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# Today anthropologists realize that there is great diversity

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Director
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16 May 2005, 10:38
DLMD wrote:
"Persisting" is used properly here to indicate on going action.

Why do you think "Persisting" is used correctly - care to elaborate.

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17 May 2005, 01:36
OA is C

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17 May 2005, 19:50
Today anthropologists realize that there is great diversity among hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted into this century had long before been altered by their contacts with agricultural peoples.

a. among hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted
b. among hunter-gatherer societies, and those persisting
c. among hunter-gatherer societies, and that those persisting
d. between hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted
e. between hunter-gatherer societies, and that those persisting

SuperCat:- Any analysis on this question? I would love to read your explanation

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18 May 2005, 02:02
sparky wrote:
D. I used the golden GMAT rule here - avoid ing forms at any costs

I've dropped this rule ever since because it never seemed golden to me, but a silent killer! I have also dropped the rule of avoiding 'being'.

It's (C). First of all, it has to be 'among' (more than 2 people/groups), not 'between' (limited to 2 people/groups) and a 'that' is needed to maintain parallel structure.

OA ps?

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18 May 2005, 16:12
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Vithal wrote:
Today anthropologists realize that there is great diversity among hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted into this century had long before been altered by their contacts with agricultural peoples.

a. among hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted
b. among hunter-gatherer societies, and those persisting
c. among hunter-gatherer societies, and that those persisting
d. between hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted
e. between hunter-gatherer societies, and that those persisting

SuperCat:- Any analysis on this question? I would love to read your explanation

I agree with (C), exactly as MBAMantra posted,

Today anthropologists realize
that there is great diversity among hunter-gatherer societies, and
that those persisting into this century had long before been altered by their contacts with agricultural peoples.

Moreover, the sentences using choices (A) and (B) do not make sense, although that may not be blatantly obvious. But read the sentence and think about what it's telling you. You should have a reason for connecting two independent clauses to form one compound sentence.

The clauses are:
1) Anthropologists realize that there is great diversity among H-G societies
2) Those persisting [or that have persisted] into this century had long before been altered.

Those two messages are not immediatley related to each other. (If you think they are, you are assuming too much.) It's not enough that both are facts about hunter-gatherers. If I said "My car has leather seats, and I had to fix a flat tire last week," that is a weird-sounding sentence, because I'm combining two unrelated facts about my car into one sentence, for no good reason.

Choices (A) and (B) just ram these two unrelated clauses together into one sentence, and it causes a bit of cognitive dissonance. These should not be together in one sentence without some element to explain why they are related.

(C) is different. The placement of THAT changes the overall message substantially. Everything is related. This says that Anthropologists realize X and Y, where Y = "hunter-gatherer societies persisting into this century had long before been altered by their contacts with agricultural peoples."

Now, X and Y are related in that they are both realizations made by anthropologists. Now we have a sensible sentence listing two realizations of anthroplogists.

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18 May 2005, 22:54
Vithal wrote:
Today anthropologists realize that there is great diversity among hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted into this century had long before been altered by their contacts with agricultural peoples

main clause + dependent clause1 + conjuction + dependent clause2

my questions is whether pronoun in DC2 can refer to a noun in DC1?

IMO those does not clearly refer to the hunter-gathering societies.
the sentence should stand without any one of the parallel elements.

For eg: He called the meeting to inform the employees about the loss and to get their feedback on the new proposal.

Do you think the above sentence is correct?

that was a good explanation! But can you confirm whether the usage of those in the second clause is correct? and provide your inputs on the questions in the above quote?

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19 May 2005, 11:57
Vithal wrote:
Vithal wrote:
Today anthropologists realize that there is great diversity among hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted into this century had long before been altered by their contacts with agricultural peoples

main clause + dependent clause1 + conjuction + dependent clause2

my questions is whether pronoun in DC2 can refer to a noun in DC1?

IMO those does not clearly refer to the hunter-gathering societies.
the sentence should stand without any one of the parallel elements.

For eg: He called the meeting to inform the employees about the loss and to get their feedback on the new proposal.

Do you think the above sentence is correct?

that was a good explanation! But can you confirm whether the usage of those in the second clause is correct? and provide your inputs on the questions in the above quote?

Sure, there's nothing wrong with "those". It is simply acting as a pronoun, representing "hunter gatherer societies". Nor do I think it is ambiguous there: note that it is almost immediately preceded by its antecedent, separated only by the word and.

And yes, you can have a pronoun whose antecedent is in a previous clause -- you couldn't possibly avoid that, if you did much writing at all. In fact, you can have a pronoun whose antecedent comes several sentences prior to the pronoun. As long as it's clear who or what the pronoun is referring to.

