are 2 problems with option C-
1>Option C talks about people who have bought new appliances recently. So, we don't know the percentage of such consumers. In other words, this can be a small subset of people we are dealing with.
2> The argument talks about- It's better to charge a fee at the time of disposal/salvage than when an appliance is first sold. So, for how many years the fee is not collected does not affect the argument.
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Re: To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is consid  [#permalink]

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17 Dec 2017, 15:05
there are 2 plans in the argument. The first is to impose fees at the time when the appliances are first sold; the second is to impose fees when appliances are discarded. The conclusion favors the latter.
B & E strengthen the argument. C does not help and seems out of scope.
D is out of scope and maybe strengthens the argument because D concerns with selling used appliances while the argument talks about discarding appliances.
Re: To reduce waste of raw materials, the government of Sperland is consid &nbs [#permalink] 17 Dec 2017, 15:05
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