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23 Mar 2011, 08:38
This is testing diction and introductory //ism
Step 1. This is not a comparison between just two tribes. So the use of ‘between’ is ruled out. This to define something prevalent within (obviously more than two) the many tribes. So ‘among’ is the correct diction
Step 2. Anthropologists realize two things and if we introduce the first one with a ‘that’, then, the second
also should be introduced similarly for the sake of //ism. C is the one doing that properly.
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24 Mar 2011, 15:41
+1 C

The sentence doesn't make a comparison between the two societies.

However, is it necessary that comma? The word "that" transforms the clauses into fragments.
Therefore, there is parallelism between two fragments and not between two clauses. In this sense, a comma wouldn't be necessary.
Thoughts?
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Re: Today anthropologists realize that there is great diversity [#permalink]

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05 Jun 2013, 14:57
Can anyone explain errors in A & B?
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Today anthropologists realize that there is great diversity [#permalink]

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05 Jun 2013, 23:59
Today anthropologists realize that there is great diversity among hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted into this century had long before been altered by their contacts with agricultural peoples.

a. among hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted
anthropilogists realize that ..... and those that ... this is not parallel
b. among hunter-gatherer societies, and those persisting
anthropilogists realize that ..... and those that ... this is not parallel
c. among hunter-gatherer societies, and that those persisting
anthropilogists realize that ..... and that those ... this is parallel
d. between hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted
Between should not be used as we do not know if there are two or more than two societies
e. between hunter-gatherer societies, and that those persisting
Between should not be used as we do not know if there are two or more than two societies

Does it help?
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Today anthropologists realize that there is great diversity [#permalink]

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07 Jun 2013, 00:32
ankurgupta03 wrote:
Today anthropologists realize that there is great diversity among hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted into this century had long before been altered by their contacts with agricultural peoples.

a. among hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted
anthropilogists realize that ..... and those that ... this is not parallel
b. among hunter-gatherer societies, and those persisting
anthropilogists realize that ..... and those that ... this is not parallel
c. among hunter-gatherer societies, and that those persisting
anthropilogists realize that ..... and that those ... this is parallel
d. between hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted
Between should not be used as we do not know if there are two or more than two societies
e. between hunter-gatherer societies, and that those persisting
Between should not be used as we do not know if there are two or more than two societies

Does it help?

Hey,

Not exactly...
Today anthropologists realize that there is great diversity among hunter-gatherer societies, and those persisting into this century had long before been altered by their contacts with agricultural peoples.

Cant this structure be like: Blah realize THAT X & Y
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Re: Today anthropologists realize that there is great diversity [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2013, 03:53
Today anthropologists realize that there is great diversity among hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted into this century had long before been altered by their contacts with agricultural peoples.

a. among hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted
b. among hunter-gatherer societies, and those persisting
c. among hunter-gatherer societies, and that those persisting
d. between hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted
e. between hunter-gatherer societies, and that those persisting

Choice b/w among and b/w
There might be number of hunter societies not just two
hence choose among
so D & E out
among A B & C
realize that and and that seems parallel
also b/w persisted and persisting we will have to choose persisting

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13 Jun 2013, 05:14
In C everything is perfect except "that those" clause.

Today anthropologists realize that there is great diversity among hunter-gatherer societies, and
that [diversity]
those [societies] persisting into this century had long before been altered by their contacts with agricultural peoples.

I think C should read as "that of those" to indicate "diversity of societies", otherwise its as if sentence reads as "diversity societies persisting into"..Its not diversified societies persisting into but rather diversity of societies.

For this reason I picked A.
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Re: Today anthropologists realize that there is great diversity [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2013, 05:14
Can both "persisting" and "persisted" be correct pertaining to the given context in the question?
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Re: Today anthropologists realize that there is great diversity [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2015, 21:17
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Today anthropologists realize that there is great diversity [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2015, 17:09
Today anthropologists realize that there is great diversity among hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted into this century had long before been altered by their contacts with agricultural peoples.

a. among hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted
b. among hunter-gatherer societies, and those persisting
c. among hunter-gatherer societies, and that those persisting
d. between hunter-gatherer societies, and those that have persisted
e. between hunter-gatherer societies, and that those persisting

Interesting question.

D and E are out because we are talking about an number of societies. Between can only be used to talk about two things/people.

Pay attention to the structure: "realize (verb) that......, and realize(which is an implied verb...and must be followed with THAT) to maintain the correct structure. B is out for the lack of 'that', and A misplaces 'that'. A also wrongly uses the past perfect where as we need the participle form to indicate the continuation (into present) of the society.
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Re: Today anthropologists realize that there is great diversity [#permalink]

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03 May 2016, 11:57
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: Today anthropologists realize that there is great diversity [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2016, 19:39

Parallelism - "anthropologists realize that...and that..."

Among vs. Between - Use among if people or things can be regarded collectively (that is, as a group or undifferentiated mass) rather than individually.

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Re: Today anthropologists realize that there is great diversity   [#permalink] 20 Jun 2016, 19:39

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